Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Nutritional composition of black soldier fly larvae feeding on agro-industrial by-products
    Chia, Shaphan Y. ; Tanga, Chrysantus M. ; Osuga, Isaac M. ; Cheseto, Xavier ; Ekesi, Sunday ; Dicke, Marcel ; Loon, Joop J.A. van - \ 2020
    Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 168 (2020)6-7. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 472 - 481.
    agro industry, bioconversion - animal feed ingredients - black soldier fly - brewers’ spent grain - brewer’s yeast - Diptera - Hermetia illucens - minerals - molasses - nutrition - organic side-streams - protein - Stratiomyidae

    Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), bio-convert organic side streams into high-quality biomass, the composition of which largely depends on the side stream used. In the present study, BSF larvae were reared on feed substrates composed of dried brewers’ spent grains, each supplemented with either water, waste brewer’s yeast, or a mixture of waste brewer’s yeast and cane molasses to obtain 12 different substrates: barley/water, barley/yeast, barley/yeast/molasses, malted barley/water, malted barley/yeast, malted barley/yeast/molasses, malted corn/water, malted corn/yeast, malted corn/yeast/molasses, sorghum-barley/water, sorghum-barley/yeast, and sorghum-barley/yeast/molasses. The crude protein, fat, ash, and mineral contents of the BSF larvae fed each feed substrate were quantified by chemical analyses. The effect of substrate, supplementation, and their interaction on crude protein, fat, and ash contents of BSF larval body composition was significant. Calcium, phosphorus, and potassium were the most abundant macrominerals in the larvae and their concentrations differed significantly among substrates. These findings provide important information to support the use of BSF larval meal as potential new source of nutrient-rich and sustainable animal feed ingredients to substitute expensive and scarce protein sources such as fishmeal and soya bean meal.

    Insights in the Global Genetics and Gut Microbiome of Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens: Implications for Animal Feed Safety Control
    Khamis, Fathiya M. ; Ombura, Fidelis L.O. ; Akutse, Komivi S. ; Subramanian, Sevgan ; Mohamed, Samira A. ; Fiaboe, Komi K.M. ; Saijuntha, Weerachai ; Loon, Joop J.A. Van; Dicke, Marcel ; Dubois, Thomas ; Ekesi, Sunday ; Tanga, Chrysantus M. - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Microbiology 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-302X
    16S-metagenomics - genetic diversity - gut microbiome - Hermetia illucens - mitochondrial COI gene

    The utilization of the black soldier fly (BSF) Hermetia illucens L. for recycling organic waste into high-quality protein and fat biomass for animal feeds has gained momentum worldwide. However, information on the genetic diversity and environmental implications on safety of the larvae is limited. This study delineates genetic variability and unravels gut microbiome complex of wild-collected and domesticated BSF populations from six continents using mitochondrial COI gene and 16S metagenomics. All sequences generated from the study linked to H. illucens accessions KM967419.1, FJ794355.1, FJ794361.1, FJ794367.1, KC192965.1, and KY817115.1 from GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences generated from the study and rooted by GenBank accessions of Hermetia albitarsis Fabricius and Hermetia sexmaculata Macquart separated all samples into three branches, with H. illucens and H. sexmaculata being closely related. Genetic distances between H. illucens samples from the study and GenBank accessions of H. illucens ranged between 0.0091 and 0.0407 while H. sexmaculata and H. albitarsis samples clearly separated from all H. illucens by distances of 0.1745 and 0.1903, respectively. Genetic distance matrix was used to generate a principal coordinate plot that further confirmed the phylogenetic clustering. Haplotype network map demonstrated that Australia, United States 1 (Rhode Island), United States 2 (Colorado), Kenya, and China shared a haplotype, while Uganda shared a haplotype with GenBank accession KC192965 BSF from United States. All other samples analyzed had individual haplotypes. Out of 481,695 reads analyzed from 16S metagenomics, four bacterial families (Enterobactereaceae, Dysgonomonadaceae, Wohlfahrtiimonadaceae, and Enterococcaceae) were most abundant in the BSF samples. Alpha-diversity, as assessed by Shannon index, showed that the Kenyan and Thailand populations had the highest and lowest microbe diversity, respectively; while microbial diversity assessed through Bray Curtis distance showed United States 3 (Maysville) and Netherlands populations to be the most dissimilar. Our findings on genetic diversity revealed slight phylogeographic variation between BSF populations across the globe. The 16S data depicted larval gut bacterial families with economically important genera that might pose health risks to both animals and humans. This study recommends pre-treatment of feedstocks and postharvest measures of the harvested BSF larvae to minimize risk of pathogen contamination along the insect-based feed value chain.

