Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

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    Resilience in coastal dune grasslands: pH and soil organic matter effects on P nutrition, plant strategies, and soil communities
    Kooijman, Annemieke ; Morriën, Elly ; Jagers Op Akkerhuis, Gerard ; Missong, Anna ; Bol, Roland ; Klumpp, Erwin ; Hall, Rutger ; Til, Mark van; Kalbitz, Karsten ; Bloem, Jaap - \ 2020
    Ecosphere 11 (2020)5. - ISSN 2150-8925
    Soil organic matter (SOM) and pH are key ecosystem drivers, influencing resilience to environmental change. We tested the separate effects of pH and SOM on nutrient availability, plant strategies, and soil community composition in calcareous and acidic Grey dunes (H2130) with low, intermediate, and/or high SOM, which differ in sensitivity to high atmospheric N deposition. Soil organic matter was mainly important for biomass parameters of plants, microbes, and soil animals, and for microarthropod diversity and network complexity. However, differences in pH led to fundamental differences in P availability and plant strategies, which overruled the normal soil community patterns, and influenced resilience to N deposition. In calcareous dunes with low grass‐encroachment, P availability was low despite high amounts of inorganic P, due to low solubility of calcium phosphates and strong P sorption to Fe oxides at high pH. Calcareous dunes were dominated by low‐competitive arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants, which profit from mycorrhiza especially at low P. In acidic dunes with high grass‐encroachment, P availability increased as calcium phosphates dissolved and P sorption weakened with the shift from Fe oxides to Fe‐OM complexes. Weakly sorbed and colloidal P increased, and at least part of the sorbed P was organic. Acidic dunes were dominated by nonmycorrhizal (NM) plants, which increase P uptake through exudation of carboxylates and phosphatase enzymes, which release weakly sorbed P, and disintegrate labile organic P. The shifts in P availability and plant strategies also changed the soil community. Contrary to expectations, the bacterial pathway was more important in acidic than in calcareous dunes, possibly due to exudation of carboxylates and phosphatases by NM plants, which serve as bacterial food resource. Also, the fungal AM pathway was enhanced in calcareous dunes, and fungal feeders more abundant, due to the presence of AM fungi. The changes in soil communities in turn reduced expected differences in N cycling between calcareous and acidic dunes. Our results show that SOM and pH are important, but separate ecosystem drivers in Grey dunes. Differences in resilience to N deposition are mainly due to pH effects on P availability and plant strategies, which in turn overruled soil community patterns.
    Humusica 2, article 17: techno humus systems and global change − three crucial questions
    Zanella, Augusto ; Geisen, Stefan ; Ponge, Jean François ; Jagers, Gerard ; Benbrook, Charles ; Dilli, Thomas ; Vacca, Andrea ; Kwiatkowska-Malina, Jolanta ; Aubert, Michaël ; Fusaro, Silvia ; Nobili, Maria De ; Lomolino, Giovanna ; Gomiero, Tiziano - \ 2018
    Applied Soil Ecology 122 (2018). - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 237 - 253.
    Some soil scientists or biologists (14, one preferring anonymity) answered the three following questions: (1. Introduction) 2. Why is organic food better (tastes better, is healthier, richer in nutrients, contains less pesticide, etc.) than food produced with hydroponic or intensive farming techniques? 3. In a humipedon, are soil functioning, biodiversity and carbon content three interdependent and intersected aspects of a single ecosystem? In other words, can we treat these aspects as if they were inseparable in a humipedon? 4. Are agriculture and civilization (the society, culture, and way of life) interconnected? All scientists expressed affirmative answers. Nuances or in depth information were also furnished. The article allows to understand the real “agronomic challenge” that the predicted Global Change might represent for humanity.
    General introduction
    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M. - \ 2016
    In: Evolution and Transitions in Complexity / Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M., Cham, Switzerland : Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319438016 - p. 1 - 20.

