Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Green Plant Biotechnology at work
Bovy, A.G. ; Heusden, A.W. van; Kreike, C.M. ; Peer, A.F. van; Salentijn, E.M.J. ; Schouten, H.J. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Wiel, C.C.M. van de - \ 2019
Wageningen : Groen Kennisnet
The pages below contain the topics, questions, and instruction of a course on Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Plant Breeding, which is taken by students at the Universities of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands who specialize in Green Biotechnology. In the course they learn about the use of molecular techniques for applications in plant breeding companies and in related research in The Netherlands.
The effect of isolation methods of tomato pollen on the results of metabolic profiling
Paupière, Marine J. ; Tikunov, Yury M. ; Firon, Nurit ; Vos, Ric C.H. de; Maliepaard, Chris ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Bovy, Arnaud G. - \ 2019
Metabolomics 15 (2019)1. - ISSN 1573-3882
Anther - Metabolite - Metabolome - Metabolomics - Pollen - Tomato

Introduction: Untargeted metabolomics is a powerful tool to detect hundreds of metabolites within a given tissue and to compare the metabolite composition of samples in a comprehensive manner. However, with regard to pollen research such comprehensive metabolomics approaches are yet not well developed. To enable isolation of pollen that is tightly enclosed within the anthers of the flower, such as immature pollen, the current pollen isolation protocols require the use of a watery solution. These protocols raise a number of concerns for their suitability in metabolomics analyses, in view of possible metabolic activities in the pollen and contamination with anther metabolites. Objectives: We assessed the effect of different sample preparation procedures currently used for pollen isolation for their suitability to perform metabolomics of tomato pollen. Methods: Pollen were isolated using different methods and the metabolic profiles were analysed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Results: Our results demonstrated that pollen isolation in a watery solution led to (i) rehydration of the pollen grains, inducing marked metabolic changes in flavonoids, phenylpropanoids and amino acids and thus resulting in a metabolite profile that did not reflect the one of mature dry pollen, (ii) hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose during subsequent metabolite extraction, unless the isolated and rehydrated pollen were lyophilized prior to extraction, and (iii) contamination with anther-specific metabolites, such as alkaloids, thus compromising the metabolic purity of the pollen fraction. Conclusion: We conclude that the current practices used to isolate pollen are suboptimal for metabolomics analyses and provide recommendations on how to improve the pollen isolation protocol, in order to obtain the most reliable metabolic profile from pollen tissue.

Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Degradation Mechanisms in Solanaceous Vegetables: A Review
Liu, Ying ; Tikunov, Yury ; Schouten, Rob E. ; Marcelis, Leo F.M. ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Bovy, Arnaud - \ 2018
Frontiers in Chemistry 6 (2018). - ISSN 2296-2646
Anthocyanins are a group of polyphenolic pigments that are ubiquitously found in the plant kingdom. In plants, anthocyanins play a role not only in reproduction, by attracting pollinators and seed dispersers, but also in protection against various abiotic and biotic stresses. There is accumulating evidence that anthocyanins have health-promoting properties, which makes anthocyanin metabolism an interesting target for breeders and researchers. In this review, the state of the art knowledge concerning anthocyanins in the Solanaceous vegetables, i.e., pepper, tomato, eggplant, and potato, is discussed, including biochemistry and biological function of anthocyanins, as well as their genetic and environmental regulation. Anthocyanin accumulation is determined by the balance between biosynthesis and degradation. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway has been well-studied in Solanaceous vegetables, more research is needed on the inhibition of biosynthesis and, in particular, the anthocyanin degradation mechanisms if we want to control anthocyanin content of Solanaceous vegetables. In addition, anthocyanin metabolism is distinctly affected by environmental conditions, but the molecular regulation of these effects is poorly understood. Existing knowledge is summarized and current gaps in our understanding are highlighted and discussed, to create opportunities for the development of anthocyanin-rich crops through breeding and environmental management.
Cold storage of tomato: the good, the bad en the ugly
Rosales Lopez, Raquel ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Hanenberg, Maike ; Verkerke, W. ; Bovy, A.G. - \ 2017
The effects of storage and temperature on flavor of three modern tomato varieties
Hanenberg, M.A.A. ; Rosales Lopez, Raquel ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Verkerke, W. - \ 2017
- 1 p.
Cold storage of tomato: the good, the bad, and the ugly
Rosales Lopez, Raquel ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Hanenberg, M.A.A. ; Verkerke, W. ; Bovy, A.G. - \ 2017
Screening for pollen tolerance to high temperatures in tomato
Paupière, Marine J. ; Haperen, Pauline van; Rieu, Ivo ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Tikunov, Yury M. ; Bovy, Arnaud G. - \ 2017
Euphytica 213 (2017)6. - ISSN 0014-2336 - 8 p.
Breeding - Heat stress - High temperature - Pollen viability - Screening - Tolerance - Tomato

