Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Physiological response of temperature shocks in turbot and sole
    Foss, Atle ; Imsland, Albert Kjartan Dagbjartarson ; Vis, Hans van de; Abbink, Wout ; Lambooij, Bert ; Roth, Bjørn - \ 2019
    Journal of Applied Aquaculture 31 (2019). - ISSN 1045-4438 - p. 34 - 47.
    Hypothermia - live chilling - sole - temperature - turbot

    In the present study, selected temperature drops were examined to investigate the effects of live chilling on stress and welfare in turbot and sole. This study demonstrated that rapid temperature drops from 11°C–12°C and 18°C–18.7°C to 4°C–0°C in turbot resulted in higher blood sodium and potassium at 0°C (164 mmol l−1, 4.4 mmol −1) compared to 4°C (153 mmol l−1, 3.1 mmol −1), indicating osmoregulatory disturbance. A rapid temperature drop from 18°C to 0°C in Senegal sole also resulted in higher blood sodium and potassium at 0°C (164 mmol l−1, 4.8 mmol −1) compared to the control group at 18°C (157 mmol l−1, 3.2 mmol −1). Based on present findings, we conclude that immersion in ice water will have a negative effect on the animal osmoregulatory capacity, and we recommend that turbot and sole are stunned before slaughter.

    Electrical stunning of poultry
    Lambooij, Bert ; Hindle, Vincent - \ 2018
    In: Advances in Poultry Welfare Elsevier - ISBN 9780081009307 - p. 77 - 98.
    Cardiac arrest - Cone stunning - Electrical stunning - Muscle spasms - Poultry - Restraining - Unconsciousness - Water bath stunning

    This chapter provides a summary of the latest electrical stunning methods for poultry in relation to EU and OIE legislature concerning animal welfare at killing. These are evaluated in relation to animal welfare, effectiveness, efficiency, esthetic consideration of the operator, skill requirements, health risks, and legislative restrictions. Legislation requires that poultry are sufficiently relaxed when restrained to facilitate an effective stun. Restraining the inverted bird is possible by placing in a shackle line or by placing in a cone line. Electrical stunning administers sufficient electricity through the skull of an animal to induce generalized epileptiform activity in the brain. In a water bath, it is recommended to apply sufficient power to force the current through the body and induce unconsciousness and a cardiac arrest. An alternative method, still in the experimental phase, is Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Results show that the method has potential for application as a noninvasive stunning method for broilers.

    Effectiveness of tail-first dry electrical stunning, followed by immersion in ice water as a slaughter (killing) procedure for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and common sole (Solea solea)
    Daskalova, A.H. ; Bracke, M.B.M. ; Vis, J.W. van de; Roth, B. ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Burggraaf, D. ; Lambooij, E. - \ 2016
    Aquaculture 455 (2016). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 22 - 31.
    Behaviour - EEG - Electrical stunning - Fish - Slaughter - Welfare

    To protect the welfare of fish at slaughter, these animals should be rendered unconscious and insensible prior to killing. Furthermore, the state of unconsciousnessmust be long enough to allowkillingwithout recovery. The objective of this study was to determine the stunner settings for effective tail-first dry electrical stunning of turbot (Scophthalmusmaximus) and common sole (Solea solea). The fish were separated in two batches (B1 and B2). The turbot and sole in B1were subjected to a short tail-first stun lasting for 1 s and after 1 min of recovery to a second, longer (20 s) stun. The fish in B2were exposed to a single long (20 s) stun, whichwas tail-first in sole, but headfirst in turbot. The short stun was applied to verify that the loss of consciousness was instant (i.e. within 1 s), whereas the long stun (followed by immersion in ice water) was performed with the aim of showing that it is feasible to kill the fish without recovery. Loss of consciousness and sensibility were assessed using electrophysiological (EEG and ECG) and behavioural parameters. After administering a current of 2.39 ± 0.91 Arms by applying 125.5 ± 0.6 Vrms (100 Hz) in turbot and 1.22 ± 0.68 Arms by applying 152.4 ± 0.5 Vrms in sole for 1 s, 25 out of 26 turbot and 9 out of 10 sole in B1 exhibited EEG patterns showing that the fish were rendered unconscious instantly. The long tail-first exposure of turbot in B1 to 3.88 ± 1.26 Arms for 1 s, followed by 1.44 ± 0.41 Arms for 19 s, followed by immersion in ice water, led to an irrecoverable stun in 21 out of 22 fish, whereas the long head-first stunning of turbot in B2 (n = 13) resulted in passing 1.27 ± 0.40 Arms for 1 s and 0.65 ± 0.21 Arms for 19 s through the fish and no recovery during chilling. After the long, tail-first exposure of sole in B1 (n = 9) and B2 (n = 22) to 1.18± 0.49 Arms for 1 s+0.35 ± 0.22 Arms for 19 s, and 1.20± 0.59 Arms for 1 s + 0.36 ± 0.15 Arms for 19 s, respectively, none of the fish regained consciousness during the chilling. We conclude that the tail-first electrical stunning, followed by immersion in ice water can be developed into an effective stunning and killing method for turbot and sole.