    This book focuses on fundamental concepts in the life sciences, and how these can be defined. The reason of writing a book with this focus is that terms such as particle, organism, hierarchy, life and evolution form the basis of scientific communication, but frequently lack a consensus definition. For example the concept of 'life' currently has 123 different scientific definitions. The existence of different definitions is a source of confusion and frustrates smooth communication and the generalisation of theory. This is the reason why this book takes up the challenge of contributing to conceptual clarity. In relation to this goal, this introductory chapter discusses some subjects that are of general relevance. To begin with room is made for reservations people may have about attempts aiming at the creation of stringent definitions. Thereafter, it is discussed why the way mathematicians define their concepts can be used as an example of how definitions questions can be resolved in other branches of science. Additionally, a list of criteria is introduced that assist in deciding why of any pair of competing definitions one would prefer one definition over the other. Finally, short summaries are offered of why this book takes a special interst in the following topics: a modern ladder of complexity, Darwinian evolution, major evolutionary transitions, life and thermodynamics.

    Contributions to open challenges in systems theory and the life sciences
    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M. - \ 2016
    In: Evolution and Transitions in Complexity: The Science of Hierarchical Organization in Nature Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319438016 - p. 277 - 279.
    Based on the foundations of the Operator Theory, the chapters of this book discuss contributions to several fi elds of science. This summary chapter lists the most important contributions.
    Introducing the operator theory
    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M. ; Spijkerboer, Hendrik Pieter ; Koelewijn, Hans Peter - \ 2016
    In: Evolution and Transitions in Complexity / Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M., Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319438016 - p. 23 - 60.

    The Operator Theory is a new theory about the hierarchical organisation of complexity in nature. The theory is based on the idea that in the space of all possible processes, a small subset exists of highly specifi c processes through which small objects can integrate to form new, more complex objects. The Operator Theory focuses on this small subset of objects. The processes that the Operator Theory focuses on are referred to as uniform closure of the structural and functional kind. The combination of such closures is called a dual closure. Based on dual closures, and in a step by step way, the Operator Theory identifi es a branching hierarchy of kinds of objects that have increasingly complex organisation. Any object of a kind that is included in this hierarchy is called an operator, and the branching hierarchy is called the Operator Hierarchy. Interestingly, there are strong indications that, in analogy with the primary and secondary structure of amino acids, the Operator Hierarchy has a secondary structure. The Operator Theory hypothesises that this secondary structure offers a means to one day predict the structure of future kinds of operators. By offering a stringent classifi cation of the operators of different kinds, from quarks to multicellular animals, the Operator Theory can be used to contribute to discussions about fundamental concepts in science, e.g. individuality, organismality, hierarchy, life and (the prediction of) evolution.

    Darwinian evolution : Process or pattern?
    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M. ; Spijkerboer, Hendrik Pieter ; Koelewijn, Hans Peter - \ 2016
    In: Evolution and Transitions in Complexity: The Science of Hierarchical Organization in Nature / Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M., Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319438016 - p. 65 - 95.
    Avolution - Darwin - Derivation - Evolution theory - Extended synthesis - Ontology - Selection

    Darwinian evolution is a central tenet in biology. Conventionally, the defi nition of Darwinian evolution is linked to a population-based process that can be measured by focusing on changes in DNA/allele frequencies. However, in some publications it has been suggested that selection represents a state, not a process. If this is true any defi nition of Darwinian evolution that includes selection no longer can represent a process, because the ontological kind of selection is that of a state. There are other publications that also suggest that the concept of evolution needs a rethink, for example to deal with epigenetics, niche construction and horizontal DNA transfer. As a basis for contributing to both demands for re-conceptualisation, we will explore in this chapter whether or not the defi nition of the concept of Darwinian evolution can be defi ned in a stringent individual/object-based way, in terms of individual parents and their individual offspring, instead of in terms of populations of parents and offspring. The reason why we focus on an individual/ object-based approach is that this offers a basis for explicit descriptions of the objects involved and of the kinds of relationships between the objects, while a combination of these aspects offers a basis for decisions about which kind of over-all graph-pattern can be used for defi ning the concept of Darwinian evolution. Taking advantage of such possibilities, we suggest a graph-pattern for Darwinian evolution at the smallest scale. This smallest graph-pattern also offers a foundation for future scaling and extension. In the context of evolution, where everything seems prone to change, the pattern of Darwinian evolution at the smallest scale would also offer an unchanging core conceptualisation. We emphasise that the population viewpoint and the use of DNA/allele frequencies offer a solid and practical basis for calculations. In addition to this, we see theoretical reasons for the application of objectbased graph-patterns as a means to solve ambiguities about how Darwinian evolution can be defi ned conceptually.

