Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    High levels of dioxins and PCBs in meat, fat and livers of free ranging pigs, goats, sheep and cows from the island of Curaçao
    Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. ; Dam, Guillaume ten; Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van; Egmond, Harry van; Nicolina, Jennyfer ; Dwarkasing, Arnold J.S. - \ 2021
    Chemosphere 263 (2021). - ISSN 0045-6535
    Dioxins - Fat - Foraging animals - Liver - Meat - PCBs

    Samples of adipose tissue, meat and livers from pigs, cows, sheep and goats from Curaçao were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like (dl-) and non-dioxin-like (ndl-) PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). Levels in many samples of adipose tissue were higher than the EU maximum levels (MLs) for PCDD/Fs and the sum of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs (sum-TEQ), indicating unusually high levels. Median sum-TEQ (Toxic Equivalents) levels for pigs, cows, sheep and goats were 0.9 (range 0.3–35), 3.0 (0.5–14), 5.7 (0.3–28) and 6.5 (0.5–134) pg TEQ g−1 fat. For most samples, the congener pattern pointed to the burning of waste as the major source, in line with the fact that most animals forage outside. MLs for ndl-PCBs were also exceeded in some of the samples, indicating that some areas are additionally contaminated with PCBs. Meat levels showed similar lipid based levels as adipose tissue, contrary to liver levels, which were much higher in most animals. Pigs showed liver sequestration at lower levels in adipose tissue than the ruminants. The relatively high levels observed in this study are likely to result in high exposure of consumers and measures were taken to reduce the contamination of areas where animals forage.

    Potential presence of pesticide residues in feed, requiring single residue methods (SRM) : Probability of exceedance of EU legal residue limits in feed materials imported from non-EU countries, due to differences in legislation between the EU and third countries
    Klüche, M. ; Bikker, P. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Hoffmans, Y. ; Mol, J.G.J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food Safety Research (WFSR-report / Wageningen Food Safety Research 2020.002) - 45
    Pesticides in feed materials of plant origin : Application of processing factors
    Meijer, Nathan ; Velde-Koerts, Trijntje van der; Egmond, Harry van; Bikker, Paul - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food Safety Research (WFSR-report / Wageningen Food Safety Research 2019.016) - 41
    Application of pesticide Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 to animal feed materials
    Meijer, N.P. ; Adamse, P. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Bikker, P. - \ 2018
    Versleping in de mengvoederindustrie : inventarisatie en evaluatie van methoden voor het bepalen van bedrijfseigen versleping bij de productie van mengvoeder
    Bikker, P. ; Beumer, H. ; Goeij, E.J. de; Hooglugt, J. ; Wegh, R. ; Egmond, H.J. van - \ 2017
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT-rapport 2017.003) - 51
    mengvoer - veevoederindustrie - wetgeving - nederland - voedertoevoegingen - compound feeds - feed industry - legislation - netherlands - feed additives
    Mengvoederfabrikanten dienen veilige diervoeders van goede kwaliteit te leveren ter bescherming van de dier- en volksgezondheid en het milieu. Door technische en organisatorische maatregelen moet (kruis)verontreiniging met ongewenste stoffen, toevoegingsmiddelen en diergeneesmiddelen zo veel mogelijk worden beperkt (Verordening 183/2005/EG). Om hieraan te kunnen voldoen schrijven nationale kwaliteitssystemen zoals GMP+ International B.V. (GMP+) in Nederland voor om de versleping van productielijnen van mengvoeders te bepalen en hiermee rekening te houden bij de productie van voeders met kritische stoffen. Een goede procedure en uitvoering van de verslepingstest zijn van belang voor de mengvoederbedrijven en voor de controlerende instanties zoals de NVWA om de doelmatigheid van beheersmaatregelen te beoordelen. Het doel van dit project was daarom: - inventariseren van de methoden die binnen GMP+ gebruikt (mogen) worden voor het bepalen van het bedrijfseigen -verslepingspercentage; - in kaart brengen van de kritische stappen in de methoden en uitvoering ervan; - opstellen van aanbevelingen voor het verbeteren en uniformeren van de verslepingstesten ten behoeve van de betrouwbaarheid en vergelijkbaarheid van de resultaten.
    Occurence of mycotoxins and pesticides in straw and hay used as animal feed
    Mol, J.G.J. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Egmond, H.J. van; Jong, J. de - \ 2014
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2014.006)
    mycotoxinen - pesticiden - stro - hooi - diervoedering - veehouderij - voederveiligheid - dierenwelzijn - mycotoxins - pesticides - straw - hay - animal feeding - livestock farming - feed safety - animal welfare
    The aim of this survey was to provide data on the occurrence of mycotoxins and pesticide residues in straw and hay used as animal feed in the Netherlands.