    Insects for peace
    Barragán-Fonseca, Katherine Y. ; Barragán-Fonseca, Karol B. ; Verschoor, Gerard ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Dicke, Marcel - \ 2020
    Current Opinion in Insect Science 40 (2020). - ISSN 2214-5745 - p. 85 - 93.

    Insects such as the black soldier fly (BSF) are a nutritious feed component for livestock with high protein levels. BSF can be reared on a wide range of organic residual streams. This allows for local production within a circular agriculture, decoupling livestock production from import of expensive feed components, such as fishmeal or soymeal. Rearing of BSF can be done by smallholder farmers, thus contributing to their livelihood, economic sustainability and social status. Smallholder farmers contribute importantly to food security, which is a prerequisite for a stable society. In armed conflicts, smallholder farmers are usually the first to suffer. In countries recovering from conflict, agricultural development should focus on restoring food production by smallholder farmers, improving their socio-economic position, thereby contributing to sustainable development goals 2 (zero hunger) and 16 (peace and justice). Here, we focus on these SDGs with an example of reintegration of ex-combatants as smallholder insect producers in post-conflict Colombia.

    Use of semiochemicals for surveillance and control of hematophagous insects
    Mweresa, Collins K. ; Mukabana, W.R. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Dicke, M. ; Takken, W. - \ 2020
    Chemoecology (2020). - ISSN 0937-7409
    Attraction - Behavior - Flies - Kairomones - Monitoring - Mosquitoes - Repellence - Semiochemicals

    Reliance on broad-spectrum insecticides and chemotherapeutic agents to control hematophagous insect vectors, and their related diseases is threatened by increasing insecticide and drug resistance, respectively. Thus, development of novel, alternative, complementary and effective technologies for surveillance and control of such insects is strongly encouraged. Semiochemicals are increasingly developed for monitoring and intervention of insect crop pests, but this has not been adequately addressed for hematophagous insects of medical and veterinary importance. This review provides an insight in the application of semiochemicals for control of hematophagous insects. Here, we provide specific information regarding the isolation and identification of semiochemical compounds, optimization approaches, detection, perception and discrimination by the insect olfactory system. Navigation of insects along wind-borne odor plumes is discussed and methods of odor application in field situations are reviewed. Finally, we discuss prospects and future challenges for the application of semiochemical-based tools with emphasis on mosquitoes. The acquired knowledge can guide development of more effective components of integrated vector management, safeguard against emerging resistance of insects to existing insecticides and reduce the burden of vector-borne diseases.

    Bioconversion efficiencies, greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during black soldier fly rearing – A mass balance approach
    Parodi, Alejandro ; Boer, Imke J.M. de; Gerrits, Walter J.J. ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Heetkamp, Marcel J.W. ; Schelt, Jeroen van; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Zanten, Hannah H.E. van - \ 2020
    Journal of Cleaner Production 271 (2020). - ISSN 0959-6526
    Ammonia - Bioconversion - Emissions - GHG - Hermetia illucens - Nitrogen

    Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are acknowledged for their potential to upcycle waste biomass into animal feed, human food or biofuels. To ensure sustainable BSFL rearing, insight into nutrient bioconversion efficiencies and nutrient losses via gaseous emissions is key. This study used a mass balance approach to quantify nutrient bioconversion efficiencies (i.e., carbon, energy, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) and gaseous emissions (i.e., greenhouse gasses and ammonia) of BSFL reared on a substrate used in industrial production. On this substrate, bioconversion efficiencies ranged from 14% (potassium) to 38% (nitrogen). The proportion of dietary inputs found in the residues ranged from 55% (energy) to 86% (potassium), while the proportion of dietary inputs lost via gaseous emissions ranged from 1% (nitrogen) to 24% (carbon). Direct emissions of methane and nitrous oxide during rearing were 16.8 ± 8.6 g CO2-equivalents per kg of dry BSFL biomass. Even though ammonia emissions were minimal, these could have been avoided if larvae would have been harvested before the CO2 peak was reached. Our results provide the first complete mass balance and comprehensive quantification of BSF larval metabolism and GHG emissions, required to assess and improve the environmental sustainability of BSFL production systems.

    Black soldier fly larvae show a stronger preference for manure than for a mass‐rearing diet
    Parodi, Alejandro ; Dijk, Kim van; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Boer, Imke J.M. de; Schelt, Jeroen van; Zanten, Hannah H.E. van - \ 2020
    Journal of Applied Entomology (2020). - ISSN 0931-2048
    The attention for black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) as an alternative ingredient for food and feed products is on the rise. While many studies have reported the efficiency of BSFL to bio‐convert a wide range of organic waste streams into larval biomass, so far, it is unknown whether BSFL prefer certain waste streams over others when they have the possibility to choose. Here, we performed a choice‐test experiment to explore the preference of BSFL when exposed to pig manure and a mass‐rearing diet consisting of plant by‐products currently used for industrial BSFL production. We found that after 1 hr of exposure to both feeds, BSFL strongly preferred pig manure over the mass‐rearing diet. The preference for manure became stronger as larval age increased. Our results provide the first evidence that BSFL express a distinct diet preference. Understanding the reasons for the strong preference for manure is relevant for a diverse array of practical applications and to inform the discussion on insect welfare.
    Data and R code: Bioconversion efficiencies, greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during black soldier fly rearing – a mass balance approach
    Parodi, Alejandro ; Boer, Imke de; Gerrits, Walter ; Loon, Joop van; Heetkamp, Marcel ; Schelt, Jeroen van; Bolhuis, Liesbeth ; Zanten, Hannah van - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research
    ammonia - bioconversion - emissions - GHG - Hermetia illucens - nitrogen
    Contains data and R code for analysis and visualizations of the study Bioconversion efficiencies, greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during black soldier fly rearing.
    Chemical Mediation of Oviposition by Anopheles Mosquitoes : a Push-Pull System Driven by Volatiles Associated with Larval Stages
    Schoelitsz, Bruce ; Mwingira, Victor ; Mboera, Leonard E.G. ; Beijleveld, Hans ; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M. ; Spitzen, Jeroen ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Takken, Willem - \ 2020
    Journal of Chemical Ecology 46 (2020)4. - ISSN 0098-0331 - p. 397 - 409.
    2,4-pentanedione - An. gambiae s.s - Anopheles coluzzii - Behavior - Dimethyldisulfide - Dimethyltrisulfide - Malaria - Mosquito - Nonane - Oviposition

    The oviposition behavior of mosquitoes is mediated by chemical cues. In the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, conspecific larvae produce infochemicals that affect this behavior. Emanations from first instar larvae proved strongly attractive to gravid females, while those from fourth instars caused oviposition deterrence, suggesting that larval developmental stage affected the oviposition choice of the female mosquito. We examined the nature of these chemicals by headspace collection of emanations of water in which larvae of different stages were developing. Four chemicals with putative effects on oviposition behavior were identified: dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) and dimethyltrisulfide (DMTS) were identified in emanations from water containing fourth instars; nonane and 2,4-pentanedione (2,4-PD) were identified in emanations from water containing both first and fourth instars. Dual-choice oviposition studies with these compounds were done in the laboratory and in semi-field experiments in Tanzania. In the laboratory, DMDS and DMTS were associated with oviposition-deterrent effects, while results with nonane and 2,4-PD were inconclusive. In further studies DMDS and DMTS evoked egg retention, while with nonane and 2,4-PD 88% and 100% of female mosquitoes, respectively, laid eggs. In dual-choice semi-field trials DMDS and DMTS caused oviposition deterrence, while nonane and 2,4-PD evoked attraction, inducing females to lay more eggs in bowls containing these compounds compared to the controls. We conclude that oviposition of An. gambiae is mediated by these four infochemicals associated with conspecific larvae, eliciting either attraction or deterrence. High levels of egg retention occurred when females were exposed to chemicals associated with fourth instar larvae.