    Generalising darwinian evolution by using its smallest-scale representation as a foundation
    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M. ; Spijkerboer, Hendrik Pieter ; Koelewijn, Hans Peter - \ 2016
    In: Evolution and Transitions in Complexity: The Science of Hierarchical Organization in Nature / Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M., Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319438016 - p. 103 - 123.
    Evolution at the smallest scale - Evolution theory - Extended synthesis - Generalised darwinism - Ontology

    The Latin word evolvere means to unroll. As unrolling is a very general concept, the sensu lato interpretation of evolution has become a catchall for many different dynamic phenomena in nature. While zooming in on part of this broad context, this chapter focuses on the Darwinian kind of evolution. The structure of Darwinian evolution was analysed in Chap. 4, resulting in the identifi cation of an object-based graphpattern for Darwinian evolution at the smallest scale. The hypothesis of this book is that, because of its irreducible complexity, a defi nition at the smallest scale can serve as a reference for a range of extensions, which defi ne a family of related patterns of Darwinian evolution. To test this hypothesis, several extensions of the pattern in the smallest form are explored. The results offer a new perspective on the proposition of generalised Darwinism that evolutionary phenomena in different domains can be viewed as identical in their basic structure if they are analysed at a suffi ciently abstract level of analysis.

    Evolution and transitions in complexity : The science of hierarchical organization in nature
    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M. - \ 2016
    Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319438016 - 295 p.

    This book discusses several recent theoretic advancements in interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary integration in the field of evolution. While exploring novel views, the text maintains a close link with one of the most broadly held views on evolution, namely that of "Darwinian evolution." This work puts forth a new point of view which allows researchers to define in detail the concept of evolution. To create this conceptual definition, the text applies a stringent object-based focus. With this focus, the editor has been able to develop an object-based pattern of evolution at the smallest scale. Subsequently, this smallest scale pattern is used as an innovative basis for generalizations. These generalizations create links between biological Darwinism and generalized Darwinism. The object-based approach that was used to suggest innovations in the field of Darwinian evolution also allowed for contributions to other topics, such as major evolutionary transitions theory, the definition of life and the relationships between evolution, self-organization and thermodynamics. Together, the chapters of this book and the multidisciplinary reflections and comments of various specialists on these chapters offer an exciting palette of innovative ideas.

    General discussion
    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M. - \ 2016
    In: Evolution and Transitions in Complexity: The Science of Hierarchical Organization in Nature / Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M., Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319438016 - p. 233 - 252.

    The general discussion focuses on some aspects that are of overarching relevance for all the preceding chapters. The fi rst subject that is discussed is the relationship between systems theory and the philosophy of science. After a short summary of the principles of system science and the philosophy of science, the criteria are discussed that a ranking must meet in order to be viewed as a scientifi c ranking. The second subject concerns the relationship between the objects-based graph-pattern of Darwinian evolution and the extended evolutionary synthesis. Thirdly, attention is paid to the question of how to deal with the new terminology about patterns of Darwinian evolution, compared to the classical terminology about evolution as a process. It is proposed that the concept of generational morphing could be used as an alternative term for the use of evolution as a process. The discussion of these general subjects serves as a stepping stone towards the detailed discussions (in Chap. 18) of the points that are raised by our reviewers.

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M. - \ 2016
    In: Evolution and Transitions in Complexity / Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M., Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319438016 - p. v - vi.
    The role or structural criteria in transition theory : A focus on systems of interacting organisms
    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M. - \ 2016
    In: Evolution and Transitions in Complexity: The Science of Hierarchical Organization in Nature Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319438023 - p. 157 - 174.

    In a recent publication Szathmáry has updated Major Evolutionary Transitions theory to a version 2.0. The major transition theory recognises transitions based on the select use of functional criteria, notably: cooperation, competition reduction and reproduction as part of a larger unit. These criteria apply indiscriminatingly to cells forming a bee, and bees forming a hive. The possibility of suggesting different interpretations like these has caused ambiguity about the suitability of major evolutionary transitions as hallmarks for individuality or organismality. In this chapter it is suggested to deal with such ambiguity by the additional use of structural criteria when classifying transitions and resulting kinds of system. This chapter focuses on systems of interacting organisms, for which systems a decision tree is constructed that combines three different criteria to arrive at a classifi cation. The decision tree starts with the fraternal and egalitarian interactions sensu Queller, adds democratic and centralised coding, and transcends the limitations of functional criteria by invoking the structural classes of the Operator Theory. These classes are operators (which applies to all organisms), compound objects and behavioural groups. If these additional criteria are used, one can resolve ambiguities about the classifi cation of different kinds of groups of interacting organisms, such as pluricellular organisations, symbioses and groups.

