Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Non-decisions are also decisions: power interplay between Bangladesh and India over the Brahmaputra River
    Vij, Sumit ; Warner, Jeroen F. ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Groot, Annemarie - \ 2020
    Water International 45 (2020)4. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 254 - 274.
    This article shows how Bangladesh and India intentionally maintain the status quo for the Brahmaputra River at the transboundary level, using material and ideational resources. Results show that India wants to reduce its hegemonic vulnerabilities and Bangladesh aims to maintain its control over the Brahmaputra river, simultaneously building its technical and negotiation skills. We conclude that the underlying processes of maintaining the status quo can be comprehended as ‘non-decision making’. The analysis presented will help policy actors to push towards a forward-looking climate change adaptation planning for the Brahmaputra River.
    Nature-based Solutions for Climate Resilient and Circular Food Systems
    Groot, A.M.E. ; Veraart, J.A. ; Keesstra, S.D. ; Sterk, M. ; Duku, C. ; Linderhof, Vincent ; Appelman, W.A.J. ; Verhagen, A. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2019
    The power to define resilience in social–hydrological systems: Toward a power‐sensitive resilience framework
    Dewulf, Art ; Karpouzoglou, Timos ; Warner, Jeroen ; Wesselink, Anna ; Mao, Feng ; Vos, Jeroen ; Tamas, Peter ; Groot, Annemarie E. ; Heijmans, Annelies ; Ahmed, Farhana ; Hoang, Long ; Vij, Sumit ; Buytaert, Wouter - \ 2019
    Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water 6 (2019)6. - ISSN 2049-1948
    Since the early work on defining and analyzing resilience in domains such as engineering, ecology and psychology, the concept has gained significant traction in many fields of research and practice. It has also become a very powerful justification for various policy goals in the water sector, evident in terms like flood resilience, river resilience, and water resilience. At the same time, a substantial body of literature has developed that questions the resilience concept's systems ontology, natural science roots and alleged conservatism, and criticizes resilience thinking for not addressing power issues. In this study, we review these critiques with the aim to develop a framework for power‐sensitive resilience analysis. We build on the three faces of power to conceptualize the power to define resilience. We structure our discussion of the relevant literature into five questions that need to be reflected upon when applying the resilience concept to social–hydrological systems. These questions address: (a) resilience of what, (b) resilience at what scale, (c) resilience to what, (d) resilience for what purpose, and (e) resilience for whom; and the implications of the political choices involved in defining these parameters for resilience building or analysis. Explicitly considering these questions enables making political choices explicit in order to support negotiation or contestation on how resilience is defined and used.
    Werken aan klimaatbestendige landbouw in Oost-Afrika
    Groot, A.M.E. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research
    Climate Risk Assessment Services for agri-food sector : Building climate resilient value chains
    Groot, A.M.E. ; Hattum, T. van - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research - 2 p.
    Key Conditions of Adaptive Governance for Resilient Urban Areas: Insights from the Markermeer-IJmeer Region in the Amsterdam Metropole Region, the Netherlands
    Stuiver, M. ; Groot, Annemarie ; Slobbe, Erik van; Blom-Zandstra, E.M. ; Korevaar, H. ; Soma, K. - \ 2019
    Environmental Management and Sustainable Development 8 (2019)1. - ISSN 2164-7682 - p. 127 - 146.
    Climate change, ecological degradation and socio-economic developments are increasingly putting pressure on people’s living environments. Societies, regions and cities need to increase their resilience through adaptive governance, which is their capacity to adapt to changing relationships between society and ecosystems. In this article, we explore how three core conditions for adaptive governance, referred to as; 1) discourse arenas, 2) epistemic networks and 3) leadership, have proved to be useful in the shaping of the Markermeer-IJmeer region, part of the Amsterdam Metropole Region in the Netherlands. We find that discourse arenas and epistemic networks have set the scene for societal actors to invest in a sustainable transformation of the area. Moreover, they were a push factor for the transformation of opinions how to govern and plan the area. Actors identified links to overcome the division between socio-economic development and environmental conservation in the Amsterdam Metropole region. Actors from the industry took steps to include nature conservation. We recommend that adaptive governance should be enhanced with notions such as discourse, learning, trust, responsibility and leadership in future research and policy making for resilient urban areas
    Business models of SMEs as a mechanism for scaling Climate Smart Technologies: The case of Punjab, India
    Groot, A.M.E. ; Bolt, J.S. ; Jat, H.S. ; Jat, M.L. ; Kumar, M. ; Blok, Vincent ; Agarwal, T. - \ 2019
    Journal of Cleaner Production 210 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 1109 - 1119.
    Climate smart agriculture - smes - Business models
    Many Climate Smart Agricultural (CSA) technologies fail to achieve their full potential impact due to low levels of adoption by smallholder farmers and difficulties in scaling CSA. This paper presents how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can act as change agents for the uptake of CSA technologies where their business models may be seen as adoption and scaling mechanisms. Drawing upon our fieldwork in Punjab (India) during which over 100 respondents have been interviewed, critical issues and enabling factors for the business model of two types of SMEs, i.e. farmer cooperatives and individual service providers of climate smart technologies have been identified. Enabling factors supporting adoption are driven by scientific and practical evidence of CSA technologies, good partnership between SMEs and research institutes, good customer relationships and effective channels through farmers’ field trials. Critical issues consist of distortive government subsidies on energy and the lack of market intelligence affecting the profitability of the business model. Scaling is enhanced through market intelligence and a favouring regulatory landscape. However, difficult socio-economic circumstances and distortive government subsidies limit the role of SMEs business model as mechanism for scaling
    Power interplay between actors : using material and ideational resources to shape local adaptation plans of action (LAPAs) in Nepal
    Vij, Sumit ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Groot, Annemarie ; Termeer, Katrien ; Parajuli, Binod Prasad - \ 2019
    Climate Policy 19 (2019)5. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. 571 - 584.
    Climate change adaptation - local adaptation plans of action (LAPAs) - material and ideational resources - Nepal - power interplay

