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Current Understanding of Natural Antibodies and Exploring the Possibilities of Modulation Using Veterinary Models. A Review
Reyneveld, IJsbrand ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Parmentier, Henk K. - \ 2020
Frontiers in Immunology 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-3224
disorders - food animals - homeostasis - modulation - natural (auto-)antibodies
Natural antibodies (NAb) are defined as germline encoded immunoglobulins found in individuals without (known) prior antigenic experience. NAb bind exogenous (e.g., bacterial) and self-components and have been found in every vertebrate species tested. NAb likely act as a first-line immune defense against infections. A large part of NAb, so called natural autoantibodies (NAAb) bind to and clear (self) neo-epitopes, apoptotic, and necrotic cells. Such self-binding antibodies cannot, however, be considered as pathogenic autoantibodies in the classical sense. IgM and IgG NAb and NAAb and their implications in health and disease are relatively well-described in humans and mice. NAb are present in veterinary (and wildlife) species, but their relation with diseases and disorders in veterinary species are much less known. Also, there is little known of IgA NAb. IgA is the most abundant immunoglobulin with essential pro-inflammatory and homeostatic properties urging for more research on the importance of IgA NAb. Since NAb in humans were indicated to fulfill important functions in health and disease, their role in health of veterinary species should be investigated more often. Furthermore, it is unknown whether levels of NAb-isotypes and/or idiotypes can and should be modulated. Veterinary species as models of choice fill in a niche between mice and (non-human) primates, and the study of NAb in veterinary species may provide valuable new insights that will likely improve health management. Below, examples of the involvement of NAb in several diseases in mostly humans are shown. Possibilities of intravenous immunoglobulin administration, targeted immunotherapy, immunization, diet, and genetic modulation are discussed, all of which could be well-studied using animal models. Arguments are given why veterinary immunology should obtain inspiration from human studies and why human immunology would benefit from veterinary models. Within the One Health concept, findings from veterinary (and wildlife) studies can be related to human studies and vice versa so that both fields will mutually benefit. This will lead to a better understanding of NAb: their origin, activation mechanisms, and their implications in health and disease, and will lead to novel health management strategies for both human and veterinary species.
Early and later life environmental enrichment affect specific antibody responses and blood leukocyte subpopulations in pigs
Luo, Lu ; Jansen, Christine A. ; Bolhuis, Elizabeth ; Arts, Joop ; Kemp, Bas ; Parmentier, Henk - \ 2020
Physiology and Behavior 217 (2020). - ISSN 0031-9384
Antibody response - Coping style - Early life history - Enrichment - Immunity - Pigs
This study addressed the impact of early and later life environmental enrichment, and their combination, on specific antibody responses and peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in pigs. Pigs were kept in either barren (B1) or enriched (E1) housing from birth, and half of the pigs switched to barren or enriched housing on day 47, resulting in four treatment combinations: B1B2, B1E2, E1B2, E1E2). Pigs were immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin-conjugated trinitrophenyl (KLH-TNP) on day 74 and 109 to induce primary and secondary antibody responses. Blood samples were taken weekly until day 130, and IgM and IgG antibody responses were measured. Leukocyte subpopulations were measured on day 74 and 130. Time course of the antibody responses was not affected by housing. Early life enrichment increased the IgG response to KLH, particularly the primary one. At day 74 the relative frequency of lymphocytes, DC and SLA-II expression on monocytes were higher in E1 pigs, whereas the percentage of granulocytes tended to be lower in E1 pigs at day 74. Early life enrichment increased the SLA-II expression on monocytes, the granulocyte to lymphocyte ratio, and tended to increase the percentage of granulocytes, but tended to decrease the percentage of monocytes at day 130. Later life enrichment reduced percentages of CD4+CD8α+ T cells before and after immunization and the SLA-II expression on monocytes at day 74, the percentage of granulocytes and the granulocyte to lymphocyte ratio at day 130. Notably, early and later life housing interacted in their effects on several immune parameters. KLH-IgM responses (both primary and secondary) were affected by the interaction between early and later life housing. IgM titers were higher for B1B2 than for E1E2, with the switched animals (B1E2 and E1B2) moving towards the titers of the animals kept in their later life environment from birth onwards. At day 130 the percentage of gamma delta T cells, CD8α+ cytotoxic T cells and DC were not different between pigs kept in B1B2 and E1E2, but there was a clear impact of the switch in housing conditions, particularly for the pigs that changed from barren to enriched housing. We also found effects of coping style (personality) and sex on some immune parameters. In conclusion, both early life and later life enrichment, and, notably a switch in housing conditions influenced specific antibodies and leukocyte subpopulations in pigs. The current study implies that the early life history of animals and the (mis)match with their current environment could thus be of major importance for their immune system. Further research is needed to investigate potential consequences for the pigs’ health.
