Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Increasing both plant nitrogen availability and nitrate leaching: the dual role of earthworms
Buis, E. ; Goede, R.G.M. de; Sonneveld, M.P.W. ; Groenigen, J.W. van; Vliet, P.C.J. van; Salanki, T.E. ; Brussaard, L. - \ 2009
Effects of dietary protein and energy levels on cow manure extretion and ammonia votalization
Stelt, B. van der; Vliet, P.C.J. van; Reijs, J.W. ; Temminghoff, E.J.M. ; Riemsdijk, W.H. van - \ 2008
Journal of Dairy Science 91 (2008)12. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 4811 - 4821.
lactating dairy-cows - nitrogen - emissions - cattle - slurry - manipulation - prediction - management - magnesium - digestion
Adjusting dietary composition is considered an effective way to reduce nutrient losses to the environment. The effects of various dietary protein and energy levels on manure composition (Ca, Mg, K, Na, N, P, and pH) were studied by determining total and direct available (free) nutrient concentrations in 8 slurries obtained from a feeding trial. Furthermore, the effects of dietary changes on NH3 volatilization from manure slurries were studied. Increasing the crude protein (CP) content of the feed (108 to 190 g/ kg of dry matter) resulted in an average increase in total N and P content of the slurries of 56 and 48%, respectively. Feeding the cows more energy (5,050 to 6,840 kJ/kg of dry matter) increased total N and P content of the slurries by 27 and 39%, respectively. Total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) amounted to 52 to 77% of the total N content present in manure slurries. A low protein content or a low energy content of the diets reduced TAN concentrations in the slurries by 43% (CP) or 25% (energy). Changes in the protein content or the energy content of the feed did not significantly affect the free:total ratios of Na, Ca, and Mg content of the slurries. In agreement with the calculated NH3,aq (aqueous) content, the total amount of NH3 volatilized from manure slurries was much greater (on average 10 times greater) when the cows were fed greater levels of CP. Although the slurries contained more TAN when cows were fed diets richer in energy, NH3 volatilization from the slurries was lower.
Nematode-based risk assessment of mixture toxicity in a moderately polluted river floodplain in The Netherlands
Vliet, P.C.J. van; Goede, R.G.M. de - \ 2008
Science of the Total Environment 406 (2008)3. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 449 - 454.
stroomvlakten - zware metalen - nematoda - rivieren - indicatoren - graslanden - verontreiniging - toxiciteit - gelderland - land van maas en waal - waal - floodplains - heavy metals - nematoda - rivers - indicators - grasslands - pollution - toxicity - gelderland - land van maas en waal - river waal - soil - sensitivity - communities - cadmium - metals - forest
Heavy metal polluted soils usually contain mixtures of different metals, whereas legislation is derived from concentrations of individual metals. The mixture toxicity of the Dutch floodplain Afferdensche and Deestsche Waarden was estimated to be high (msPAF ranged from 67¿94%). Analyses of nematode community based bioindicators (Maturity Index, taxonomic diversity, trophic groups, multivariate analysis, DoFT-sentinels) were used to determine the ecological effects of the mixture toxicity in the floodplain soil. None of the indices indicated direct effects of heavy metals on the nematode community. This can be explained by the high adsorption of heavy metals on organic matter and clay particles resulting in a low bioavailability, and questions the estimation of the toxicity based on total concentrations of heavy metals in such environments. The nematode fauna showed great seasonal variation, which most probably was related to the temporal inundation of the floodplain.