    Deliberation over how to adapt to short or long-term impacts of climate change takes place in a complex political setting, where actors’ interests and priorities shape the temporal dimension of adaptation plans, policies and actions. As actors interact to pursue their individual or collective interests, these struggles turn into dynamic power interplay. In this article, we aim to show how power interplay shapes local adaptation plans of action (LAPAs) in Nepal to be short-term and reactive. We use an interactional framing approach through interaction analyses and observations to analyse how actors use material and ideational resources to pursue their interests. Material and ideational resources that an actor deploys include political authority, knowledge of adaptation science and national/local policy-making processes, financial resources and strong relations with international non-governmental organizations and donor agencies. We find that facilitators and local politicians have a very prominent role in meetings relating to LAPAs, resulting in short-termism of LAPAs. Findings suggest that there is also a lack of female participation contributing to short-term orientated plans. We conclude that such power interplay analysis can help to investigate how decision making on the temporal aspects of climate adaptation policy takes place at the local level. Key Policy insights Short-termism of LAPAs is attributed to the power interplay between actors during the policy design process. Improved participation of the most vulnerable, especially women, can lead to the preparation of adaptation plans and strategies focusing on both the short and long-term. It is pertinent to consider power interplay in the design and planning of adaptation policy in order to create a level-playing field between actors for inclusive decision-making. Analysis of dynamic power interplay can help in investigating climate change adaptation controversies that are marked by uncertainties and ambiguities.