Among the abiotic stresses affecting plant reproduction, high temperature is one of the most prominent ones because it directly affects fruit set. So far, little attention has been paid to the investigation of the variation in high temperature tolerance among wild tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) germplasm. The objective of this study was to determine the tolerance of 17 different cultivated and wild tomato accessions to high temperature, using a pollen viability screening approach. Each of the 17 genotypes of tomato was analysed for their pollen quality under a 32 °C (day)/26 °C (night) regime. The total number of pollen per flower and the fraction of viable pollen were recorded. The number of pollen per flower varied between 35,547 and 109,490 whereas the fraction of viable pollen varied between 0.03 and 0.71. No correlation was found between these two traits. However, the combination of these traits could provide the best reproductive capability under high temperature. In this study, thermo-tolerant (LA2854, LA1478 and LA0417) as well as thermo-sensitive (LA1719, LA1580, and SWEET4) genotypes have been identified. Those genotypes can be used as novel genetic resources to get more insight into pollen thermo-tolerance mechanisms and be included in breeding programs.

Untargeted metabolomic analysis of tomato pollen development and heat stress response
Paupière, Marine J. ; Müller, Florian ; Li, Hanjing ; Rieu, Ivo ; Tikunov, Yury M. ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Bovy, Arnaud G. - \ 2017
Plant Reproduction 30 (2017). - ISSN 2194-7953
Heat stress - High temperature - Metabolomics - Pollen development - Untargeted analysis
Key message: Pollen development metabolomics.Abstract: Developing pollen is among the plant structures most sensitive to high temperatures, and a decrease in pollen viability is often associated with an alteration of metabolite content. Most of the metabolic studies of pollen have focused on a specific group of compounds, which limits the identification of physiologically important metabolites. To get a better insight into pollen development and the pollen heat stress response, we used a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry platform to detect secondary metabolites in pollen of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) at three developmental stages under control conditions and after a short heat stress at 38 °C. Under control conditions, the young microspores accumulated a large amount of alkaloids and polyamines, whereas the mature pollen strongly accumulated flavonoids. The heat stress treatment led to accumulation of flavonoids in the microspore. The biological role of the detected metabolites is discussed. This study provides the first untargeted metabolomic analysis of developing pollen under a changing environment that can serve as reference for further studies.
Identification of loci affecting accumulation of secondary metabolites in tomato fruit of a Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum chmielewskii introgression line population
Ballester Frutos, A.R. ; Tikunov, Yury ; Molthoff, Jos ; Grandillo, Silvana ; Viquez-Zamora, Marcela ; Vos, Ric de; Maagd, Ruud A. de; Heusden, Sjaak van; Bovy, Arnaud G. - \ 2016
Frontiers in Plant Science 7 (2016). - ISSN 1664-462X
Alkaloids - Flavonoids - Introgression lines - QTL analysis - Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

Semi-polar metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, and alkaloids are very important health-related compounds in tomato. As a first step to identify genes responsible for the synthesis of semi-polar metabolites, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that influence the semi-polar metabolite content in red-ripe tomato fruit were identified, by characterizing fruits of a population of introgression lines (ILs) derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii. By analyzing fruits of plants grown at two different locations, we were able to identify robust metabolite QTLs for changes in phenylpropanoid glycoconjugation on chromosome 9, for accumulation of flavonol glycosides on chromosome 5, and for alkaloids on chromosome 7. To further characterize the QTLs we used a combination of genome sequencing, transcriptomics and targeted metabolomics to identify candidate key genes underlying the observed metabolic variation.