Transfer of natural auto-antibodies via egg yolk in chickens divergently selected for natural antibodies binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin
Dijk, Kaylee S.E. van; Parmentier, Henk K. - \ 2020
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 102 (2020). - ISSN 0145-305X
Chicken - Maternal transfer - Natural (auto-) antibodies - Selection lines - Western blot
Barcodes of natural auto-antibody (NAAb) profiles based on staining intensity of isotypes binding numbers of self-(tissue) antigen fragments were suggested as parameters for immune diversity, and related to genetic background and health status in man, rodents and poultry. Here, hens, eggs and hatchlings from chicken lines divergently selected and bred for high (H line) or low (L line) total natural antibodies (NAb) levels in plasma binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) at 16 weeks of age were tested for their NAAb repertoire binding chicken liver homogenate (CLH) fragments using quantitative Western immunoblotting. The aims of this study were 1. to detect line differences between the H and L line adult hens, eggs and hatchlings for the IgM and IgG isotypes binding CLH fragments, 2. study the presence of NAAb of both isotypes in yolk and albumen, as well as in hatchlings to detect a maternal NAAb transfer route via the egg to the hatchling, and 3. study whether new self-antigen binding isotypes and idiotypes are present in the hatchling. NAAb binding CLH fragments were found in plasma of adult hens (both IgM and IgG), in yolk (IgG only), and hatchlings (mostly IgG, but low levels of IgM). Auto-profiles of IgM showed homogeneity, while IgG profiles were heterogenic between individual hens and individual hatchlings. Significant higher levels as indicated by staining intensity and number of stained CLH fragments were found in plasma of hens genetically selected for high levels of NAb binding KLH. Lines could be clustered based on their auto-profiles indicating that profiles of self-binding IgM and IgG antibodies are genetically based. Visual comparison, clustering and correlation of hens and their hatchlings showed similarities for the IgG, but not the IgM isotype, indicating maternal transfer of IgG NAAb via the yolk. The IgM profile in the hatchlings on the other hand might represent neonatal self-binding antibody formation. As a consequence, hatchlings initially depend for self-binding antibodies on maternal IgG provision during early life.