    Supplementary Information and R code from: Black soldier fly larvae show a stronger preference for manure than for a mass-rearing diet
    Parodi, Alejandro ; Dijk, Kim van; Loon, Joop van; Boer, Imke de; Schelt, Jeroen van; Zanten, Hannah van - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research
    Behaviour - Black soldier fly - Choice test - Hermetia illucens - Manure - Rearing
    Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) was reared on two different feeds: a mass rearing diet made of food by-products and pig manure. Preference tests were performed to determine if at different larval ages, BSFL showed a preference for any of the two diets.
    Smallholder farmers' knowledge and willingness to pay for insect-based feeds in Kenya
    Chia, Shaphan Y. ; Macharia, John ; Diiro, Gracious M. ; Kassie, Menale ; Ekesi, Sunday ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Dicke, Marcel ; Tanga, Chrysantus M. - \ 2020
    PLoS ONE 15 (2020)3. - ISSN 1932-6203

    Edible insects are increasingly being considered as sustainable alternatives to fish and soybean meals in animal feed because of their high nutritional quality and environmental benefits. However, successful introduction of a new product to the market depends on the target user's acceptance. Thus, evaluating the potential demand of insect-based feeds would provide relevant information for policy development. The present study assessed farmers' knowledge on edible insects as feed, their acceptance of integrating insect meals in animal feeds and willingness to pay (WTP) for insect-based feed (IBF) using a contingent valuation method. A household survey was conducted among 957 randomly selected farmers including: 409 poultry, 241 fish and 307 pig farmers in four counties in Kenya. Results of the study reveal that over 70 and 80% of poultry and fish farmers, respectively, are aware that insects can be used as a feed ingredient. In addition, over 60 and 75% of poultry and fish farmers, respectively, consider insects as a good component of feed. Poultry, pig and fish farmers interviewed accepted and showed willingness to pay for IBF. Regression analysis indicated that age, gender, education, marital status, distance to feed trader, awareness of insects as feed, attitude towards insects, acceptance of insect species, availability of agricultural inputs, use of commercial feeds, availability of training and market information had a significant influence on the WTP for IBF. Therefore, increased extension services to educate famers on the nutritional benefits of insect meals in animal feeds and existing market opportunities are expected to improve farmers' attitude towards utilization and consequently enhance WTP for IBF, which in return would significantly reduce the existing pressure on conventional fishmeal feed resources. Our findings provide the first insights into the market opportunities of including insect meals in the animal feed value chain in Kenya.

    Reprotoxic effects of the systemic insecticide fipronil on the butterfly Pieris brassicae
    Gols, Rieta ; WallisDeVries, Michiel F. ; Loon, Joop J.A. van - \ 2020
    Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 287 (2020)1922. - ISSN 0962-8452 - 1 p.
    insect decline - pesticide - sublethal effects - toxicity

    In addition to controlling pest organisms, the systemic neurotoxic pesticide fipronil can also have adverse effects on beneficial insects and other non-target organisms. Here, we report on the sublethal effects of fipronil on the farmland butterfly Pieris brassicae. Caterpillars were reared on plants that had been grown from seeds coated with fipronil or on leaf discs topically treated with a range of fipronil dosages (1-32 µg kg-1 on dry mass basis). Females that had developed on fipronil plants laid ca half the number of eggs than females that had developed on control plants. In the bioassay with leaf discs, longevity and lifetime egg production declined with increasing fipronil dosage. Remarkably, exposure to fipronil during larval development primarily affected the adult stage. Chemical analyses of leaf tissues collected from seed-treated plants revealed concentrations of fipronil and its degradation products close to the analytical limit of detection (less than or equal to 1 µg kg-1). The effective dosage was fivefold higher in the leaf-disc than in the whole-plant experiment. In the whole plant, degradation of fipronil to products that are more toxic than fipronil may explain this discrepancy. Neurotoxicity of insecticides at the level of detection decreases the probability of pinpointing insecticides as the causal agent of harmful effects on non-target organisms.