    In response to the reflections of the reviewers
    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M. - \ 2016
    In: Evolution and Transitions in Complexity: The Science of Hierarchical Organization in Nature Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319438023 - p. 259 - 276.

    Through their in-depth and multifaceted comments the authors of the review chapters contribute in a major way to the discussions about hierarchy and self-organisation raised by this book. On the one hand, the comments support the idea of using the Operator Hierarchy as a backbone for analysing organisation in nature, and as a new ontology in which the concept of the operator offers a new way of speaking about units/individuals. On the other hand, some reviewers highlight theoretic aspects that have not been explained with suffi cient clarity and ask questions about aspects that warrant further discussion. Both the affi rmative and the critical perspectives may further the acceptation and/or development of the Operator Theory. The following paragraphs highlight the major remarks of the reviewers, and offer a selection of answers to questions and responses to constructive criticism.

    A thermodynamic account of the emergence of organised matter
    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M. - \ 2016
    In: Evolution and Transitions in Complexity Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319438023 - p. 203 - 222.

    The preceding chapters of this book focus on complexity, evolution and life. Relatively little attention is paid to underlying mechanisms. This is the reason why the current chapter focuses predominantly on mechanisms that can explain the organisation of complex systems, either operators or interaction systems. The main causes of organisation are sought in the intrinsic motion of fundamental particles at temperatures above absolute zero, and the capacity of bonds between particles to form and break. Such processes are analysed from a thermodynamic perspective, focusing on the degradation of free energy and the occupation of accessible microstates. Both the degradation of free energy and the occupation of accessible microstates play a role during every next step in the Operator Hierarchy. Accessible microstates are furthermore used for calculating the contributions of DNA and of the brain to complexity on earth, as well as for calculating the probability that a pattern of Darwinian evolution occurs. In Sect. 14.3 relationships are discussed with existing literature.

    The role of structural criteria in transitions theory : A focus on organisms
    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M. - \ 2016
    In: Evolution and Transitions in Complexity Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319438023 - p. 137 - 148.

    The Major Evolutionary Transitions theory of Szathmáry and Maynard Smith is famous for its contribution to the understanding of complex wholes in biology. Typical for Major Evolutionary Transitions theory is the select use of functional criteria, notably, cooperation, competition reduction and reproduction as part of a larger unit. When using such functional criteria, any group of attached cells can be viewed as multicellular, such as a plant or the slug-shaped aggregation of cells of a slime mould. In addition, one could also have used structural criteria to arrive at the conclusion that the cells in the slug of a slime mould are attached without plasma strands, while the cells of a plant are attached and connected through plasma strands. A theory which in addition to functional criteria also uses structural criteria for the identifi cation of major transitions is the Operator Theory. Using the Operator Theory one can, for example, conclude that the slug of a slime mould represents a pluricellular organisation because its cells are not connected through plasma strands, while the cells of a plant are connected through plasma strands and for this reason represent a multicellular organism. In this chapter, the relationships between the Major Evolutionary Transitions theory and the Operator Theory are studied with a focus on transitions that lead to organisms.

    Learning from water : Two complementary defi nitions of the concept of life
    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M. - \ 2016
    In: Evolution and Transitions in Complexity: The Science of Hierarchical Organization in Nature Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319438023 - p. 183 - 198.

    The concept of life is central to biology and related life sciences, but there is no convergence on a defi nition. With the aim to resolve this problem analogies were studied between defi nitions of water and life. The concept of water refers to two phenomena: material particles (the H 2 O molecules) and interacting water molecules (liquid water). Likewise, the concept of life can be viewed as referring to a property of special material particles (the organisms) and to the system of interacting organisms (the ecosystem). In a comparable way as chemical theory has solved the problem of defi ning the water molecule, one can apply the Operator Theory for solving the problem of defi ning the organism concept. The analogy with water subsequently offers inspiration for two ontologically distinct defi nitions of life: (1) a defi nition of life as a general indication for a property that all organisms have, and (2) a defi nition of life that refers to a system of interacting organisms. These two defi nitions refer to different ontological kinds and accordingly cannot be merged into a single defi nition. For this reason the concept of life can be viewed as involving two, complementary, defi nitions. It is discussed how fi ndings based on the water-life analogy contribute to current discussions about the defi nition of life.