    Effects of immersing turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in ice water
    Bracke, M.B.M. ; Lambooij, E. ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Foss, A. ; Imsland, A.K. ; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2015
    - p. 14 - 14.
    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of immersion in ice water on turbot habituated to higher and lower environmental temperatures (19o C, ‘summer’ and 12 o C, ‘winter’ respectively). Such procedures are commonly used during transport or slaughter, and it is not known whether such rapid cooling will lead to loss of consciousness in fish such as turbot. Six turbot of each treatment (summer, winter water temperature) were subjected to cold water for 1hr and 15min. Behavioural observations focussed on nociceptive stimulation, vibration (tapping) and gill movements. Heart and brain activity (EEG and ECG) was also recorded. Such physiology, supplemented with behaviour, is important to establish potential welfare concerns negatively affecting sustainability of the aquaculture of turbot. No clear differences between treatments were found. Fish responded to immersion with elevated heart activity, and at 2 and 5 min after immersion in ice water a significant reduction in gill movement was found (p < 0.05). The EEG analysis showed a reduction in amplitude, but at t=15 min more than 50% of the fish still showed total power values over 10% of pre-immersion values, and hence unconsciousness could not be established with certainty. More than an hour after immersion in the cold water some turbot still responded to nociceptive stimuli and vibration. Immersion in cold water reduced brain activity, the implication of which is not clear. Several signs of stress were observed, e.g. increased heart beats. We conclude that from a welfare point of view, immersion of turbot in ice water may not be humane.
    Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) cooled in ices water
    Lambooij, E. ; Bracke, M.B.M. ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Foss, A. ; Imsland, A. ; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2015
    Physiology and Behavior 149 (2015). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 23 - 28.
    fish - welfare - pain - stress - system - l.
    Behavioural, neural and physiological aspects related to pre-slaughter cooling of turbot habituated to two environmental temperatures (18.7 and 12.0 °C) were investigated. Six fish in both treatments were immersed in ice water for 75 min. For control, four fish were immersed in water under their habituated environmental temperature. Turbot did not show a quick reduction of overall power in the EEG (electroencephalogram) to less than 10%, nor did the turbot show a shift in brain wave predominance from high to low frequency waves. At 15 min after immersion in ice water at least 7 out of 12 fish still showed total power values over 10% of pre-immersion values. Significant reductions in responsiveness to needle scratches and reduced breathing after immersion in ice waterwere observed, but none of these parameters had dropped to 0 even after 75 min in icewater. A significant reduction in gill score was found at 2 and 5 min after immersion in ice water compared to the control fish (p
    Stunning and killing of farmed fish: How to put it into pratice?
    Vis, J.W. van de; Abbink, W. ; Lambooij, B. ; Bracke, M.B.M. - \ 2014
    In: Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences (Second Edition) / Devine, C., Dikeman, M., Academic Press - ISBN 9780123847317 - p. 421 - 426.
    In this article an approach is presented to implement stunning and killing of farmed fish in practice. First, in a laboratory setting, the conditions need to be established to achieve an effective stun without causing avoidable distress and discomfort. Product quality is evaluated to assess the impact of stunning method on carcass quality. During subsequent implementation in a commercial setting, it is likely that stress-physiological and neurophysiological measurements are not feasible and, therefore, only behavioral and physical measurements can be performed. Finally, stunning and killing of farmed fish in practice should be controlled using a process-oriented quality assurance system.
    STUNNING : Electrical Stunning
    Lambooij, B. - \ 2014
    In: Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences / Devine, C., Dikeman, M., Elsevier - ISBN 9780123847317 - p. 407 - 412.