    Power-sensitive resilience in flood-prone deltas
    Dewulf, A.R.P.J. ; Karpouzoglou, T.D. ; Warner, J.F. ; Hoang, P.L. ; Binh Nguyen Thanh, ; Tri, Van Pham Dang ; Ahmed, Farhana ; Wesselink, Anna ; Vos, J.M.C. ; Mao, Feng ; Buytaert, Wouter ; Tamas, P.A. ; Vij, S. ; Groot, A.M.E. ; Heijmans, E.P.M. - \ 2018
    Demand and experiences with financial products and services in climate smart villages
    Groot, A. ; Steenis, O. van; Jans, W. ; Bolt, J.S. ; Recha, J. ; Kimeli, P. ; Radeny, M. ; Muhimbo, O. ; Osmond, E. ; Kitondo, D. ; Martinez Baron, D. ; Santacruz, V. ; Khatri-Chhetri, A. ; Jat, M. ; Aggrarwal, P. ; Chanana, N. ; Pant, A. ; Phuong Thanh, P. ; Dinh Tien, N. ; Korner, J. ; Sebastiaan, L. ; Ouedraogo, M. ; Zougmore, R. ; Nyour, B. ; Ibrahim, H. ; Maalong-Gae, P. ; Bawa, T. ; Diop, M. ; Long, T. ; Asseldonk, M. van; Wattel, C.J. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research - 97
    Changing climate policy paradigms in Bangladesh and Nepal
    Vij, Sumit ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Groot, Annemarie ; Termeer, Katrien - \ 2018
    Environmental Science & Policy 81 (2018). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 77 - 85.
    Bangladesh - Changing policy paradigms - Climate change adaptation - Drivers of change - Modes of change - Nepal
    The aim of this article is to explain and compare the changes in climate policy paradigms (CPPs) of Bangladesh and Nepal. Climate policies are shaped by the underlying CPPs that refer to a dominant set of prevailing and institutionalized ideas and strategies to reduce the impacts of climate change. We focus the analysis on the timeframe between 1997 and 2016, using policy documents (n = 46) and semi-structured interviews (n = 43) with key policy actors. We find that in both countries several CPPs have emerged: disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation, mainstreaming, and localized action for adaptation. In Bangladesh, specific policy goals and instruments for each CPP have emerged, whereas in Nepal the government has been struggling to develop specific policy instruments to implement the paradigms. We conclude that competing CPPs currently exist which creates diversified policy responses to climate change impacts in both countries. This ‘layering’ of different CPPs can be attributed to drivers such as unstable political situation, lack of financial support, influence of national and international non-governmental organizations and global policy frameworks. The findings in our study are relevant to further discussions on how to design future climate policy responses to adapt to climate change.
    Climate adaptation approaches and key policy characteristics : Cases from South Asia
    Vij, Sumit ; Moors, Eddy ; Ahmad, Bashir ; Uzzaman, Arfan ; Bhadwal, Suruchi ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Gioli, Giovanna ; Groot, Annemarie ; Mallick, Dwijen ; Regmi, Bimal ; Saeed, Basharat Ahmed ; Ishaq, Sultan ; Thapa, Bhuwan ; Werners, Saskia E. ; Wester, Philippus - \ 2017
    Environmental Science & Policy 78 (2017). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 58 - 65.
    Adaptation - Climate change - Long-term - Policy approaches - South Asia

    This paper analyses and assesses how existing policies and approaches in South Asia consider long-term climate change adaptation. Presently, it is unclear what approaches are used in the existing policies to cope with the future climatic changes. Our research framework consists of two components. First, we identify and define key characteristics of adaptation policy approaches based on a review of scientific journal articles. The key characteristics identified are institutional flexibility, adaptive nature, scalability and reflexivity. Second, we analyse the presence of these characteristics in the climate change adaptation policies of Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. Our findings show that the four South Asian countries contribute to only 8% of the total journal articles on adaptation policy, with least papers representing Pakistan and Nepal. Reviewing the adaptation policies, we find that except for the Climate Change Policy of Nepal, none of the policies discusses transboundary scale adaptation approaches. The identified adaptation policies lack focus on shared transboundary resources between the countries, and instead focus at national or sub-national scale. This is reflected by relatively low scores for the scalability characteristic. All the countries show high scores for institutional flexibility, suggesting that changing roles and responsibilities between government agencies for adaptation planning and implementation is accepted in the four countries. We conclude that to prevent a loss of flexibility and to promote scalability of shared transboundary resources, policy approaches such as anticipatory governance, robust decision-making, and adaptation pathways can be useful for long-term climate change adaptation.