    Nutrient flows and associated gaseous emissions of the production of black soldier flies
    Parodi, Alejandro ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Schelt, Jeroen van; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van - \ 2020
    In: Wias Annual Conference 2020. - WIAS - p. 51 - 51.
    Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) production is on the rise. BSFL can grow on a wide range of organic streams making them ideal candidates to turn organic streams into biomass that can be upcycled in the food system, as either animal feed or human food. Even though previous studies have reported the efficiency with which BSFL convert dry matter and nitrogen in different organic streams into larval biomass, little is known about when and how nutrient losses occur. Here we aimed to quantify the flows of dry matter, carbon, energy,nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium between a diet currently used for large-scale BSFL production, and the larval biomass, residues, and gaseous emissions during BSFL rearing in a climate respiration chamber. Larval conversion efficiencies ranged from 14% (potassium)to 38% (nitrogen). The proportion of dietary inputs found in the residues ranged from53% (energy) to 87% (potassium), while the proportion of dietary inputs lost via gaseous emissions ranged from 0.7% (nitrogen) to 23% (carbon). We found high concentrations of starch in the residues, indicating that BSFL did not use all the feed provided. Correcting carbon and energy efficiencies for unconsumed starch increased BSFL carbon and energy conversion efficiencies slightly. Even though gaseous nitrogen losses were minimal, ammonia-nitrogen was produced with a defined temporal pattern, starting on the fifth rearing day right after the peak of carbon dioxide was reached. Direct emissions of methane and nitrous oxide during the rearing were 14.9 ± 2.3 g CO2-equivalents per kg of dry BSFL. Our results are relevant for the improvement of BSFL conversion efficiencies and for understanding the dynamics of gaseous emissions during BSFL rearing.
    Nutrient flows and associated gaseous emissions of the production of black soldier flies
    Parodi, Alejandro ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Schelt, J. van; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van - \ 2020
    In: WIAS Annual Conference 2020 WIAS - p. 51 - 51.
    Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) production is on the rise. BSFL can grow on a wide range oforganic streams making them ideal candidates to turn organic streams into biomass thatcan be upcycled in the food system, as either animal feed or human food. Even thoughprevious studies have reported the efficiency with which BSFL convert dry matter and nitrogenin different organic streams into larval biomass, little is known about when and hownutrient losses occur. Here we aimed to quantify the flows of dry matter, carbon, energy,nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium between a diet currently used for large-scale BSFLproduction, and the larval biomass, residues, and gaseous emissions during BSFL rearingin a climate respiration chamber. Larval conversion efficiencies ranged from 14% (potassium)to 38% (nitrogen). The proportion of dietary inputs found in the residues ranged from53% (energy) to 87% (potassium), while the proportion of dietary inputs lost via gaseous emissions ranged from 0.7% (nitrogen) to 23% (carbon). We found high concentrations of starch in the residues, indicating that BSFL did not use all the feed provided. Correcting carbon and energy efficiencies for unconsumed starch increased BSFL carbon and energy conversion efficiencies slightly. Even though gaseous nitrogen losses were minimal, ammonia-nitrogen was produced with a defined temporal pattern, starting on the fifth rearing day right after the peak of carbon dioxide was reached. Direct emissions of methane and nitrous oxide during the rearing were 14.9 ± 2.3 g CO2-equivalents per kg of dry BSFL. Our results are relevant for the improvement of BSFL conversion efficiencies and for understanding the dynamics of gaseous emissions during BSFL rearing.
    Foliar herbivory by caterpillars and aphids differentially affects phytohormonal signalling in roots and plant defence to a root herbivore
    Karssemeijer, Peter N. ; Reichelt, Michael ; Gershenzon, Jonathan ; Loon, Joop van; Dicke, Marcel - \ 2020
    Plant, Cell & Environment 43 (2020)3. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 775 - 786.
    above–below-ground interactions - Brassica oleracea - Delia radicum - jasmonic acid signalling - plant-mediated interactions