    Electrical stunning is used all over the world to render animals, including poultry, unconscious before slaughter that lasts until exsanguination results in death. The basic physiological principle of electrical stunning is to administer sufficient electric current through the head of an animal so that a generalized epileptiform activity is induced in the brain. The observed behavior is characterized by a phase of tonic muscle spasm followed by clonic muscle spasms and ultimately an exhaustion phase with muscle flaccidity. Electrical parameters have been reported to have a different effect on postmortem rigor development and subsequent meat quality.
    Transport of Pigs
    Lambooij, E. - \ 2014
    In: Livestock Handling and Transport / Grandin, T., CAB International - ISBN 9781780643212 - p. 280 - 297.
    pigs - animal welfare - slaughter - handling - killing of animals - sows - boars - meat animals - finishing - transport of animals - climate - space
    The welfare of pigs during transport depends on many interacting factors, such as the condition of the animal, temperature, loading density, time in transit and other factors. Death losses during transport of pigs can vary from a low of 0.06% under good conditions to a high of 6.8% under very hot conditions. Sometimes, very short journeys are more stressful than longer journeys. During longer journeys, the pigs may have time to recover from the stress of loading before they are unloaded. Withdrawing feed the night before the day of slaughter and before transport, and keeping trucks moving to improve ventilation helps to reduce stress. The minimum space (in m2) that allows all the pigs to lie down is given by the formula 0.027 × w0.66; this equals 0.564 m2 for a 100 kg pig and 0.6708 m2 for a 130 kg pig.
    Measuring consciousness in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and common sole (Solea solea) subjected to electrical stunning before slaughter
    Bracke, M.B.M. ; Daskalova, A.H. ; Vis, J.W. van de; Lambooij, E. - \ 2014
    Cone restraining and head-only electrical stunning in broilers: Effects on physiological responses and meat quality
    Lambooij, E. ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Verhoeven, M.T.W. ; Hindle, V.A. - \ 2014
    Poultry Science 93 (2014)3. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 512 - 518.
    water-bath - slaughter - transport - poultry - feasibility - parameters - mortality - chickens - bruises - stress
    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate a new electrical stunning system for broilers. The objective of the first experiment was to evaluate the behavioral, neural, and physiological responses of 27 broilers after head-only electrical stunning while their bodies were restrained in cone-shaped holders. In the second experiment, quality of meat from 30 broilers after headonly electrical stunning in a cone-shaped restrainer was compared with that from 30 broilers stunned in a conventional water bath. Broilers were restrained in the cone with their heads positioned to facilitate a correct stun, followed by a neck cut by hand. After stunning, each broiler displayed a tonic phase, followed by minimal brain activity during bleeding. On average, heart rate was 258 ± 51 beats/min before stunning. The heart was observed to malfunction after cutting. According to the correlation dimension analyses, the score remained low. Within a confidence limit of 95%, taking into account the number of birds with a reliable electroencephalogram (n = 27), the chance of an effective stun and exsanguination with all broilers lies between 0.90 and 1.00 using a sinusoidal AC current of 264 ± 29 mA (~130 V). After a brief learning period, operators were able to easily position the broilers in the cone in a commercial setting. The pH after chilling was 0.5 units lower (P <0.05) in the head-only stunned group compared with the group stunned in a conventional water bath. After head-only stunning, 60% of breast fillets showed no blood splashes and 3% showed severe blood splashes compared with 20 and 27% after conventional water bath stunning. No differences in temperature and color were observed between the 2 groups. It is concluded that broilers could be restrained in a cone, followed by correct head-only stunning, neck-cutting, and unconscious shackling afterward under laboratory and commercial slaughterhouse conditions. When this procedure was used, meat quality was better compared with broilers stunned in the conventional water bath.
    Invloed van transport op de stressfysiologie van marktwaardige Afrikaanse meerval en Europese paling
    Vis, J.W. van de; Schram, E. ; Boerrigter, J. ; Manuel, R. ; Heul, J.W. van der; Bos, R. van den; Hofman, A.R.T. ; Ros, N.A.M. ; Lambooij, E. ; Flik, G. - \ 2013
    IJmuiden : IMARES Wageningen UR (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C100/13) - 28
    stressfysiologie - clarias gariepinus - european eels - transport - laesies - bloedplasma - visserij - dierenwelzijn - stress physiology - clarias gariepinus - european eels - transport - lesions - blood plasma - fisheries - animal welfare
    Het onderzoek was gericht op effecten van praktijkgerichte transportcondities van marktwaardige Afrikaanse meerval (Clarias gariepinus) en Europese paling (Anguilla anguilla) op de relevante fysiologische parameters in het bloedplasma (cortisol, glucose en niet-veresterde vrije vetzuren) en mogelijke laesies van de huid.