    Versleping in de mengvoederindustrie : inventarisatie van de huidige (technologische) situatie
    Hooglugt, J. ; Sterrenburg, P. ; Spiegel, M. van der; Egmond, H.J. van; Bikker, P. ; Beumer, H. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT rapport 2014.003) - 49
    mengvoer - veevoederindustrie - coccidiostatica - wetgeving - nederland - eu regelingen - voedertoevoegingen - sectorale analyse - compound feeds - feed industry - coccidiostats - legislation - netherlands - eu regulations - feed additives - sectoral analysis
    De Food en Veterinary Office van de EC heeft in 2010 geconstateerd dat de Nederlandse mengvoederindustrie niet voldoende deed om versleping te voorkomen. Dit heeft er toe geleid dat het Ministerie van EL&I behoefte had aan een inventarisatie van de huidige situatie m.b.t. versleping. In dit rapport worden de resultaten van deze inventarisatie gepresenteerd.
    Occurence and trend analysis of organochlorine in animal feed
    Adamse, P. ; Peters, R.J.B. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Jong, J. de - \ 2014
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2013.009) - 41
    diervoeding - organische chloorverbindingen - gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - voersamenstelling - polychloorbifenylen - voederkwaliteit - voederveiligheid - diergezondheid - animal nutrition - organochlorine compounds - organochlorine pesticides - feed formulation - polychlorinated biphenyls - forage quality - feed safety - animal health
    In this report historical data are used to give insight into the trends in levels of organochlorine compounds in compound feeds and feeding materials for animals in the Netherlands. The main focus is on pesticides, but non-dioxin-like PCBs have been studied as well. The latter will be included in the trend analysis reports about dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in the future. This analysis was performed on request of the NVWA (Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority). The results of these analyses will enable the NVWA to develop a risk-directed sampling strategy for the National Feed Monitoring program. More than 5000 feed samples were analysed for organochlorine compounds in the period 2001-2011. The materials in these samples originate from all over the world, but were sampled in the Netherlands. Samples were taken by the NVWA for the Netherlands National Feed Monitoring program and by the feed industry.
    Carry-over in compound feed production : interpretation of EU legislation concerning sampling and control strategies for carry-over of coccidiostats
    Spiegel, M. van der; Sterrenburg, P. ; Egmond, H.J. van - \ 2013
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2013.014)
    wetgeving - europa - bemonsteren - statistische steekproeftechnieken - controle - bestrijdingsmethoden - analytische methoden - voedertoevoegingen - coccidiostatica - antiprotozoaire middelen - nederland - legislation - europe - sampling - statistical sampling techniques - control - control methods - analytical methods - feed additives - coccidiostats - antiprotozoal agents - netherlands
    The objective of this study is to give recommendations to the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and the Dutch Food and Product Safety Authority on the interpretation of the EU legislation with respect to sampling and control of carry-over in coccidiostats in feeds in the Netherlands. To this end, relevant EU legislation has been listed and it has been examined how the Netherlands and seven other EU Member States interpret the law regarding sampling and evaluation of analytical results of the flushing charge.
    Versleping in de mengvoederindustrie : interpretatie van de EU wetgeving met betrekking tot bemonsterings- en controlestrategieën voor coccidiostatica versleping
    Spiegel, M. van der; Sterrenburg, P. ; Egmond, H.J. van - \ 2013
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Rapport / RIKILT 2013.013)
    mengvoer - voedertoevoegingen - coccidiostatica - protozoa - bemonsteren - voederkwaliteit - voersamenstelling - locatie - wetgeving - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - Nederland - compound feeds - feed additives - coccidiostats - protozoa - sampling - forage quality - feed formulation - location - legislation - cap - Netherlands
    De doelstelling van dit onderzoek is om aanbevelingen te geven aan het Ministerie van Economische Zaken en de Nederlandse Voedsel en Waren Autoriteit voor de interpretatie van de EU-wetgeving m.b.t. de bemonstering en controle voor versleping van coccidiostatica in mengvoeders in Nederland. Hiervoor wordt m.b.v. een enquête de relevante EU-wetgeving geïnventariseerd, en wordt onderzocht hoe Nederland en 7 andere EU-lidstaten de huidige wetgeving wat betreft monstername en analyseresultaten van de spoelcharge interpreteren.