|Genome-wide association study in newborn calf serum reveals QTL for natural antibodies in Swedish dairy cattle
Cordero Solorzano, Juan ; Wensman, J.J. ; Tråvén, M. ; Arts, J.A.J. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Koning, Dirk Jan De - \ 2019
Failure of passive transfer (FPT) occurs when a newborn calf does not absorb enough antibodies (<10 g/l of IgG) from the colostrum. Some calves absorb antibodies very effectively while others do not. This difference in uptake cannot be explained solely by the time, amount and quality of the colostrum given. Natural antibodies (NAb) are produced without any antigenic stimulation and target self-antigens and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Our objective was to estimate genetic parameters and detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for three NAb isotypes (IgG, IgM and IgA) in newborn calf serum binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Two experimental farms were included in the study. Serum samples were collected from 831 calves between 2 to 7 days old, born from January 2015 to April 2017. 70% of the animals were Swedish Red and 30% Swedish Holstein. Antibodies were measured from serum using indirect ELISAs. To estimate genetic parameters, a linear mixed model was run, correcting for antibody concentration of colostrum given, volume of first meal, time of birth to blood sampling time, weight at birth and breed, including genetic effect, maternal effect and Herd-Year-Season of calving with sample storage plate as random effects. An imputed 50K SNP array from a LD 7K array was used for the Genome-wide association study (GWAS), running the same model but including the SNP genotype as a fixed effect. Heritabilities for NAb isotypes in newborn calf serum ranged from 0.20 to 0.53, with a maternal effect ranging from 5 to 30%. Genetic correlations between IgM and IgA ranged from 0.74 to 0.94. The GWAS revealed one QTL on BTA1 for MDP-IgG, comprised of 3 SNPs (-log10(p) = 5.9), one significant and two suggestive, ranging from 1-8 Mbp and another QTL on BTA3 for IgM (KLH and MDP) consisting of 2 suggestive SNPs (-log10(p) = 5.02), from 13-25 Mbp. Our results suggest that natural antibodies can potentially provide an effective tool to reduce FPT using genetic selection.
Genome-wide association study in colostrum reveals QTL on BTA21 for IgG and IgM natural antibodies in Swedish dairy cattle
Cordero Solorzano, Juan ; Wensman, J.J. ; Tråvén, M. ; Arts, J.A.J. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Koning, Dirk Jan De - \ 2019
In: Abstracts of the 2019 American Dairy Science Association® Annual Meeting. - Cincinnati, Ohio : American Dairy Science Association (Journal of Dairy Science ) - p. 289 - 290.
Colostrum with sufficient antibodies is essential for the newborn calf,
as it requires this passive immunity to survive until weaning. High
variation in the amount of colostrum antibodies in Swedish dairy cows
has been reported, with a large proportion having low antibody levels.
Natural antibodies (NAb) are produced without any antigenic stimulation
and target self-antigens and pathogen-associated molecular patterns
(PAMPs). Our objective was to estimate genetic parameters and detect
quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 2 NAb isotypes (IgG, IgM) in colostrum
binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and muramyl dipeptide
(MDP). Three experimental farms were included in the study, 1719
colostrum samples from 1313 cows between 1 to 6 parities, calving from
January 2015 to April 2017 were collected. 70% of the animals were
Swedish Red and 30% Swedish Holstein. Antibodies were measured
from colostrum using indirect ELISAs. To estimate genetic parameters, a
linear mixed model with repeated measures (different calvings from the
same cow) was run using ASReml 4, correcting for cow parity number,
time from calving to colostrum sampling and breed, including herdyear-
season of calving and sample storage plate as random effects. An
imputed 50K SNP array from a LD 7K array was used for the Genomewide
association study (GWAS), running the same model but including
the SNP genotype as a fixed effect. Heritabilities for colostrum NAbs
ranged from 0.15 to 0.27, with a permanent environment effect for IgG
isotypes accounting for 30% of the variance and for IgM ranging from
15 to 19%. Genetic correlations between IgG and IgM ranged from
0.1 to 0.4. The GWAS revealed one QTL on BTA3 for IgM (KLH and
MDP), the latter comprised of 7 SNPs (−log10(P) = 4.4), 2 significant
and 5 suggestive, ranging from 80 to 105 Mbp and another QTL on
BTA7 for IgG (KLH and MDP) consisting of 3 SNPs (−log10(P) =
4.1), from 85 to 113 Mbp. Our results suggest that natural antibodies
can potentially provide an effective tool to improve colostrum quality using genetic selection
Genome-wide association study for natural antibodies in colostrum of Swedish dairy cattle
Cordero Solorzano, Juan ; Wensman, J.J. ; Tråvén, M. ; Arts, J.A.J. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Koning, D.J. de - \ 2019
In: Book of abstracts of the 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science (EAAP). - Wageningen Academic Publishers (Book of Abstracts ) - ISBN 9789086863396 - p. 448 - 448.