    Welfare assessment protocol for cattle in control post
    Lambooij, E. ; Ouweltjes, W. ; Villa, P. Dalla; Catanese, B. ; Fede, G. Di; Messori, S. ; Ferrari, P. ; Rossi, P. ; Velarde, A. ; Dalmau, A. ; Pedernera, C. - \ 2013
    Reggio Emilia, Italy : Centro Ricerche Produzioni Animali Spa - 40 p.
    Protokoll zur Beurteilung des Wohlbefindens von Rindern in Kontrollstellen
    Lambooij, E. ; Ouweltjes, W. ; Villa, P. Dalla; Catanese, B. ; Fede, G. Di; Messori, S. ; Ferrari, P. ; Rossi, P. ; Velarde, A. ; Dalmau, A. ; Pedernera, C. - \ 2013
    Reggio Emilia, Italy : Centro Ricerche Produzioni Animali Spa - 40 p.
    Loading density and welfare of goat kids during long distance road transport
    Hindle, V.A. ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Werf, J.T.N. van der; Lambooij, E. - \ 2013
    Animal Welfare 22 (2013)3. - ISSN 0962-7286 - p. 345 - 356.
    hot-dry season - physiological-responses - body-temperature - ascorbic-acid - stress - sheep - behavior - animals - herd - organization
    Many goat kids (Capra aegagrus hircus) are transported live from The Netherlands for slaughter in France or Spain. Current standards indicate that goats (<35 kg) should have sufficient space at 0.2–0.30 m2 per animal (approximately 5 goats per m2). Research was devised to assess behaviour and physiological responses of goat kids transported at different space allowances. After weaning, goat kids were fed milk for six weeks using a lambar-type feeder and then transported to Spain circa 1,400 km). These kids (8–10 kg, maximum eight weeks old) were transported at space allowances of 0.2, 0.13 and 0.1 m2 per animal (ie loading densities 5, 7.5 or 10 animals per m2, respectively) in three journeys. Before loading and upon arrival, six goats per compartment were weighed, blood sampled and had rectal temperature measured. Three goats per compartment were equipped with ECG loggers. On average, kids lost approximately 4% in bodyweight and rectal temperature fell 0.2°C during 20 h transport. Heart rate ranged between 100–190 bpm irrespective of loading density during actual transport. All animals stood at the beginning but were never all recumbent independent of loading density. Kids tended to huddle together at lower loading densities. High loading density restricted movement. Blood concentrations of haemoglobin and haematocrit increased, as did osmolality indicating dehydration. It is recommended that water be supplied using a drinking system to which animals are accustomed. Since movement was restricted it is recommended that kids be transported at nine animals per m2 (maximum).
    Individualized on-line monitoring tool to analyse the complex physiological signal of heart beat fluctuations in pigs
    Dixhoorn, I.D.E. van; Andre, G. ; Lambooij, E. ; Kemp, B. ; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. - \ 2013
    Evaluation of Electrical Stunning of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Turbot (Psetta maxima) in Seawater
    Lambooij, E. ; Digre, H. ; Erikson, U. ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Burggraaf, D. ; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2013
    Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology 22 (2013)4. - ISSN 1049-8850 - p. 371 - 379.
    catfish clarias-gariepinus - fresh-water - slaughter - salmon - consciousness - behavior - quality - l.
    The aim of this study was to assess electrical stunning of Atlantic cod and turbot in seawater to develop a protocol for the process of stunning and killing. An induced general epileptiform insult (unconscious) had a duration of 40 ± 27 s (n =14) in cod (2.6 ± 0.5 kg) and 34 ± 18 s (n = 19) in turbot (520 ± 65 g). Seven cod and 3 turbot displayed a physical reaction, and 11 turbot registered an electroencephalogram (EEG) response to pain stimuli administered 30 s post-stun. The heart rate was 32 ± 6 beats/min in cod and 25 ± 7 beats/min in turbot prior to stunning. Post-stunning, the electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed fibrillation and reduced activity post-stun. EEG, ECG recordings, and behavioral observations indicate that when a bipolar square wave current was applied with a frequency of 133 Hz and 43% duty cycle side to side (turbot) and at 170 Hz and 33% duty cycle (cod) head to tail, both species were stunned in seawater at current densities of 3.2 A/dm2 and 2.5 A/dm2, respectively. For turbot, a 5 s exposure to electricity followed by chilling in ice water for 15 min is sufficient to prevent recovery. For cod, a killing method needs to be established.