    Biomass and Diversity of Soil Mite Functional Groups Respond to Extensification of Land Management, Potentially Affecting Soil Ecosystem Services
    Groot, G.A. de; Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M. ; Dimmers, W.J. ; Faber, J.H. ; Charrier, Xavier - \ 2016
    Frontiers in Environmental Science 4 (2016)15. - ISSN 2296-665X
    Soil mites (Acari) are ubiquitous in soil ecosystems and show a vast taxonomic diversity with a wide range of life history characteristics and feeding strategies. Various taxa contribute directly or indirectly to soil processes, including nutrient cycling, soil formation and pest control. Mites thus support important ecosystem services of soils. Yet, their community composition, and therewith service provisioning, may differ between for instance intensively managed agricultural soils and extensively managed grassland soils. We therefore hypothesized that successional changes in the abundance and diversity of soil mite functional groups (feeding types) will occur following a conversion of arable land to grassland, affecting their contribution to ecosystem services. To test this, we studied the succession of mite communities on two Long Term Observatories (LTOs) in Lusignan (France) and Veluwe (the Netherlands). At Lusignan, sampling involved four combinations of recent and historic land use types. At the Veluwe, samples were taken in a secondary succession chronosequence in grasslands, representing a time frame up to 29 years after the conversion from arable land to grassland. Biodiversity and biomass were higher in grassland than in arable land, especially for the total mite community, the predators and the main taxa aiding in decomposition. After conversion of grassland to arable land, or vice versa, both taxon richness and biomass rapidly developed towards the prevailing conditions. Our results indicated that the taxon richness and biomass of the total mite community in grassland still continued to increase up to 29 years after the conversion from arable land to grassland. Total taxon richness increased with time since conversion, which was mainly due to the immigration of decomposers and predators. The biomass of different feeding guilds increased at variable speeds. The observed changes imply an increase in nutrient cycling and in the suppression of some potential pests. We discuss the relevance of these ecosystem services in extensively managed grasslands and agricultural systems. Furthermore, our results suggest that in agricultural rotational schemes that include one or more years of grassland, mite communities and associated ecosystem services may be partially, but not completely, restored to the conditions of long term grassland