Colostrum with sufcient antibodies is essential for the newborn calf, as it requires this passive immunity to survive until weaning. High variation in the amount of colostrum antibodies in Swedish dairy cows has been reported, with a large proportion having low antibody levels. Natural antibodies (NAb) are produced without any antigenic stimulation and target self-antigens and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Our objective was to estimate genetic parameters and detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for two NAb isotypes (IgG, IgM) in colostrum binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Three experimental farms were included in the study, 1,719 colostrum samples from 1,313 cows between 1 to 6 parities, calving from January 2015 to April 2017 were collected. 70% of the animals were Swedish Red and 30% Swedish Holstein. Antibodies were measured from colostrum using indirect ELISAs. To estimate genetic parameters, a linear mixed model with repeated measures (different calvings from the same cow) was run using ASReml 4, correcting for cow parity number, time from calving to colostrum sampling and breed, including Herd-Year-Season of calving and sample storage plate as random effects. An imputed 50k SNP array from a LD 7K array was used for the Genome-wide association study (GWAS), running the same model but including the SNP genotype as a xed effect. Heritabilities for colostrum NAbs ranged from 0.15 to 0.27, with a permanent environment effect for IgG isotypes accounting for 30% of the variance and for IgM ranging from 15 to 19%. Genetic correlations between IgG and IgM ranged from 0.1 to 0.4. The GWAS revealed one QTL on BTA3 for IgM (KLH and MDP), the latter comprised of 7 SNPs (-log10(p)=4.4), two signicant and ve suggestive, ranging from 80-105 Mbp and another QTL on BTA7 for IgG (KLH and MDP) consisting of 3 SNPs (-log10(p)=4.1), from 85-113 Mbp. Our results suggest that natural antibodies can potentially provide an effective tool to improve colostrum quality using genetic selection.
Does paternal immunocompetence affect offspring vulnerability to maternal androgens? A study in domestic chickens
Lelono, Asmoro ; Robledo-Ruiz, Diana A. ; Berghof, Tom V.L. ; Parmentier, Henk K. ; Riedstra, Bernd ; Groothuis, Ton G. - \ 2019
Biology Open 8 (2019)11. - ISSN 2046-6390
Costs of testosterone - Immunocompetence - Maternal androgens - Natural antibody
Exposure of yolk androgens can positively stimulate chick growth and competitive ability, but may negatively affect immunity. It has been hypothesized that only chicks from immunologically superior fathers can bear the cost of prenatal exposure to high androgen levels. To test this hypothesis, we paired roosters from two selection lines, one up- and one down-selected for natural antibodies (NAbs), with hens from a control line. We measured yolk testosterone and androstenedione levels, and we injected the treatment group of eggs of each female with testosterone suspended in sesame oil and the control group with sesame oil only. We then measured hatching success and growth, and characterized the humoral and cellular immune responses using three different challenges: a phyto-hemagglutinin, a lipopolysaccharide and a sheep red blood cell challenge. We found that the hatching success, body mass, initial levels of natural antibodies and the chicks’ immunological responses to the three different challenges and development were affected neither by paternal immunocompetence nor by treatment. These results do not support the hypothesis that chicks from low-NAb line fathers are more sensitive to testosterone exposure during embryonic development than chicks from high-NAb line fathers.
Relationship of Free Fatty Acid and Natural Autoantibodies 2 Weeks Postpartum
Mayasari, N. ; Chen, J. ; Kemp, B. ; Parmentier, H. ; Knegsel, A. Van - \ 2019
In: The 3rd Sustainable Agriculture And Food Security (3rdICSAFS). - IOP Publishing (IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 1)
Natural autoantibodies (NAAb) have been found in plasma and milk of dairy cows. Natural autoantibodies maintain homeostasis and may prevent infections. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between concentration of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and the levels of NAAb in plasma binding glutamate dehydrogenase (GD) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) in cows 2 weeks after calving. In total, 55 Holstein-Friesian dairy with 60-d dry period lengths and fed 2 early lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic). Blood was sampled at week 1 and 2 after calving. Result showed that from week 1 and 2 relative to calving, levels of IgG and IgM binding CA were positively related with concentration of FFA in plasma. Levels of IgM binding GD were negatively related with concentration of FFA in plasma. It is concluded that IgG and IgM binding CA in plasma might be an indicator for energy status and reflect metabolic status in dairy cows 2 weeks after calving.