    Individualized longitudinal approach to measure ECG, Blood pressure, activity and temperature in group housed growing piglets
    Dixhoorn, I.D.E. van; Andre, G. ; Lambooij, E. ; Kemp, B. ; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. - \ 2013
    Beproeven apparaat bedwelmen van meerval voor de praktijk
    Vis, J.W. van de; Burggraaf, D. ; Abbink, W. ; Pol-Hofstad, I. ; Reimert, H. ; Lambooij, E. - \ 2013
    Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C097/13) - 17
    aquacultuur - clarias gariepinus - bedwelmen - elektrisch verdoven - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - kweekvis - diergezondheid - aquaculture - clarias gariepinus - stunning - electronarcosis - animal welfare - animal production - farmed fish - animal health
    Het doel van dit project was vaststellen of apparatuur voor elektrisch bedwelmen en vervolgens doden van de meervalsoorten in de praktijk aan het gestelde welzijnscriterium voldoet. Het welzijnscriterium voor elektrisch bedwelmen is dat de bewusteloosheid en gevoelloosheid onmiddellijk moeten worden opgewekt zonder dat deze vissoorten weer bijkomen. Het onderzoek richtte zich op de implementatie van elektrisch bedwelmen van Afrikaanse meerval (Clarias gariepinus) en een kruising van A. meerval en Vundu meerval (Heterobranchus longifilis) (Claresse meerval). Om dit doel te bereiken werden testen uitgevoerd met een eerste ontwerp en een omgebouwde versie van de apparatuur voor het bedwelmen en doden van beide vissoorten.
    Pain behaviour after castration of piglets; effect of pain relief with lidocaine and/or meloxicam
    Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Zonderland, J.J. ; Verbraak, J. ; Lambooij, E. ; Hellebrekers, L.J. - \ 2013
    Animal 7 (2013)7. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1158 - 1162.
    surgical castration - physiological-responses - animal-welfare - pigs - analgesia
    Behavioural responses and the effect of lidocaine and meloxicam on behaviour of piglets after castration were studied. A total of 144 piglets of 2 to 5 days of age were allocated to one of six treatments: castration (CAST), castration with lidocaine (LIDO), castration with meloxicam (MELO), castration with lidocaine and meloxicam (L + M), handling (SHAM) and no handling (NONE). Behaviour was observed for 5 days after the procedure, growth until weaning was recorded and characteristics of the castration wound noted. MELO piglets showed significantly (P <0.05) more no pain-related behaviour than CAST and LIDO at the afternoon after castration, and were not significantly different from SHAM and NONE. LIDO piglets showed an increase (P <0.001) in tail wagging, lasting for 3 days. This increase was not seen in L + M piglets. The occurrence of several behaviours changed with age, independent of treatment. A treatment effect on growth was not found. Wound healing was rapid in all treatments, but thickening of the heal was observed in several piglets, suggesting perturbation in the cicatrization process. Our study showed a pain-relieving effect of meloxicam after castration. Local anaesthesia resulted in piglets performing more tail wagging during the first few days after castration, which was prevented by administering meloxicam in combination with local anaesthesia.
    Operationaliseren van elektrisch bedwelmen van Europese kweekpaling
    Vis, J.W. van de; Burggraaf, D. ; Reimert, H. ; Lambooij, E. - \ 2013
    Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C089/13) - 23
    dierlijke productie - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - bedwelmen - doden van dieren - european eels - kweekvis - animal production - animal welfare - animal health - stunning - killing of animals - european eels - farmed fish
    Het doel van dit project was het operationaliseren van elektrisch bedwelmen van Europese paling en het doden van de bedwelmde dieren. Hiervoor diende een eerste ontwerp van een bedwelmingsapparaat te worden gemaakt, getest en na aanpassingen geschikt gemaakt te worden om te kunnen gebruiken in de praktijk. Omdat dit onderzoek zich richtte op elektrisch bedwelmen na ontwateren en in het water, zijn er twee apparaten getest. Het welzijnscriterium voor elektrisch bedwelmen is dat de bewusteloosheid en gevoelloosheid onmiddellijk moeten worden opgewekt zonder dat de paling weer bijkomt. Er zijn daarom technische criteria opgesteld om tijdens de testen vast te kunnen stellen of met beide apparaten de palingen onmiddellijk kunnen worden bedwelmd en na de blootstelling aan de stroom in bedwelmde staat gedood.
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