    Carry-over of veterinary drugs from medicated to non-medicated feeds in commercial feed manufacturing plants
    Stolker, A.A.M. ; Zuidema, T. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Deckers, E.R. ; Herbes, R. ; Hooglught, J. ; Olde Heuvel, E. ; Jong, J. de - \ 2013
    Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 30 (2013)6. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1100 - 1107.
    feedingstuffs - residues - animals - agents - food
    Different compound feeds have to be manufactured in the same production line. As a consequence, traces of the first produced feed may remain in the production and get mixed with the next feed batches. This "carry-over" is unavoidable, and so non-medicated feed can be contaminated with veterinary drugs like antibiotics added to the previous batch of medicated feed. To monitor the carry-over of antibiotics in the Netherlands, 21 feed mills were visited and 140 samples of flushing feeds were collected and analysed for containing residues of antibiotics. Results show that 87% of all samples contain concentrations of antibiotics in the range of 0.1-154 mg/kg. It is expected that these levels - which are in the same range as previously found for the nowadays banned antimicrobial growth promoters (AMGPs) - have an effect on the occurrence of microbial resistance. Analysis of a second set of samples collected at four different feed mills directly after the production of oxytetracycline-medicated feed demonstrated that the first part of a flushing feed has much higher contamination than the last part of the batch. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the carry-over percentage shows no correlation with the carry-over determined by one of the standard GMP+ procedures. These observations, unavoidable carry-over, inhomogeneous batches of feed with antibiotics and difficulties to predict the carry-over levels, together with the awareness of the increasing problem of microbial resistance, motivated the NEVEDI, association of Dutch Feed Producers, to announce that they will voluntarily stop the production of medicated feed in 2011. The alternatives for medicated feed are for example water or milk medication or the use of top-dressings at the farm. The consequences and possible new risks of carry-over at the farm are not completely clear yet
    Levels and trends of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed : levels and trends of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed in the Netherlands during the last decade (2001-2011)
    Schoss, S. ; Adamse, P. ; Immerzeel, J. ; Traag, W.A. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Jong, J. de; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Report / RIKILT 2012.012) - 129
    polychloorbifenylen - dioxinen - voer van dierlijke oorsprong - voederveiligheid - voedselveiligheid - polychlorinated biphenyls - dioxins - feed of animal origin - feed safety - food safety
    Trend analysis on monitoring data could be a suitable method to identify feed commodities with higher dioxin or DL-PCB concentrations, thus contributing to risk-based monitoring. The aim of the present study was to obtain insight into background levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) in feed and potential trends therein.
    Using monitoring data to find trends: case study mycotoxins in animal feed
    Adamse, P. ; Schoss, S. ; Nijs, W.C.M. de; Egmond, H.J. van; Driessen, J.J.M. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Jong, J. de - \ 2012
    Digestibility and absorption of deoxynivalenol-3-ß-glucoside in in vitro models
    Nijs, W.C.M. de; Top, H.J. van den; Portier, L. ; Oegema, G. ; Kramer, E.H.M. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. - \ 2012
    Verdeling van oxytetraxycline (afkomstig van versleping) in diervoeders
    Stolker, A.A.M. ; Zuidema, T. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Jong, J. de; Haelermans, P.J.M. ; Hooglugt, J.H. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Rapport / RIKILT 2012.003) - 32
    antibiotica - antibioticumresiduen - diervoedering - weerstand - besmetting - oxytetracycline - antibiotics - antibiotic residues - animal feeding - resistance - contamination - oxytetracycline
    De laatste jaren is er een toenemende aandacht voor de mogelijke bijdrage van therapeutisch gebruik van antibiotica in de dierhouderij op de ontwikkeling van antimicrobiële resistentie. Een additionele bron van blootstelling van landbouwhuisdieren aan antibiotica is versleping via diervoeders. In principe levert iedere partij gemedicineerd voeder, meerdere spoelcharges op met residuen van antibiotica. Landbouwhuisdieren worden door dit 'door versleping' gecontamineerde voer onbedoeld blootgesteld aan antibiotica.
    Digestibility and absorption of deoxynivalenol-3-ß-glucoside in in vitro models
    Nijs, W.C.M. de; Top, H.J. van den; Portier, L. ; Oegema, G. ; Kramer, E.H.M. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. - \ 2012
    World Mycotoxin Journal 5 (2012)3. - ISSN 1875-0710 - p. 319 - 324.