Improving disease resistance in chickens: divergent selection on natural antibodies
Berghof, T.V.L. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Arts, J.A.J. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Visker, M.H.P.W. ; Parmentier, H.K. - \ 2019
- p. 507 - 507.
Natural antibodies (NAb) are antibodies recognizing antigens without previous exposure to this antigen. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-binding NAb titers in chickens are heritable, and higher KLH-binding NAb titers have been associated with higher survival. This suggests that breeding for higher NAb titers might improve general disease resistance. A purebred White Leghorn chicken line was divergently selected and bred on total KLH-binding NAb titers at 16 weeks of age for 6 generations, and resulted in a High and Low line. The average estimated breeding value differences in KLH-binding NAb titers increased with 0.36 for total, 0.40 for IgM, and 0.32 for IgG per generation. Generations 4 and 6 of the selection lines were inoculated with an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) at 8 days of age. Mortality and morbidity after 1 week were signicantly reduced in the High line compared to the Low line, which suggests a higher APEC resistance in the High line compared to the Low line. To investigate possible correlated responses on the immune system, several traits were measured at different ages in several generations: the High line showed higher different NAb titers at different ages, antibody concentrations, percentage of antibody-producing B cells, and bursa weight at young age compared to the Low line. This suggests that KLH-binding NAb selection has a favourable correlated response on the humoral adaptive immune system. No line differences were observed for T cells, γδ T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and antigen-presenting cells (APC). This might indicate that the selection had no unfavourable correlated responses on other parts of the immune system. This selection experiment shows that selective breeding on total KLH-binding NAb titers at 16 weeks of age is possible, and that selection for higher NAb has a benecial effect on resistance to APEC infection. In addition, the selection experiment suggests a promising opportunity for improving general disease resistance without unfavourable correlated selection responses.
|Natural antibody levels predict genetically-determined livability after intratracheal pathogenic Escherichia coli inoculation in chickens
Matthijs, M.G.R. ; Dwars, R.M. ; Berghof, Tom ; Parmentier, Henk - \ 2019
Powerpoint presentation, pagina OM-6
Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing natural antibody titers in milk of Dutch Holstein-Friesian cattle
Cordero-Solorzano, Juan ; Parmentier, Henk K. ; Arts, Joop A.J. ; Poel, Jan van der; Koning, Dirk Jan de; Bovenhuis, Henk - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)12. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 11092 - 11103.
dairy cattle - genome-wide association study - immunoglobulin - natural antibody
Natural antibodies (NAb) are produced without any antigenic stimulation as a part of the innate immune system and provide a first line of defense against pathogens. Hence, they may be a useful trait when estimating an animal's potential immune competence and in selection for disease resistance. The aim of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with different NAb traits in milk and potentially describe candidate genes. Milk samples from 1,695 first-lactation Holstein Friesian cows with titer measurements for keyhole limpet hemocyanin, lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and peptidoglycan-binding total NAb and isotypes IgG1, IgM, and IgA were used. Genome-wide association study analyses were performed using imputed 777K SNP genotypes, accounting for relationships using pedigree information. Functional enrichment analysis was performed on the significantly associated genomic regions to look for candidate genes. For IgM NAb, significant associations (false discovery rate <0.05) were found on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 17, 18, and 21 with candidate genes related to immunoglobulin structure and early B cell development. For IgG1, associations were found on BTA3, and we confirmed a quantitative trait loci on BTA21 previously reported for IgG NAb in serum. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of milk NAb that will help unravel the complex relationship between milk immunoglobulins and disease resistance in dairy cattle.
Relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress with uterine health in dairy cows with different dry period lengths
Mayasari, Novi ; Trevisi, Erminio ; Ferrari, Annarita ; Kemp, Bas ; Parmentier, Henk K. ; Knegsel, Ariette T.M. Van - \ 2019
Translational Animal Science 3 (2019)2. - ISSN 2573-2102 - p. 607 - 619.
Cattle - Continuous milking - Inflammation - Oxidative stress - Uterine health
Earlier studies indicated that the inflammatory status of dairy cows in early lactation could not be fully explained by the negative energy balance (NEB) at that moment. The objective of the present study was to determine relationships between inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress with uterine health in dairy cows after different dry period lengths. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were assigned to one of three dry period lengths (0-, 30-, or 60-d) and one of two early lactation rations (gluco-genic or lipogenic ration). Cows were fed either a glucogenic or lipogenic ration from 10-d before the expected calving date. Part of the cows which were planned for a 0-d dry period dried themselves off and were attributed to a new group (0 → 30-d dry period), which resulted in total in four dry period groups. Blood was collected (N = 110 cows) in weeks -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, and 4 relative to calving to determine bio-markers for inflammation, liver function, and oxidative stress. Uterine health status (UHS) was monitored by scoring vaginal discharge (VD) based on a 4-point scoring system (0, 1, 2, or 3) in weeks 2 and 3 after calving. Cows were classified as having a healthy uterine environment (HU, VD score = 0 or 1 in both weeks 2 and 3), nonrecovering uterine environment (NRU, VD score = 2 or 3 in week 3), or a recovering uterine environment (RU, VD score = 2 or 3 in week 2 and VD score= 0 or 1 in week 3). Independent of dry period length, cows with NRU had higher plasma haptoglobin (P = 0.05) and lower paraoxonase levels (P < 0.01) in the first 4 weeks after calving and lower liver functionality index (P < 0.01) compared with cows with HU. Cows with NRU had lower plasma albumin (P = 0.02) and creatinine (P = 0.02) compared with cows with a RU, but not compared with cows with HU. Independent of UHS, cows with a 0 → 30-d dry period had higher bil-irubin levels compared with cows with 0-, 30-, or 60-d dry period (P < 0.01). Cows with RU and fed a lipogenic ration had higher levels of albumin in plasma compared with cows with NRU and fed a lipogenic ration (P < 0.01). In conclusion, uterine health was related to biomarkers for inflammation (haptoglobin and albumin) and paraoxonase in dairy cows in early lactation. Cows which were planned for a 0-d dry period, but dried themselves off (0 → 30-d dry period group) had higher bilirubin levels, which was possibly related to a more severe NEB in these cows. Inflammatory biomarkers in dairy cows in early lactation were related to uterine health in this period.
Investigation of a (putative) causal mutation in Toll-like receptor family member 1A in chickens
Berghof, T.V.L. ; Voogdt, Carlos G.P. ; Arts, J.A.J. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Putten, Jos P.M. Van; Visker, M.H.P.W. - \ 2019
Maternal Transfer of Natural (Auto-) Antibodies in Chickens
Rifqi Ismiraj, M. ; Arts, J.A.J. ; Parmentier, H.K. - \ 2019
Poultry Science 98 (2019)6. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 2380 - 2391.
natural (auto-) antibodies - divergent selection - maternal transfer
The presence and relative levels (titers) of IgM and IgG natural antibodies (NAb) binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and natural (auto-) antibodies (N(A)Ab) binding salmon double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), (oxidated-) phosphatidyl (phosphoryl) choline-conjugated bovine serum albumin (PC-BSA), PC-conjugated ovalbumin (PC-OVA), and OVA, respectively, were studied in adult hen plasma, egg yolk, egg albumen, plasma of their hatchlings, and in 8-day-old chick plasma. Birds and eggs were from 2 lines divergently selected for high or low NAb levels binding KLH. This study aimed to determine 1) correlated phenotypic responses of selection for NAb to KLH, 2) transfer of maternal NAb and N(A)Ab via egg compartments, 3) levels of likely maternal NAb and N(A)Ab in hatchlings and 8-day-old chicks, and 4) whether a composite trait: IgM anti-PC-BSA/IgG anti-dsDNA ratio in the compartments could be used as a parameter for health or immune status.