Evaluating the use of gel-based sub-sampling for assessing responses of terrestrial microarthropods (Collembola and Acari) to different slurry applications and organic matter contents
Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M. ; Dimmers, W.J. ; Vliet, P.C.J. van; Goedhart, P.W. ; Martakis, G.F.P. ; Goede, R.G.M. de - \ 2008
Applied Soil Ecology 38 (2008)3. - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 239 - 248.
cattle slurry - soil - management - grassland - tactics - size
Microarthropods show considerable small-scale spatial variation, which on statistical grounds demands the use of numerous samples per experimental unit to obtain a representative density estimate. To avoid the identification of all individuals in these samples a sub-sampling technique is desirable. Due to various factors, existing sub-sampling methods perform sub-optimally when working with soil microarthropods. As an alternative, this study evaluated a gel-based sub-sampling method. The method was applied in a practical situation comparing effects of two existing methods of slurry manure application (injection of control slurry and the superficial application of slurry to which an additive was added) on soil inhabiting springtails and mites. In the experiment, special attention was paid to the mediating influence of soil organic matter content. The gel-based sub-sampling data showed a Poisson distribution, supporting randomness. Furthermore, none of the identified specimens showed morphological damage, strongly suggesting that neither gel-suspension nor amylase treatment had damaged the integuments of the specimens. Therefore, gel-based sub-sampling seems to offer an efficient and safe tool for sub-sampling microarthropods. Of the two slurry applications studied, the surface application of the slurry manure with the additive resulted in the highest abundances of microarthropods, with an average of 17,890 individuals m¿2 in broadcasted fields, compared to 11,486 individuals m¿2 in the slit injected fields. A positive correlation between microarthropod abundance and the organic matter content of the soil was found for the fields that were slit injected with unamended slurry. The specially prepared slurry treatment did not show the latter correlation, probably because of the a priori relatively high organic matter content of most fields receiving this treatment. The relative dominance of surface dwelling species in the superficially applied slurry with additive suggests that the microarthropods responded in particular to the method of slurry manure application rather than to slurry manure type.
Metal accumulation in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Model predictions compared to field data
Veltman, K. ; Huijbregts, M.A.J. ; Vijver, M.G. ; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M. ; Hobbelen, P.H.F. ; Koolhaas, J.E. ; Gestel, C.A.M. van; Vliet, P.C.J. van; Hendriks, A.J. - \ 2007
Environmental Pollution 146 (2007)2. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 428 - 436.
heavy-metals - equilibrium ratios - species weight - rate constants - soils - cadmium - bioaccumulation - bioavailability - water - zinc
The mechanistic bioaccumulation model OMEGA (Optimal Modeling for Ecotoxicological Applications) is used to estimate accumulation of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Our validation to field accumulation data shows that the model accurately predicts internal cadmium concentrations. In addition, our results show that internal metal concentrations in the earthworm are less than linearly (slope <1) related to the total concentration in soil, while risk assessment procedures often assume the biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) to be constant. Although predicted internal concentrations of all metals are generally within a factor 5 compared to field data, incorporation of regulation in the model is necessary to improve predictability of the essential metals such as zinc and copper.
Volatilization of ammonia from manure as affected by manure additives, temperature and mixing.
Stelt, B. van der; Temminghoff, E.J.M. ; Vliet, P.C.J. van; Riemsdijk, W.H. van - \ 2007
Bioresource Technology 98 (2007)18. - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 3449 - 3455.
livestock slurry - emissions - nitrogen - field - methane - storage - litter
Ammonia (NH3) volatilization decreases the N-nutrient value of livestock manure slurries and can lead to soil acidification and eutrophication problems. In this study the effect of three manure additives (Euro Mest-mix® (Mx), Effective Micro-organisms® (EM), and Agri-mest® (Am)) on NH3 volatilization at three temperatures (4, 20, and 35 °C) was investigated. The manufacturers claim that Mx contains absorbing clay minerals and that applying Am and EM to slurry will reduce nitrogen losses, most likely by enhancing the biodegradation of manure slurry. Furthermore, the effect of mixing slurry on NH3 volatilization has been investigated. Ammonia volatilization increased with increasing temperature and mixing of the slurries. However, at 35 °C mixing of manure reduced NH3 emissions compared to non-mixing, which is related to a reduced crust resistance to gaseous transport at higher temperatures for non-mixing. Moreover, mixing introduces oxygen into the anaerobic slurry environment which will slow down microbial activity. The use of additives did not change manure characteristics (pH, dry matter, Ntotal, Nmineral, C/N, and C/Norganic) and did not result in a significant (p <0.05) decrease in NH3 emissions, except that at 4 °C and no mixing a significant decrease of 34% in NH3 volatilization was observed, when Am and EM together, were applied to slurry.