    Plant-mediated interactions are an important force in insect ecology. Through such interactions, herbivores feeding on leaves can affect root feeders. However, the mechanisms regulating the effects of above-ground herbivory on below-ground herbivores are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the performance of cabbage root fly larvae (Delia radicum) on cabbage plants (Brassica oleracea) previously exposed to above ground herbivores belonging to two feeding guilds: leaf chewing diamondback moth caterpillars (Plutella xylostella) or phloem-feeding cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae). Our study focusses on root-herbivore performance and defence signalling in primary roots by quantifying phytohormones and gene expression. We show that leaf herbivory by caterpillars, but not by aphids, strongly attenuates root herbivore performance. Above-ground herbivory causes changes in primary roots in terms of gene transcripts and metabolites involved in plant defence. Feeding by below-ground herbivores strongly induces the jasmonate pathway in primary roots. Caterpillars feeding on leaves cause a slight induction of the primary root jasmonate pathway and interact with plant defence signalling in response to root herbivores. In conclusion, feeding by a leaf chewer and a phloem feeder differentially affects root-herbivore performance, root-herbivore-induced phytohormonal signalling, and secondary metabolites.

    Use of visual and olfactory cues of flowers of two brassicaceous species by insect pollinators
    Barragán-Fonseca, Katherine Y. ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Dicke, Marcel ; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani - \ 2020
    Ecological Entomology 45 (2020)1. - ISSN 0307-6946 - p. 45 - 55.
    Odour cues - plant volatiles - pollinators - post-pollination changes - visual cues

    1. Pollinating insects exploit visual and olfactory cues associated with flower traits indicative of flower location and reward quality. Pollination can induce changes in these flower-associated cues, thereby influencing the behaviour of flower visitors. 2. This study investigated the main cues exploited by the syrphid fly Episyrphus balteatus and the butterfly Pieris brassicae when visiting flowers of Brassica nigra and Raphanus sativus plants. Whether pollen is used as a cue and whether pollination-induced changes affect flower volatile emission and the behavioural responses of the two pollinator species were also studied. 3. Pollinator preference was investigated by offering visual and olfactory cues individually as well as simultaneously in two-choice bioassays. Plant treatments included emasculation, hand-pollination and untreated control plants. The composition of flower volatiles from pollinated and unpollinated control plants was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 4. Both pollinators exhibited a strong bias for visual cues over olfactory cues. Neither pollinator used pollen as a cue. However, E. balteatus discriminated between newly opened and long-open flowers at short distance only when pollen was available. Flower visits by pollinators were influenced by pollination-induced changes in B. nigra but not R. sativus flowers. Pieris brassicae only responded to pollination-induced changes when visual and olfactory cues were offered simultaneously. The blend of volatiles emitted by B. nigra, but not R. sativus inflorescences was affected by pollination. 5. Collectively, the findings of this study show that different pollinators exploit different visual and olfactory traits when searching for flowers of two brassicaceous plant species.

    Dietary enrichment of edible insects with omega 3 fatty acids
    Oonincx, Dennis G.A.B. ; Laurent, Sophie ; Veenenbos, Margot E. ; Loon, Joop J.A. van - \ 2020
    Insect Science 27 (2020)3. - ISSN 1672-9609 - p. 500 - 509.
    Acheta domesticus - Alphitobius diaperinus - diet - fatty acids - Hermetia illucens