HsfA2 controls the activity of developmentally and stress-regulated heat stress protection mechanisms in tomato male reproductive tissues
Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios ; Mesihovic, Anida ; Simm, Stefan ; Paupière, Marine Josephine ; Hu, Yangjie ; Paul, Puneet ; Mishra, Shravan Kumar ; Tschiersch, Bettina ; Theres, Klaus ; Bovy, Arnaud ; Schleiff, Enrico ; Scharf, Klaus Dieter - \ 2016
Plant Physiology 170 (2016)4. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 2461 - 2477.

Male reproductive tissues are more sensitive to heat stress (HS) compared to vegetative tissues, but the basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate the transcriptional changes required for protection from HS. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), HsfA2 acts as coactivator of HsfA1a and is one of the major Hsfs accumulating in response to elevated temperatures. The contribution of HsfA2 in heat stress response (HSR) and thermotolerance was investigated in different tissues of transgenic tomato plants with suppressed HsfA2 levels (A2AS). Global transcriptome analysis and immunodetection of two major Hsps in vegetative and reproductive tissues showed that HsfA2 regulates subsets of HS-induced genes in a tissue-specific manner. Accumulation of HsfA2 by a moderate HS treatment enhances the capacity of seedlings to cope with a subsequent severe HS, suggesting an important role for HsfA2 in regulating acquired thermotolerance. In pollen, HsfA2 is an important coactivator of HsfA1a during HSR. HsfA2 suppression reduces the viability and germination rate of pollen that received the stress during the stages of meiosis and microspore formation but had no effect onmore advanced stages. In general, pollenmeiocytes andmicrospores are characterized by increased susceptibility to HS due to their lower capacity to induce a strong HSR. This sensitivity is partially mitigated by the developmentally regulated expression of HsfA2 and several HS-responsive genes mediated by HsfA1a under nonstress conditions. Thereby, HsfA2 is an important factor for the priming process that sustains pollen thermotolerance during microsporogenesis.

Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 regulates cell division activity during early tomato fruit development
Jong, Maaike De; Wolters-Arts, Mieke ; Schimmel, B.C.J. ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Bovy, A.G. - \ 2015
Journal of Experimental Botany 66 (2015)11. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 3405 - 3416.
Auxin - AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 (ARF9) - Cell division - Fruit development - Fruit size - Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

The transformation of the ovary into a fruit after successful completion of pollination and fertilization has been associated with many changes at transcriptomic level. These changes are part of a dynamic and complex regulatory network that is controlled by phytohormones, with a major role for auxin. One of the auxin-related genes differentially expressed upon fruit set and early fruit development in tomato is Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 (SlARF9). Here, the functional analysis of this ARF is described. SlARF9 expression was found to be auxin-responsive and SlARF9 mRNA levels were high in the ovules, placenta, and pericarp of pollinated ovaries, but also in other plant tissues with high cell division activity, such as the axillary meristems and root meristems. Transgenic plants with increased SlARF9 mRNA levels formed fruits that were smaller than wild-type fruits because of reduced cell division activity, whereas transgenic lines in which SlARF9 mRNA levels were reduced showed the opposite phenotype. The expression analysis, together with the phenotype of the transgenic lines, suggests that, in tomato, ARF9 negatively controls cell division during early fruit development.

Genotype-phenotype modeling considering intermediate level of biological variation : A case study involving sensory traits, metabolites and QTLs in ripe tomatoes
Wang, Huange ; Paulo, Joao ; Kruijer, Willem ; Boer, Martin ; Jansen, Hans ; Tikunov, Yury ; Usadel, Björn ; Heusden, Sjaak Van; Bovy, Arnaud ; Eeuwijk, Fred Van - \ 2015
Molecular BioSystems 11 (2015)11. - ISSN 1742-206X - p. 3101 - 3110.

Modeling genotype-phenotype relationships is a central objective in plant genetics and breeding. Commonly, variations in phenotypic traits are modeled directly in relation to variations at the DNA level, regardless of intermediate levels of biological variation. Here we present an integrative method for the simultaneous modeling of a set of multilevel phenotypic responses to variations at the DNA level. More specifically, for ripe tomato fruits, we use Gaussian graphical models and causal inference techniques to learn the dependencies of 24 sensory traits on 29 metabolites and the dependencies of those sensory and metabolic traits on 21 QTLs. The inferred dependency network which, though not essentially representing biological pathways, suggests how the effects of allele substitutions propagate through multilevel phenotypes. Such simultaneous study of the underlying genetic architecture and multifactorial interactions is expected to enhance the prediction and manipulation of complex traits.