Effects of organic matter content on earthworms and nitrogen mineralization in grassland soils
Vliet, P.C.J. van; Stelt, B. van der; Rietberg, P.I. ; Goede, R.G.M. de - \ 2007
European Journal of Soil Biology 43 (2007)suppl. 1. - ISSN 1164-5563 - p. S222 - S229.
lumbricus-terrestris l - land-use history - agroecosystems - assimilation - dynamics - oligochaeta - consumption - abundance - quality - systems
Earthworms play an important role in the nitrogen cycle in the soil. Through their activities they affect the mineralization of organic matter directly and indirectly. However, the presence of organic matter also affects earthworm abundances. For this study, we selected 2 grasslands differing in organic matter content at nine dairy farms on sandy soils in the Noordelijke Friese Wouden (NFW) in the Netherlands. We expected a larger number of earthworms and a higher mineralization rate in grasslands with a higher organic matter content. We also expected a positive relationship between earthworm abundance and nitrogen mineralization. At each farm the grassland with the highest organic matter content contained the largest number of earthworms (up to 858 worms m(-2)), (r = 0.286 (p = 0.036)). These grasslands also had the highest root biomass (r = 0.504 (p = 0.0001). With an increase in organic matter in the soil (from 5 to 10.2%), potential nitrogen mineralization increased from 138 to 310 kg N-1 ha 6 months(-1). No relationships between the calculated amount of nitrogen mineralized by earthworms and the potential and actual nitrogen mineralization were found. Nitrogen mineralization due to earthworm activities, calculated using production ecological formulas, ranged from 4 to 24 ka N ha(-1) month(-1). (c) 2007 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Effects of cow diet on the microbial community and organic matter and nitrogen content of feces
Vliet, P.C.J. van; Reijs, J.W. ; Bloem, J. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Goede, R.G.M. de - \ 2007
Journal of Dairy Science 90 (2007)11. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 5146 - 5158.
gradient gel-electrophoresis - 16s ribosomal-rna - bacterial diversity - cattle slurry - soil - manure - mineralization - decomposition - management - ecology
Knowledge of the effects of cow diet on manure composition is required to improve nutrient use efficiency and to decrease emissions of N to the environment. Therefore, we performed an experiment with nonlactating cows to determine the consequences of changes in cow rations for the chemical characteristics and the traits of the microbial community in the feces. In this experiment, 16 cows were fed 8 diets, differing in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, starch, and net energy content. These differences were achieved by changing dietary ingredients or roughage to concentrate ratio. After an adaptation period of 3 wk, fecal material was collected and analyzed. Observed results were compared with simulated values using a mechanistic model that provides insight into the mechanisms involved in the effect of dietary variation on fecal composition. Feces produced on a high-fiber, low-protein diet had a high C:N ratio (>16) and had lower concentrations of both organic and inorganic N than feces on a low-fiber, high-protein diet. Fecal bacterial biomass concentration was highest in high-protein, high-energy diets. The fraction of inorganic N in the feces was not significantly different between the different feces. Microbial biomass in the feces ranged from 1,200 to 8,000 mu g of C/g of dry matter (average:3,700 mu g of C/g of dry matter). Bacterial diversity was similar for all fecal materials, but the different protein levels in the feeding regimens induced changes in the community structure present in the different feces. The simulated total N content (Ntotal) in the feces ranged from 1.0 to 1.5 times the observed concentrations, whereas the simulated C:Ntotal of the feces ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 times the observed C:Ntotal. However, bacterial biomass C was not predicted satisfactorily (simulated values being on average 3 times higher than observed), giving rise to further discussion on the definition of microbial C in feces. Based on these observations, it was concluded that diet composition affected fecal chemical composition and microbial biomass. These changes may affect the nutrient use and efficiency of the manure. Because the present experiment used a limited number of dry cows and extreme diet regimens, extrapolation of results to other dairy cow situations should be done with care.