NAb and N(A)Ab to all tested antigens were found in adult hens, but low or no levels were found for IgM in yolk and IgG in albumen. Depending on the antigen, NAb and N(A)Ab were found in hatchlings and day 8 birds. Divergent selection and breeding based on NAb binding KLH affected antibody titers of almost all antigens in almost all compartments, in a similar way. Maternal transfer of NAb and N(A)Ab from the adult hen to offspring was via specific routes for specific antigens and isotypes, especially for IgG as suggested by cluster analyses and significant correlations. There was little indication of production of new NAb and N(A)Ab to the studied antigens in either the egg compartments or the hatchlings. A composite trait of IgM PC-BSA/IgG dsDNA ratio was as yet not indicative for immune status, as no significant differences were found between the lines for all compartments.
In conclusion, hens provide neonatal chickens with natural (self-) binding IgG antibodies that have been proposed to perform homeostatic functions during the period in which neonates do not produce these antibodies themselves.
Selective breeding for high natural antibody level increases resistance to avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) in chickens
Berghof, T.V.L. ; Matthijs, M.G.R. ; Arts, J.A.J. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Dwars, R.M. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Visker, M.H.P.W. ; Parmentier, H.K. - \ 2019
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 93 (2019). - ISSN 0145-305X - p. 45 - 57.
APEC - Breeding - Chicken - Disease resistance - Escherichia coli - Natural antibody
Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-binding natural antibody (NAb) titers in chickens are heritable, and higher levels have previously been associated with a higher survival. This suggests that selective breeding for higher NAb levels might increase survival by means of improved general disease resistance. Chickens were divergently selected and bred for total NAb levels binding KLH at 16 weeks of age for six generations, resulting in a High NAb selection line and a Low NAb selection line. To for test differences in disease resistance, chickens were challenged with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) in two separate experiments. Chickens at 8 days of age received one of four intratracheal inoculations of 0.2 mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS): 1) mock inoculate, 2) with 0.2 mL PBS containing 108.20 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL APEC, 3) with 0.2 mL PBS containing 106.64 CFU/mL APEC, and 4) with 0.2 mL PBS containing 107.55 CFU/mL APEC. Mortality was recorded during 7 days post inoculation. Overall, 50–60% reduced mortality was observed in the High line compared to the Low line for all APEC doses. In addition, morbidity was determined of the surviving chickens at 15 days of age. The High line had lower morbidity scores compared to the Low line. We conclude that selective breeding for high KLH-binding NAb levels at 16 weeks of age increase APEC resistance in early life. This study and previous studies support the hypothesis that KLH-binding NAb might be used as an indicator trait for to selective breed for general disease resistance in an antigen non-specific fashion.
Selective breeding on natural antibodies in chickens: selection response, and correlated responses
Berghof, T.V.L. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Arts, J.A.J. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Visker, M.H.P.W. ; Parmentier, H.K. - \ 2018
Effects of (a switch in) enriched vs barren housing on the response to reward loss in pigs in a negative contrast test
Luo, Lu ; Reimert, I. ; Smeets, Sharine ; Haas, E.N. de; Parmentier, H.K. ; Kemp, B. ; Bolhuis, J.E. - \ 2018
In: Proceedings of the 52nd Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology. - Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863228 - p. 233 - 233.