Combining an in vitro reporter gene assay with metabolomics to identify tomato phytochemicals responsible for inducing electrophile-responsive element (EpRE)-mediated gene transcription
Eekelen, H.D.L.M. van; Gijsbers, L. ; Maliepaard, C.A. ; Vreeburg, R.A.M. ; Finkers, H.J. ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Gomez Roldan, M.V. ; Haan, L.H.J. de; Vos, R.C.H. de; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G. ; Rietjens, I. ; Bovy, A.G. - \ 2015
Metabolomics 11 (2015)2. - ISSN 1573-3882 - p. 302 - 311.
solanum-lycopersicon - mass-spectrometry - fruit - expression - health - metabolism - flavonoids - lycopene - deglycosylation - polyphenols
The electrophile-responsive element (EpRE) is a transcriptional enhancer involved in cancer-chemoprotective gene expression effects of certain dietary compounds. In this study we measured the ability of extracts of glycosidase treated tomato fruits from 97 different accessions to induce EpRE-mediated luciferase expression using EpRE-LUX reporter cells and analyzed the same extracts using LC–MSbased untargeted metabolomics profiling. We were able to pinpoint those tomato compounds that were most correlated with EpRE-mediated luciferase induction, by combining reporter gene assay data with the metabolic profiles of the same extracts. Flavonoids were the compounds showing the strongest positive correlation with EpRE-LUX activity. These results were validated using a transgenic tomato line accumulating high levels of flavonoids. Results obtained corroborated that flavonoids are an important determinant of the ability of tomato fruit extracts to induce EpRE-mediated beneficial health effects. Overall, these results indicate that combining untargeted metabolomics with reporter gene assays provides a powerful tool for nutritionists, plant breeders and food chemists towards identification of potential health-beneficial constituents of tomato fruits, as well as of other crops and products derived thereof.
Microarray analysis of developing fruits from transgenic lines with increased or reduced SlARF9 mRNA levels in tomato.
Jong, Maaike de; Wolters-Arts, Mieke ; Schimmel, Bernardus C. ; Stultiens, Catharina L. ; Groot, Peter F. de; Powers, Stephen J. ; Tikunov, Yury ; Bovy, Arnaud ; Mariani, Celestina ; Vriezen, Wim H. ; Rieu, Ivo - \ 2014
Solanum lycopersicum - GSE63637 - PRJNA268511
The transformation of the ovary into a fruit after successful completion of pollination and fertilization has been associated with many changes at transcriptomic level. These changes are part of a dynamic and complex regulatory network that is controlled by phytohormones, with a major role for auxin. One of the auxin-related genes differentially expressed upon fruit set and early tomato fruit development is Solanum lycopersicum ARF9 (SlARF9). To explore the physiological role of SlARF9 in tomato fruit set and development, we generated transgenic tomato lines in which the gene was overexpressed or silenced, and used microarray analysis to identify possible transcriptomic changes associated with the fruit developmental phenotypes observed in the transgenic lines.
The expanded tomato fruit volatile landscape
Rambla, J.L. ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Monforte, A.J. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Granell, A. - \ 2014
Journal of Experimental Botany 65 (2014)16. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 4613 - 4623.
solanum-lycopersicon l. - fresh tomato - hydroperoxide lyase - nonvolatile components - alcohol-dehydrogenase - 9-hydroperoxide lyase - aroma components - flavor compounds - market tomatoes - bound volatiles
The present review aims to synthesize our present knowledge about the mechanisms implied in the biosynthesis of volatile compounds in the ripe tomato fruit, which have a key role in tomato flavour. The difficulties in identifiying not only genes or genomic regions but also individual target compounds for plant breeding are addressed. Ample variability in the levels of almost any volatile compound exists, not only in the populations derived from interspecific crosses but also in heirloom varieties and even in commercial hybrids. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for all tomato aroma volatiles have been identified in collections derived from both intraspecific and interspecific crosses with different wild tomato species and they (i) fail to co-localize with structural genes in the volatile biosynthetic pathways and (ii) reveal very little coincidence in the genomic regions characterized, indicating that there is ample opportunity to reinforce the levels of the volatiles of interest. Some of the identified genes may be useful as markers or as biotechnological tools to enhance tomato aroma. Current knowledge about the major volatile biosynthetic pathways in the fruit is summarized. Finally, and based on recent reports, it is stressed that conjugation to other metabolites such as sugars seems to play a key role in the modulation of volatile release, at least in some metabolic pathways.