Earthworm activity as a determinant for N2O emission from crop residue
Rizhiya, E. ; Bertora, C. ; Vliet, P.C.J. van; Kuikman, P.J. ; Faber, J.H. ; Groenigen, J.W. van - \ 2007
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39 (2007)8. - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 2058 - 2069.
nitrous-oxide emission - soil organic-matter - denitrifying bacteria - denitrification rates - aporrectodea-turgida - lumbricus-terrestris - octolasion-tyrtaeum - agricultural soils - carbon - management
Earthworm activity may have an effect on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from crop residue. However, the importance of this effect and its main controlling variables are largely unknown. The main objective of this study was to determine under which conditions and to what extent earthworm activity impacts N2O emissions from grass residue. For this purpose we initiated a 90-day (experiment I) and a 50-day (experiment II) laboratory mesocosm experiment using a Typic Fluvaquent pasture soil with silt loam texture. In all treatments, residue was applied, and emissions of NO and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured. In experiment I the residue was applied on top of the soil surface and we tested (a) the effects of the anecic earthworm species Aporrectodea longa (Ude) vs. the epigeic species Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffmeister) and (b) interactions between earthworm activity and bulk density (1.06 vs. 1.61 g cm(-3)). In experiment II we tested the effect of L. rubellus after residue was artificially incorporated in the soil. In experiment 1, N2O emissions in the presence of earthworms significantly increased from 55.7 to 789.1 mu g N2O-N kg(-1) soil (L. rubellus; p <0.001) or to 227.2 mu g N2O-N kg(-1) soil (A. longa, p <0.05). This effect was not dependent on bulk density. However, if the residue was incorporated into the soil (experiment II) the earthworm effect disappeared and emissions were higher (1064.2 mu g N2O-N kg(-1) soil). At the end of the experiment and after removal of earthworms, a drying/wetting and freezing/thawing cycle resulted in significantly higher emissions of NO and CO2 from soil with prior presence of L. rubellus. Soil with prior presence of L. rubellus also had higher potential denitrification. We conclude that the main effect of earthworm activity on N2O emissions is through mixing residue into the soil, switching residue decomposition from an aerobic and low denitrification pathway to one with significant denitrification and NO production. Furthermore, A. longa activity resulted in more stable soil organic matter than L. rubellus. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Do earthworms increase N2O emissions in ploughed grassland?
Bertora, C. ; Vliet, P.C.J. van; Hummelink, E.W.J. ; Groenigen, J.W. van - \ 2007
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39 (2007)2. - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 632 - 640.
soil organic-matter - nitrous-oxide emissions - denitrifying bacteria - permanent pastures - denitrification - casts - management - community - fluxes - carbon
Earthworm activity has been reported to lead to increased production of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). This is due to emissions from worms themselves, their casts and drilosphere, as well as to general changes in soil structure. However, it remains to be determined how important this effect is on N2O fluxes from agricultural systems under realistic conditions in terms of earthworm density, soil moisture, tillage activity and residue loads. We quantified the effect of earthworm presence on N2O emissions from a pasture after simulated ploughing of the sod (`grassland renovation¿) for different soil moisture contents during a 62-day mesocosm study. Sod (with associated soil) and topsoil were separately collected from a loamy Typic Fluvaquent. Treatments included low (L), medium (M) and high (H) moisture content, in combination with: only soil (S); soil+incorporated sod (SG); soil+incorporated sod+the anecic earthworm Aporrectodea longa (SGE). Nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured for 62 d. At the end of the incubation period, we determined N2O production under water-saturated conditions, potential denitrification and potential mineralization of the soil after removing the earthworms. Cumulative N2O and CO2 fluxes over 62 d from incorporated sod were highest for treatment HSGE (973 ¿g N2O-N and 302 mg CO2-C kg¿1 soil) and lowest for LSG (64 ¿g N2O-N and 188 mg CO2-C kg¿1 soil). Both cumulative fluxes were significantly different for soil moisture (p
Effects of slurry application methods on soil faunal communities in permanent grassland
Vliet, P.C.J. van; Goede, R.G.M. de - \ 2006
European Journal of Soil Biology 42 (2006)Suppl. 1. - ISSN 1164-5563 - p. S348 - S353.