    Developing climate information portals with users : Promises and pitfalls
    Swart, R.J. ; Bruin, K. de; Dhenain, S. ; Dubois, G. ; Groot, Annemarie ; Forst, E. von der - \ 2017
    Climate Services 6 (2017). - ISSN 2405-8807 - p. 12 - 22.
    The priority of climate change on political and research agendas fluctuates but got a recent boost after the 2015 UNFCCC Paris Agreement. The amount of climate data is surging and so is the number of climate information portals.

    Portal developers usually aim at serving ‘‘users” and therefore consult them. But how useful are the resulting portals really? And for whom? How effective was the involvement of users in developing the portal?

    This paper aims to provide some answers to these questions.

    Reflections which have been carried out in this paper are based on the situation in Europe, building on experience in a number of European projects, in particular the CLIPC project (Climate Information Portal for Copernicus), a ‘‘pre-operational” research project for Copernicus.
    Vooroeversuppleties in de Oosterschelde : Meerwaarde voor ecologie, economie en waterveiligheid
    Veraart, J.A. ; Werners, S.E. ; Tangelder, M. ; Groot, A.M.E. ; Bel, Mark de; Mulder, J.P.M. - \ 2016
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 33 (2016)3. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 143 - 151.
    Vooroeversuppleties kunnen tegelijkertijd bijdragen aan de waterveiligheid en aan de ecologie en economiein de Oosterschelde. Dit artikel bespreekt deze potentiële bijdragen aan de hand van een praktijkervaringen een rekenvoorbeeld. Het laat zien dat met vooroeversuppleties een reductie van de belastingvan dijklichamen mogelijk is waarmee reguliere dijkversterking uitgesteld kan worden en tegelijkertijdnatuur- en recreatiedoelen kunnen worden gediend. Bestuurlijke afspraken over de verdeling van investeringskosten,beheer en onderhoud zijn daarbij een belangrijke succesfactor.Vooroeversuppleties in deOosterscheldeIn en rondom de Oosterschelde zijn in de afgelopen zestigjaar grote ingrepen uitgevoerd om het gebied veiligerte maken in het kader van het eerste Deltaplan.Daardoor staat de Oosterschelde niet langer in verbindingmet de Rijn en de Schelde en is de voormalige zeearmveranderd in een zoutwater baai met gereduceerdgetij. De aanleg van de Oosterscheldekering, de OesterenPhilipsdam heeft ook geleid tot erosie en herverdelingvan zand en sediment van platen en slikken naarde geulen van de Oosterschelde (ook wel zandhongergenoemd). Hierdoor slinkt het areaal intergetijdengebiedin de Oosterschelde met circa 50 hectare per jaar(Eelkema et al., 2013; Van Zanten & Adriaanse, 2008).De Oosterschelde is sinds 2002 een Nationaal Park.Behoud van intergetijdengebied is een substantiële opgavein het kader van het Europese natuurbeleid; binnenenbuitendijkse gronden zijn aangewezen als Natura2000-gebied. De droogvallende slikken en platen in deOosterschelde zijn van belang voor de zeehonden en foeragerendewatervogels, in het bijzonder voor steltlopers.Het ontwerpbeheerplan is in juni 2015 ter inzage vrijgegeven(Rijkswaterstaat, 2015).In het Deltaprogramma is opgenomen dat het peil- ensluitregime van de Oosterscheldekering en het beheer enonderhoud van de dijken aangepast zullen worden methet oog op klimaatverandering (Staf Deltacommissaris,2014). Alvorens dat te doen zal eerst uitgezocht wordenof de toepassing van innovatieve dijkconcepten (inclusiefzandsuppleties van de vooroevers) en een gewijzigdpeil- en sluitregime van de Oosterscheldekering realiseerbaarzijn en welke mogelijke meerwaarde deze biedenvoor veiligheid, natuur, recreatie en visserij. In eerderonderzoek van Rijkswaterstaat zijn locaties geïdentificeerdwaar vooroeversuppleties theoretisch mogelijkzijn (figuur 1).Dit artikel onderzoekt en vergelijkt een praktijkvoorbeeldvan een uitgevoerde vooroeversuppletie(Sophiastrand) en een rekenvoorbeeld van een mogelijkevooroeversuppletie (Slikken van den Dortsman), ziefiguur 1, wat betreft hun potentiële bijdrage aan waterveiligheid,ecologie en economie. De gegevens zijn verkregendoor het samenbrengen en interpreteren van deresultaten uit beleidsondersteunend onderzoek in hetkader van het Deltaprogramma. Daarnaast worden aanbevelingengedaan over het aanvullen van de integraleontwerprichtlijnen uit het innovatieprogramma Buildingwith Nature (De Vriend et al., 2015) voor de dimensioneringvan specifieke vooroeversuppleties in estuaria.
    Critical success factors for governing farmer-managed public goods in rural areas in the Netherlands
    Blom-Zandstra, Greet ; Korevaar, Hein ; Stuiver, Marian ; Groot, Annemarie - \ 2016
    International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 14 (2016)1. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 45 - 64.
    critical success factors - developing rural areas - farmer-managed public goods - governance - multifunctional land use