    Edible insects are advocated as sustainable and healthy food and feed. However, commercially produced insects are often low in n-3 fatty acids and have suboptimal n-6/n-3 ratios. A certain amount and proportion of these FAs is required to optimize human health. Flaxseed oil consists primarily (57%) out of alpha-linolenic acid. An experiment was conducted to quantify the effect of flaxseed oil provision on fatty acid composition and to determine the quantity needed to attain a beneficial n-6/n-3 ratio. Three species were used in the experiment: house crickets (Acheta domesticus [L.]), lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus [Pfanzer]) and black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens [L.]). These were provided with either a control diet or a diet enriched with 1%, 2%, or 4% flaxseed oil during their larval/nymphal stage. Fatty acid profiles of diets and insects were determined via GC-MS. The three species had distinct fatty acid profiles on all four diets, but responded similarly to flaxseed oil addition. For each percent added to the diet, the alpha-linolenic acid content of the insects increased by 2.3%–2.7%. Four percent addition increased the n-3 fatty acid content 10–20 fold in the three species and thereby strongly decreased n-6/n-3 ratios from 18–36 to 0.8–2.4. A ratio below 5 is considered optimal for human health and was achieved by 2% flaxseed oil inclusion for house crickets and lesser mealworms, and at 1% inclusion for black soldier flies. Adding a source of n-3 fatty acids to insect diets can thus improve the nutritional quality of insects.

    Fractional Absorption of Iron from Crickets Consumed with Refined or Whole Meal Maize Porridge in Young Adult Women (OR07-06-19)
    Melse-Boonstra, A. ; Mwangi, M.N. ; Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Cercamondi, C.I. ; Utami, Dessy Aryanti ; Gunawan, Lidyawati ; Veenenbos, M.E. ; Zeder, Christophe ; Zimmermann, M.B. ; Dicke, M. - \ 2019
    Current Developments in Nutrition 3 (2019)Supplement_1. - ISSN 2475-2991 - p. 728 - 728.
    Edible insects are considered as an alternative source of proteins, but in addition are also rich sources of minerals. However, no studies have investigated the bioavailability of minerals from edible insects in humans. House cricket (Acheta domesticus) is an edible insect species that is commonly consumed in low and middle income countries where the prevalence of iron deficiency and anaemia is relatively high. We aimed to assess the fractional iron absorption of iron from house crickets in humans after addition to either a refined (low-phytate) or a whole meal (high-phytate) maize porridge meal. A second objective was to assess the fractional iron absorption from maize porridge meals when crickets were added.
    Correction: Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products
    Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Broekhoven, S. van; Huis, A. van; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2019
    PLoS ONE (2019). - ISSN 1932-6203 - p. 1 - 7.
    Resource conversion by black soldier fly larvae: towards standardisation of methods and reporting
    Bosch, G. ; Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Jordan, H.R. ; Zhang, J. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Huis, A. van; Tomberlin, Jeffery K. - \ 2019
    In: Book of Abstracts of the 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. - Wageningen Academic Publishers (EAAP book of abstracts No. 25 ) - ISBN 9789086863396 - p. 324 - 324.
    Standardisation of quantitative resource conversion studies with black soldier fly larvae
    Bosch, G. ; Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Jordan, H.R. ; Zhang, J. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Huis, A. van; Tomberlin, Jeffery K. - \ 2019
    Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 6 (2019)2. - ISSN 2352-4588 - p. 95 - 109.
    Using larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens; BSF) to convert low-value residual organic resources into high-value products like protein-rich animal feed ingredients and biofuel while managing organic waste has developed into a global industry. Considering the associated exponential increase in publications dealing with diet conversion efficiency by BSF larvae, it is timely to suggest procedures to arrive at an improved harmonization and reproducibility among studies. This means establishing protocols for describing the basic experiment design, fly colony origin, rearing procedures, reference and experimental feeding substrates, and sampling preparations including microbiota and chemical analyses. Such standardised protocols are instrumental to allow conversion efficiencies to be calculated. Some of these parameters are relatively easy to describe such as giving the origin and rearing conditions, while others are more challenging (e.g. description of microbe community). In this article we discuss and propose such procedures with the aim to arrive at standardisation of how future resource conversion studies with BSF larvae are conducted and how results are communicated.
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