nitrogen - earthworms - nematodes - systems - manure
We studied the effects of two slurry manure application methods, broadcasting manure slurry (MB) and manure slit injection (SMI), on soil faunal communities 1 week and 4 or 5 weeks after application in the spring of 2002 and the summer of 2003. No effect on total numbers of Enchytraeidae and nematodes was found. Enrichment opportunistic nematodes (CP1) significantly decreased in the MB treatment, resulting in a significantly higher Maturity Index. In the SMI treatment the Maturity Index was unchanged. Effects of manure application methods on earthworms depended on soil moisture and season. Under wet conditions abundance of earthworms, especially epigeic earthworms, decreased significantly in the MB treatment. In the summer of 2003 total earthworm numbers, and the fraction of epigeics, decreased after SMI. Due to the drought in this period, abundances of epigeic earthworms were already low and possible significant effects of the different manure application methods were therefore hard to interpret.
Accumulation of heavy metals by enchytraeids and earthworms in a floodplain
Vliet, P.C.J. van; Didden, W.A.M. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M. - \ 2006
European Journal of Soil Biology 42 (2006)Suppl. 1. - ISSN 1164-5563 - p. S117 - S126.
eisenia-foetida - copper - cadmium - soils - zinc - resistance - buchholzi - toxicity - field - lead
The river floodplain `Afferdense and Deestsche Waarden¿ (ADW) in The Netherlands is diffusely contaminated with several heavy metals. It is, however, unclear whether this mixed contamination exerts any adverse ecotoxicological effects. In November 2000 and May 2001 a field survey was conducted in two areas in the ADW to collect a wide range of data concerning contamination levels, bioavailability, enchytraeids and earthworms and abiotic factors such as lutum and organic matter content, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and soil nutrient concentrations. Earthworms and enchytraeids were also analyzed for heavy metal content. At both sites arsenic and zinc were present in soil at relatively high oncentrations (above the Dutch intervention value). In the two areas, both enchytraeids and earthworms accumulated metals. Fridericia ulrikae accumulated more cadmium than Enchytraeus buchholzi and Henlea perpusilla. The earthworm Lumbricus rubellus accumulated larger concentrations of Cr, Cu and Pb than Aporrectodea caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica. Dietary, physiological and behavioral characteristics may have contributed to these differences
Effecten van gewassen en gangbare landbouwkundige handelingen op specifieke groepen van micro-organismen
Vliet, P.C.J. van; Bloem, J. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Sectie Bodemkwaliteit - 77
micro-organismen - bedrijfssystemen - bodembiologie - microorganisms - farming systems - soil biology
Voor deze literatuurstudie zijn mycorrizha, rhizobia, pseudomonaden, acitinomyceten en nitrificerende bacterien geselecteerd en betokken bij de volgende functies in de bodem; afbraak van organische stof, instandhouden van de bodemvruchtbaarheid en bodemstructuur en de bescherming tegen plantenziekten. Voor de teelt van aardappel, koolzaad, snijmais, suikerbiet en tarwe. Dit voor de milieurisicoanalyse van effecten genetisch gemodificeerde planten op het leven in de bodem.