Mapping in the era of sequencing: high density genotyping and its application for mapping TYLCV resistance in Solanum pimpinellifolium
Viquez-Zamora, M. ; Caro Rios, C.M. ; Finkers, H.J. ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Bai, Y. ; Heusden, A.W. van - \ 2014
BMC Genomics 15 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2164 - 10 p.
leaf-curl-virus - recombinant inbred lines - mass-spectrometry - lycopersicon-pimpinellifolium - tomato - infection - genes - metabolomics - inheritance - population
Background A RIL population between Solanum lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker and S. pimpinellifolium G1.1554 was genotyped with a custom made SNP array. Additionally, a subset of the lines was genotyped by sequencing (GBS). Results A total of 1974 polymorphic SNPs were selected to develop a linkage map of 715 unique genetic loci. We generated plots for visualizing the recombination patterns of the population relating physical and genetic positions along the genome. This linkage map was used to identify two QTLs for TYLCV resistance which contained favourable alleles derived from S. pimpinellifolium. Further GBS was used to saturate regions of interest, and the mapping resolution of the two QTLs was improved. The analysis showed highest significance on Chromosome 11 close to the region of 51.3 Mb (qTy-p11) and another on Chromosome 3 near 46.5 Mb (qTy-p3). Furthermore, we explored the population using untargeted metabolic profiling, and the most significant differences between susceptible and resistant plants were mainly associated with sucrose and flavonoid glycosides. Conclusions The SNP information obtained from an array allowed a first QTL screening of our RIL population. With additional SNP data of a RILs subset, obtained through GBS, we were able to perform an in silico mapping improvement to further confirm regions associated with our trait of interest. With the combination of different¿~¿omics platforms we provide valuable insight into the genetics of S. pimpinellifolium-derived TYLCV resistance.
Health Effects of Bioactive Components in Plant Foods; Results and Opinion of the EU-COST926 Action
Verkerk, R. ; Piskula, M. ; Bovy, Arnaud ; Dekker, M. - \ 2014
In: Proceedings of the IIIrd IS on Human Health Effects of Fruits and Vegetables - FAVHEALTH 2009. - Leuven : ISHS - ISBN 9789462610286 - p. 349 - 359.
This paper reviews the main results of EU-action: “COST 926: Impact of new technologies on the health benefits and safety of bioactive plant compounds”. The bioavailability and the effects on gene expression of various bioactive components in plant foods are described in relation with their implication for human health.
Identification, cloning and characterization of the tomato TCP transcription factor family
Parapunova, V.A. ; Busscher, M. ; Busscher-Lange, J. ; Lammers, M. ; Karlova, R.B. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Angenent, G.C. ; Maagd, R.A. de - \ 2014
BMC Plant Biology 14 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2229
mads-box gene - arabidopsis-thaliana - fruit-development - leaf development - high-throughput - plant-growth - dna-binding - expression - time - interference
Background: TCP proteins are plant-specific transcription factors, which are known to have a wide range of functions in different plant species such as in leaf development, flower symmetry, shoot branching, and senescence. Only a small number of TCP genes has been characterised from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Here we report several functional features of the members of the entire family present in the tomato genome. Results: We have identified 30 Solanum lycopersicum SlTCP genes, most of which have not been described before. Phylogenetic analysis clearly distinguishes two homology classes of the SlTCP transcription factor family - class I and class II. Class II differentiates in two subclasses, the CIN-TCP subclass and the CYC/TB1 subclass, involved in leaf development and axillary shoots formation, respectively. The expression patterns of all members were determined by quantitative PCR. Several SlTCP genes, like SlTCP12, SlTCP15 and SlTCP18 are preferentially expressed in the tomato fruit, suggesting a role during fruit development or ripening. These genes are regulated by RIN (RIPENING INHIBITOR), CNR (COLORLESS NON-RIPENING) and SlAP2a (APETALA2a) proteins, which are transcription factors with key roles in ripening. With a yeast one-hybrid assay we demonstrated that RIN binds the promoter fragments of SlTCP12, SlTCP15 and SlTCP18, and that CNR binds the SlTCP18 promoter. This data strongly suggests that these class I SlTCP proteins are involved in ripening. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SlTCPs bind the promoter fragments of members of their own family, indicating that they regulate each other. Additional yeast one-hybrid studies performed with Arabidopsis transcription factors revealed binding of the promoter fragments by proteins involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway, contributing to the idea that these SlTCP genes are involved in the ripening process. Yeast two-hybrid data shows that SlTCP proteins can form homo and heterodimers, suggesting that they act together in order to form functional protein complexes and together regulate developmental processes in tomato.