Several studies suggest that animals in a negative emotional state are more sensitive to reward losses as shown by behavioural and neurophysiological responses. In a successive negative contrast (SNC) test, reward losses are induced by decreasing the size of the reward for a task for which animals have been trained. is SNC paradigm has not been widely used in pigs. It is well known that environmental enrichment positively inuences the welfare of pigs, and may induce a more optimistic emotional state, which could reduce their sensitivity to reward losses. We studied pigs in barren (B) or enriched (E) housing, experiencing either a switch in housing conditions at 7 weeks of age or not (4 treatment groups: EE, EB, BE, BB, n=8 pens per group) in an SNC runway task. We hypothesized that B housed pigs, particularly those that changed from E to B housing, would show an enhanced sensitivity to reward losses. One pig per pen was trained to run a 24.6 m U-shaped runway for 6 pieces and one for 1 piece of apple. Each pig received 3 trials per day, with a maximum of 120 sec/trial. Latency to start eating the reward was recorded, and the average was calculated per day. Aer 11 days, all pigs received 1 piece of apple only for another 11 days (reward shi: 6-1 vs 1-1 reward group), i.e. the group originally receiving 6 pieces of apple experienced a reward loss. Eects of pre-housing, post-housing, (original) reward size, day and interactions were analysed using mixed models with a random eect of animal. Fiy-one pigs were successfully trained. Before the reward shi, over the rst 11 days, pre-housing × post-housing × reward size aected the average run-time (P<0.05). All BB pigs ran slower than other pigs (BB: 59.3±2.8; BE: 35.9±1.7; EB: 39.6±2.2; EE: 40.9±2.2, P<0.05), without any other signicant pairwise dierences. Analysis per treatment revealed, however, that EB 6-reward pigs were faster than the 1-reward pigs. Overall latency was higher on the last days (P<0.001). Aer the reward size shied to 1 on day 12, pre-housing × post-housing aected the latency (P<0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that again, BB pigs were slower than other pigs (BB: 88.2±2.7; BE 62.3±2.3; EB: 57.3±2.3; EE: 70.4±2.6, P<0.001), and EB pigs were faster than EE pigs (P<0.05). Pigs ran slower aer than before the reward shi (P<0.001). Nevertheless, pigs in the 6-1 group ran slower than pigs in the 1-1 group aer the reward shi (6-1: 73.9±2.0; 1-1: 66.4±1.8, P<0.05), suggesting that pigs are sensitive to a loss in reward size. is was, however, irrespective of housing given the lack of interactions with reward size. We conclude that housing aected the latency to run down a runway for a reward in pigs, which can indicate a lower motivation in the BB pigs, an eect that was absent in the B pigs that switched to enriched housing (BE pigs). We found, however, no evidence that housing or a switch in housing conditions aected the sensitivity to reward loss.
Breeding for high natural antibody levels reduces impact of E. coli (APEC) challenge in chickens
Berghof, T.V.L. ; Matthijs, M.G.R. ; Arts, J.A.J. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Dwars, R.M. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Parmentier, H.K. ; Visker, M.H.P.W. ; Parmentier, H.K. - \ 2018
Body weight variation as indicator for resilience in chickens
Berghof, T.V.L. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Arts, J.A.J. ; Karangali, Francois ; Poel, J.J. van der; Parmentier, H.K. ; Mulder, H.A. - \ 2018
Detection of candidate regions affecting bovine IgM natural antibodies in milk
Cordero Solorzano, Juan ; Arts, J.A.J. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Bovenhuis, H. - \ 2018
In: Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production. - WCGALP - 8 p.
Two genomic regions were found to be associated with IgM antibody titers in milk binding lipoteichoic acid (LTA); one on chromosome 17 and the other on chromosome 21. Phenotypes were measured by ELISA and genotypes consisted of imputed 777k SNP. Single SNP analyses were run using an animal model to retrieve significant SNP. In BTA21, a gene for the heavy chains of immunoglobulins, IGHV is proposed as a candidate gene as was true for VPREB3 in BTA17 related to B-cell maturation. These findings provide a further step in better understanding the genetic background of natural antibodies (NAbs), that may be relevant for relevant for the estimation of dairy cattle health. Keywords: dairy cattle, natural antibodies, genome-wide association