Microbial diversity, nitrogen loss and grass production after addition of Effective Micro-organisms® (EM) to slurry manure
Vliet, P.C.J. van; Bloem, J. ; Goede, R.G.M. de - \ 2006
Applied Soil Ecology 32 (2006)2. - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 188 - 198.
gel-electrophoresis analysis - 16s ribosomal-rna - bacteria - soil - communities - survival
In this study, we used a DNA fingerprinting technique (PCR-DGGE) to investigate if bacteria present in an activated EM suspension (EM-A) were able to maintain or reach significant relative abundances after addition to slurry manure. We also investigated effects of the addition of EM-A to slurry manure on nitrogen losses from the manure and grass biomass production after application of the manure as organic fertilizer. EM® and Agri-mest® were tested in a factorial set-up so that the factors could be distinguished. Effective Organisms (EM) is a mixture of several effective, disease-depressing micro-organisms. Agri-mest contains energized minerals, which will influence biochemical processes occurring in the manure. Different EM-stocks, and EM-Active suspensions prepared by different users showed large variation in bacterial community structure and, thus, low reproducibility. Through the addition of Agri-mest to the slurry manure, loss of inorganic nitrogen from the slurry manure appeared to be reduced. Moreover, after application of such Agri-mest slurry as an organic fertilizer, nitrogen uptake by grass was reduced. Addition of EM-A had no measurable effects on the bacterial diversity and the chemical composition of the slurry manure. In a pot experiment, also no effects of EM on nitrogen uptake and grass biomass production were recorded.
Effectieve micro-organismen verbeteren kwaliteit runderdrijfmest niet
Vliet, P.C.J. van; Goede, R.G.M. de; Bloem, J. - \ 2006
V-focus 3 (2006)juni. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 18 - 21.
rundveeteelt - drijfmest - verwerking - toevoegingen - micro-organismen - denitrificerende micro-organismen - ammoniak - emissie - effecten - grassen - gewasopbrengst - cattle farming - slurries - processing - additives - microorganisms - denitrifying microorganisms - ammonia - emission - effects - grasses - crop yield
Wageningen UR heeft in een vergelijkende potproef met grasopbrengsten de werkzaamheid van de toevoeging van Effectieve Micro-organismen bij drijfmest nagegaan
Heavy metal concentrations in soil and earthworms in a floodplain grassland
Vliet, P.C.J. van; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Ma, W.C. - \ 2005
Environmental Pollution 138 (2005)3. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 505 - 516.
cadmium - copper - zinc - bioavailability - contamination - availability - terrestrial - systems - lead
We determined accumulated heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) of earthworms in moderately contaminated floodplain soils. Both soil and mature earthworms were sampled before and after flooding and earthworm species were identified to understand species specific differences in bioconcentration. Accumulated metal concentrations in floodplain earthworms differed before and after flooding. Differences in uptake and elimination mechanisms, in food choice and living habitat of the different earthworm species and changes in speciation of the heavy metals are possible causes for this observation. Regression equations taken from literature, that relate metal accumulation by earthworms in floodplains as a function of metal concentration in soil, performed well when all species specific data were combined in an average accumulation, but did not address differences in accumulation between earthworm species. The accumulation of metals by earthworms is species dependent and affected by flooding.
Species diversity and population dynamics of earthworms in a contaminated floodplain
Ma, W.C. ; Vliet, P.C.J. van; Bodt, J.M. - \ 2004
In: Environmental science solutions: a pan-European perspective. - Brussels (Belgium) : SETAC - p. 8 - 8.
Accumulation of heavy metals by enchytraeids and earthworms in a floodplain
Vliet, P.C.J. van; Didden, W.A.M. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Ma, W.C. ; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M. - \ 2004
In: Environmental science solutions: a pan-European perspective. - Brussels (Belgium) : SETAC - p. 258 - 258.
Taxonomy of Fridericia (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae)
Didden, W.A.M. ; Vliet, P.C.J. van - \ 2004
Pedobiologia 48 (2004)4. - ISSN 0031-4056 - p. 409 - 410.
Accumulation of heavy metals by enchytraeids and earthworms in a floodplain
Vliet, P.C.J. van; Didden, W.A.M. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Ma, W.C. ; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M. - \ 2004
In: XIVth international colloquium on soil zoology and ecology; abstracts. - [S.l.] : S.n. - p. 185 - 185.
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