    mass-spectrometry - digestion model - deoxynivalenol - wheat - bioaccessibility - mycotoxins - caco-2 - food
    Certain mycotoxins may be present in plant materials as their glucosides. The question is whether these glucosides may be hydrolysed into their parent compounds in the gastro-intestinal tract (GI-tract), thus increasing the exposure. Therefore, the potential hydrolysis of deoxynivalenol-3-ß-glucoside (DON-3G) to deoxynivalenol (DON) was assessed in two in vitro models representing the human upper GI-tract (mouth, stomach and small intestine). In a fed digestion model, there was no evidence of release of DON from DON-3G, spiked at a level of 2,778 µg DON- 3G/kg food. This shows that the conditions in the GI-tract do not result in hydrolysis of this glucoside into the original mycotoxin. The absorption and transformation of DON-3G in the small intestine was assessed in an in vitro model with human Caco-2 cells in a Transwell system. No evidence was found for the transformation of DON-3G to DON by the Caco-2 cells in both the apical or basolateral side in 24 hours (cells were exposed to 2.4 nmol DON- 3G/ml medium). However, when DON itself was added to the apical side an amount of 23% of the spiked DON was detected in the basolateral side after 24 hours (cells were exposed to 2.3 nmol/ml medium). In conclusion, no evidence was found in the in vitro experiments for significant elevated exposure of humans to DON, since DON- 3G was not hydrolysed to DON in the digestion model representing the upper part of the GI-tract and DON-3G was not hydrolysed to DON by the intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. It was shown that bioavailability of DON-3G in humans may be low as compared to DON since Caco-2 cells did not absorb DON-3G, in contrast to DON.
    Examination of packaging materials in bakery products : a validated method for detection and quantification
    Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Pinckaers, V.G.Z. ; Vliege, J.J.M. ; Egmond, H.J. van - \ 2012
    Wageningen : RIKILT (RIKILT report 2012.007) - 20
    voedselverpakking - verpakkingsmaterialen - bakkerijproducten - voer - detectie - analytische methoden - food packaging - packaging materials - bakery products - feeds - detection - analytical methods
    Methods for the detection and quantification of packaging materials are necessary for the control of the prohibition of these materials according to Regulation (EC)767/2009. A method has been developed and validated at RIKILT for bakery products, including sweet bread and raisin bread. This choice is based on the situation that this category of former food products has the highest volume for re-use as feed ingredient.
    Trend analysis of mycotoxins in animal feed
    Adamse, P. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Driessen, J.J.M. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Jong, J. de; Nijs, W.C.M. de - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Rikilt-Institute for Food Safety (Rikilt report 2011.017)
    mycotoxinen - voer - voedselbesmetting - mycotoxins - feeds - food contamination
    Feed materials were analysed for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and B2, and HT-2- and T-2-toxins. In this report trends in the average content during the period 2001-2009 are reported for these mycotoxins. Monitoring data from the National Feed monitoring program and from the Commodity Board Animal Feed are used for this study.
    Monitoring phytoplankton and marine biotoxins in production waters of the Netherlands: results after one decade
    Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Adamse, P. ; Goedhart, P.W. ; Poelman, M. ; Pol-Hofstad, I. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Gerssen, A. - \ 2012
    Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 29 (2012)10. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1616 - 1629.
    harmful algal blooms - dinophysis-acuminata - shellfish toxicity - climate-change - toxins - spp. - situation - community - increase - mussels
    Shellfish products may be contaminated with marine biotoxins which, after consumption, may lead to human illness. The Netherlands has a regular monitoring programme for marine biotoxins and the possible toxic phytoplankton in shellfish production waters. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the presence of potential toxic phytoplankton species and marine biotoxins in Dutch production waters over the last decade, and to analyse the relationship between toxin levels and abundance of possible causative phytoplankton species. The results of the monitoring programme of the period 1999-2009 were used. The presence of Alexandrium spp. were negligible, but Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and phytoplankton causing diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP toxin-producing phytoplankton) were present in nearly all three main production areas and years. The main DSP toxin-producing species was Dinophysis acuminata followed by D. rotundata and Prorocentrum lima. Toxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) were present in only a few individual shellfish samples, all at low levels. At the end of 2002, an episode of DSP toxicity was recorded, based on the rat bioassay results. Of the samples that were chemically analysed for DSP toxins in 2007 and 2008, about half of the samples in 2007 contained these toxins, although levels were low and no positive results were obtained using the rat bioassay. There was a slight positive correlation between concentrations of DSP toxin-producing phytoplankton and levels of DSP toxins in 2007. Increased DSP toxin levels were found up to 5 weeks after the peak in DSP toxin-producing phytoplankton. This positive, but weak, relationship needs to be confirmed in future research using more samples and chemical methods to quantify the presence of DSP toxins. If this relationship is further substantiated and quantified, it could be used within the current monitoring programme in the Netherlands to predict the risk areas regarding DSP toxicity in shellfish
    Is there a future for medicated feed? The Dutch approach
    Stolker, A.A.M. ; Manti, Vicky ; Zuidema, T. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Deckers, E.R. ; Herbes, R. ; Hooglugt, J. ; Olde Heuvel, E. ; Jong, J. de - \ 2011
    In: International conference on responsible use of antibiotics in animals. - Bilthoven : Bastiaanse Communication - p. 55 - 57.
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