    De stikstofkringloop in duinbodems : Micro-organismen in de Amsterdamse Waterleiding Duinen
    Bloem, J. ; Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M. - \ 2015
    Infoblad Veldwerkplaats (2015). - p. 2 - 3.
    duingebieden - bodem-plant relaties - stikstof - bodemchemie - ecologisch herstel - duneland - soil plant relationships - nitrogen - soil chemistry - ecological restoration
    In het kader van Natura2000 worden zeldzame soorten en
    habitattypen beschermd, waaronder Habitattype H2130, de
    Grijze duinen. Dit is zelfs een van de prioritaire habitattypen,
    dat wil zeggen dat spoedmaatregelen gewenst zijn om ze in
    een gunstige staat van instandhouding te brengen.
    In veel duingebieden is de hoge stikstofdepositie een probleem
    voor een gunstige staat van instandhouding van dit
    type. Daarom is binnen de PAS (Programmatische Aanpak
    Stikstof) voor de Grijze duinen een herstelstrategie uitgewerkt,
    die onder andere is gebaseerd op de beheermaatregel
    plaggen. Er is echter nog veel onduidelijkheid over de stikstofkringloop
    in de bodem en in welke mate de atmosferische
    stikstof wordt vastgelegd en welke gevolgen dit heeft voor
    het bodemleven en de vegetatie. Daarom zijn in het kader van
    OBN en in opdracht van de duinwaterleidingbedrijven enkele
    onderzoeken uitgevoerd in verschillende typen duinbodems
    (kalkrijke en kalkarme) naar de rol van stikstof en het bodemleven
    (vooral bacteriën, schimmels en micro-arthropoden) en
    naar de bodem en vegetatiesuccessie in Grijze duinen.
    In deze veldwerkplaats zijn een viertal onderzoeken gepresenteerd.
    Tijdens een fietstocht door de Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen
    zijn drie onderzoekslocaties bezocht en is in het
    veld gediscussieerd over de implicaties van de onderzoeken
    voor de effectiviteit van plaggen en andere beheermaatregelen
    in de Grijze duinen.
    General Laws and Centripetal Science
    Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M. - \ 2014
    European Review 22 (2014). - ISSN 1062-7987 - p. S113 - S144.
    lipid vesicles - evolution - thermodynamics - organization - systems - hierarchy - selection
    The large number of discoveries in the last few decades has caused a scientific crisis that is characterised by overspecialisation and compartmentalisation. To deal with this crisis, scientists look for integrating approaches, such as general laws and unifying theories. Representing what can be considered a general form law, the operator hierarchy is used here as a bridge between existing integrating approaches, including: a cosmic timeline, hierarchy and ontology, a periodic table of periodic tables, the unification of evolutionary processes, a general evolution concept, and general aspects of thermodynamics. At the end of the paper an inventory of unifying concepts is presented in the form of a cross table. The study ends with a discussion of major integrating principles in science.
    Een indicatorsysteem voor ecosysteemdiensten van de bodem : life support functions revisited
    Rutgers, M. ; Schouten, T. ; Bloem, J. ; Dimmers, W.J. ; Eekeren, N.J.M. van; Goede, R.G.M. de; Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M. ; Keidel, H. ; Korthals, G.W. ; Mulder, C. ; Wattel-Koekkoek, E.J.W. - \ 2014
    Bilthoven : Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM rapport 2014-0145) - 126
    bodemecologie - ecosysteemdiensten - landbouwgronden - bodemkwaliteit - biodiversiteit - monitoring - soil ecology - ecosystem services - agricultural soils - soil quality - biodiversity - monitoring
    Om ecosysteemdiensten te beoordelen zijn ook fysische en systeemgerichte indicatoren nodig. Dit rapport is de uitkomst van een multicriteria-analyse waarin de bruikbaarheid van indicatoren voor toepassing in een meetnet werd geschat door twaalf deskundigen in de bodemkunde, de bodemecologie en het agrarische bodemadvies. De indicatoren zijn ook bruikbaar voor metingen van het Natuurlijk Kapitaal van de bodem en om praktische instrumenten te ontwerpen waarmee het lokale bodembeheer en de gebiedsinrichting ondersteund kunnen worden.
    Agrarisch natuurbeheer, potenties buiten de Ecologische Hoofdstructuur
    Melman, T.C.P. ; Hammers, M. ; Dekker, J. ; Ottburg, F.G.W.A. ; Cormont, A. ; Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Clement, J. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2521) - 122
    natuurbeheer - agrarisch natuurbeheer - natuurbescherming - nature management - agri-environment schemes - nature conservation
    Voor een aantal soortgroepen (vleermuizen, vissen, amfibieën, reptielen, vlinders, zweefvliegen, libellen, sprinkhanen, paddenstoelen) is verkend wat de mogelijkheden voor agrarisch natuurbeheer zijn om het duurzaam voortbestaan in Nederland te versterken. Daarbij is vooral gekeken naar de doelsoorten van natuurdoeltypen, soorten waarvan wordt ingeschat dat agrarisch natuurbeheer relevant kan zijn en soorten waarvoor Nederland een internationale verantwoordelijkheid heeft (VHRsoorten). Als eerste aangrijpingspunt is in beeld gebracht welk deel van de soortengroepen zich buiten de EHS bevindt, welk deel in de randzone en welk deel binnen de EHS. Voor de verschillende soortengroepen is in de vorm van een quick scan een overzicht gemaakt van maatregelen binnen het agrarisch bedrijf die een duurzaam voortbestaan kunnen ondersteunen. De resultaten kunnen worden gebruikt bij de onderbouwing van het nieuwe stelsel voor agrarisch natuurbeheer zoals dat door het ministerie van EZ en de provincies wordt voorbereid. Eerder werd vergelijkbaar onderzoek gedaan aan vogels en plantensoorten (Melman et al., 2013).
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