    Multifunctional land use has become a widely supported pathway for Europe's countryside. Brussels and the national governments stimulate farmers to integrate primary production with non-agricultural practices from which they can also benefit. In favour of this development different stakeholders are encouraged to collaborate to produce the so-called farmer-managed public goods. This paper explores critical success factors for the production and maintenance of these public goods. In two Dutch case study regions we show a chronology of major events from 1975 leading to a shift from primary agricultural production towards a successful multifunctional land use. We evaluated which critical success factors crucial for managing public goods manifest themselves in our case study regions. Besides six critical success factors described in literature (Property rights, Asymmetric information, Administrative complexity, Governance, Time lags and Market structure) four other factors appear to be crucial in governing farmer-managed public goods: (1) establishing a system of rewards; (2) a mix of governance forms; (3) visionary leadership with networks in both the public and the private sectors and (4) time for new ideas to mature and to build commitment among the actors.

    Integration in urban climate adaptation: Lessons from Rotterdam on integration between scientific disciplines and integration between scientific and stakeholder knowledge
    Groot, A.M.E. ; Bosch, P.R. ; Buijs, S. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Moors, E.J. - \ 2015
    Building and Environment 83 (2015). - ISSN 0360-1323 - p. 177 - 188.
    klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - stedelijke gebieden - rotterdam - climatic change - climate adaptation - urban areas - rotterdam - transdisciplinary research - heat-island - boundary - policy - interdisciplinary - sustainability - information - challenges - ecology - science
    Based on the experience acquired in the Bergpolder Zuid district in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, this paper presents lessons learned so far on science-policy interactions supporting the adaptation to climate change in an urban district. Two types of integration issues were considered: (1) Integration within science including integration of disciplines, methods, models and data, and (2) integration between science and the local stakeholders' society, involving a synthesis of scientific and practical knowledge, linking sectors, governance arrangements and organisations. At first sight, the issues around integration within science and beyond the science of climate change adaptation in cities resemble those generally observed in science-policy integration. However, the relative newness of urban adaptation to climate change poses specific challenges for both the scientists and the stakeholders involved in the process. The Rotterdam example discusses the use of multiple means of integration for enhancing integration between scientific disciplines and integration between scientific and stakeholder knowledge.
    Making adaptation decisions under uncertainty: Lessons from theory and practice
    Lourenço, Tiago Capela ; Rovisco, Ana ; Groot, Annemarie - \ 2014
    In: Adapting to an Uncertain Climate Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319048758 - p. 139 - 162.

    Adaptation practice is a novel and dynamic field. This is reflected by an as yet limited experience in how climate change uncertainties can be best dealt with in particular situations. This chapter synthesises the theoretical (scientific) and practical aspects of the preceding chapters, draws key lessons and provides guidance for those involved in supporting and ultimately making adaptation decisions. For this purpose a Common Frame of Reference (i.e. common definitions, principles and understandings) for dealing with uncertainties in climate adaptation decision-making is presented and applied to the analysis of the twelve real-life cases presented in this book. This framework intends to support complex climate adaptation decision-making processes that have to deal with uncertainties and still make informed decisions. Two central questions were addressed and applied to the cases reported: (i) how did the approaches used to deal with climate uncertainty influence the adaptation decision-making process and (ii) have better informed adaptation decisions been made because uncertainties were conscientiously addressed? The objective of this chapter is not to provide a simple checklist to be followed when facing uncertainties in a climate adaptation process but rather to inform and guide the reader by presenting key lessons and insights from real-life cases where decision-makers and those that support them have already faced and responded to climate adaptation related uncertainty.