Metabolomics reveals organ-specific metabolic rearrangements during early tomato seedling development
Gomez-Roldan, M.V. ; Engel, B. ; Vos, R.C.H. de; Vereijken, P.F.G. ; Astola, L. ; Groenenboom, M.A.C. ; Geest, H.C. van de; Bovy, A.G. ; Molenaar, J. ; Eeuwijk, F.A. van; Hall, R.D. - \ 2014
Metabolomics 10 (2014)5. - ISSN 1573-3882 - p. 958 - 974.
transcriptome coexpression analysis - mass-spectrometry - fruit-development - integrated analysis - network analysis - systems biology - arabidopsis - pathway - expression - tool
Tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum cv.MoneyMaker), grown under strictly controlled conditions, have been used to study alterations occurring in secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways following developmental and environmental perturbations. Robustness and reproducibility of the system were confirmed using detailed statistical analyses of the metabolome. LCMS profiling was applied using whole germinated seeds as well as cotyledons, hypocotyls and roots from 3 to 9 days old seedlings to generate relative levels of 433 metabolites, of which 62 were annotated. Initial focus was given to the polyphenol pathway and several additional mass signals have been putatively annotated using high mass resolution fragmentation. Clear organ and developmental stage—specific differences were observed. Seeds accumulated saponin-like compounds; roots accumulated mainly alkaloids; cotyledons contained mainly glycosylated flavonols and; hypocotyls contained mainly anthocyanins. For each organ, the developmental changes in metabolite profiles were described by using linear mixed models. Across three independent experiments, 85 % of the metabolites showed similar developmental trends. This tomato seedling system has given us valuable additional insights into the complexity of seedling secondary metabolism. How metabolic profiles reflect an interplay between depletion of stored molecules and de novo synthesis and how the overall picture for this important crop plant contrasts to e.g. Arabidopsis are emphasised.
Capturing flavors from Capsicum baccatum by introgression in sweet pepper
Eggink, P.M. ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Maliepaard, C.A. ; Haanstra, J.P.W. ; Rooij, H. de; Vogelaar, A. ; Gutteling, E.W. ; Freymark, G. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Visser, R.G.F. - \ 2014
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 127 (2014)2. - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 373 - 390.
plastid compartment size - lycopersicon-esculentum - volatile compounds - anthracnose resistance - chemical-composition - gas-chromatography - sensory evaluation - mass-spectrometry - candidate gene - essential oils
The species Capsicum baccatum includes the most common hot peppers of the Andean cuisine, known for their rich variation in flavors and aromas. So far the C. baccatum genetic variation remained merely concealed for Capsicum annuum breeding, due to post-fertilization genetic barriers encountered in interspecific hybridization. However, to exploit the potential flavor wealth of C. baccatum we combined interspecific crossing with embryo rescue, resulting in a multi-parent BC2S1 population. Volatile and non-volatile compounds plus some physical characters were measured in mature fruits, in combination with taste evaluation by a sensory panel. An enormous variation in biochemical composition and sensory attributes was found, with almost all traits showing transgression. A population-specific genetic linkage map was developed for QTL mapping. BC2S1 QTLs were validated in an experiment with near-isogenic lines, resulting in confirmed genetic effects for physical, biochemical and sensory traits. Three findings are described in more detail: (1) A small C. baccatum LG3 introgression caused an extraordinary effect on flavor, resulting in significantly higher scores for the attributes aroma, flowers, spices, celery and chives. In an attempt to identify the responsible biochemical compounds few consistently up- and down-regulated metabolites were detected. (2) Two introgressions (LG10.1 and LG1) had major effects on terpenoid content of mature fruits, affecting at least 15 different monoterpenes. (3) A second LG3 fragment resulted in a strong increase in Brix without negative effects on fruit size. The mapping strategy, the potential application of studied traits and perspectives for breeding are discussed.
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