    Showcasing practitioners’ experiences
    Groot, Annemarie ; Rovisco, Ana ; Lourenço, Tiago Capela - \ 2014
    In: Adapting to an Uncertain Climate Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319048758 - p. 67 - 137.

    This chapter describes 12 real-life cases showing how policy-makers, decision-makers and researchers from different countries have struggled together to deal with uncertain information in adaptation decision-making. The case studies cover a wide range of sectors and themes, including water management, infrastructure, disaster risk reduction, health, forestry, agriculture, health and nature conservation and development. Each experience highlights the different types of uncertainties addressed, justifies the selected methods that were used to deal with these uncertainties and how it affected the decision taken. The cases discuss both classical types of risk analysis as well as novel approaches such as seeking robust adaptation strategies. They all show the importance of involving stakeholders to deal with uncertainty in adaption decision making.

    Naar een klimaatbestendige Bergpolder Zuid
    Groot, A.M.E. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Bosch, P. ; Buijs, S. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR - 22
    klimaatverandering - temperatuur - scenario-analyse - klimaatadaptatie - woonwijken - rotterdam - climatic change - temperature - scenario analysis - climate adaptation - residential areas - rotterdam
    Het klimaat verandert. Dit heeft ook voor Rotterdam gevolgen. De temperatuur in de stad zal stijgen waardoor steeds meer mensen last kunnen krijgen van hittestress. Hevige regenbuien komen vaker voor waardoor de kans op wateroverlast in de stad toeneemt. Tegelijkertijd neemt de lengte van droge periodes in de zomer toe, waardoor de grondwaterstand kan dalen. Voor een concrete praktijk case, Bergpolder Zuid, zochten wetenschappers en betrokkenen uit de praktijk samen uit hoe kwetsbaar de wijk is voor klimaatverandering en welke adaptatiemaatregelen de klimaatbestendigheid zouden kunnen vergroten.
    Glasshouse horticulture in the Netherlands: governance for resilient and sustainable economies
    Gerritsen, A.L. ; Groot, A.M.E. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. - \ 2014
    glastuinbouw - bedrijfsvoering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - regionale centra - export - klimaatverandering - innovaties - greenhouse horticulture - management - sustainability - central places - exports - climatic change - innovations
    The Netherlands have a strong and competitive horticulture sector, with regional clusters of glasshouse horticulture companies, of which the ‘Greenports’ of Westland – Oostland (near The Hague), Aalsmeer (near Amsterdam) and Venlo (near the German Ruhr Area) are the most important ones. The sector makes a strong contribution to the export position of the Netherlands. Since the 1990s, stimulated by changing societal expectations growers and surrounding actors engaged in improving the sustainability of the glasshouse horticulture sector, especially focussing on reducing energy usage, greenhouse gas emissions, water usage and land use. The glasshouse horticulture sector in the Netherland is often perpetrated as a successful example of a sustainability transition and is therefore interesting to derive lessons for sustainable regional economic development. This paper studies how the glasshouse horticulture sector in the Netherlands did developed, became more sustainable and what modes of governance contributed to this process? To answer this question, an evolutionary transition perspective and mode of governance theory were used. Our expectation was that knowledge governance (Gerritsen et al., 2013) interventions were important for the sustainability transition and would be needed because of the high complexity of transitions. Dutch agriculture as a whole and specially the horticulture sector traditionally has a strong focus on innovation. Over the years, many innovation projects and programs have been executed, and sustainability innovations have been central to it. These seemed examples of knowledge governance interventions; in our study other modes of governance were taken into account as well. The study entailed interviews with stakeholders involved in glasshouse horticulture in the Netherlands and a document analysis.
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