Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw in 2017 : Berekeningen met het model NEMA
Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Lagerwerf, L.A. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 147) - 131
Agricultural activities are in the Netherlands a major source of gaseous emission as ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxide (NO),nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and particulate matter (PM10 andPM2.5). The emissions in 2017 were calculated using the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA). The method calculatesthe NH3 emission from livestock manure based on the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) content in manure. In 2017 NH3 emissionsfrom livestock manure, fertilizer and other sources in agriculture, from hobby farms, private parties and manure application onnature areas amounted to 120.5 million kg NH3, 3.9 million kg more than in 2016. Nitrogen excretion increased due to a largerfeed requirement for dairy cows and higher nitrogen levels in roughage. N2O emissions in 2017 were 21.3 million kg, slightlyabove the level of 2016 (20.7 million kg). The NO emission in 2017 amounted to 23.1 million kg compared to 22.5 million kg in2016. The CH4 emission decreased due to the shrinking of the dairy herd from 508 to 503 million kg. NMVOC emissionsamounted to 98 million kg in 2017 compared to 99 million kg in 2016. Emissions of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5, 6.2 and0.6 million kg respectively, hardly changed compared to 2016. Some figures in the time series 1990-2016 were revised onbasis of new insights. NH3 emissions from livestock manure in the Netherlands dropped by two thirds since 1990, mainly as aresult of lower nitrogen excretion rates by livestock and low emission manure application. Emissions of N2O and NO alsodecreased over the same period, but less strongly (38% and 31% respectively), due to higher emissions from manure injectioninto the soil and the shift from poultry housing systems with slurry manure towards solid manure systems. CH4 emissions reducedby 14% between 1990 and 2017, caused by a decrease in livestock numbers and increased feed efficiency of dairy cattle.
Monitoring grondgebondenheid melkveehouderij: 2015-2017
Silvis, Huib ; Blokland, Pieter Willem ; Daatselaar, Co ; Luesink, Harry ; Voskuilen, Martien - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research nota 2019-071) - 35
Toen de Algemene Maatregel van Bestuur Grondgebonden melkveehouderij op 1 januari 2016 van kracht werd, verkeerde de Nederlandse melkveehouderij in een expansiefase. Naar aanleiding van de groeiende mestproductie kondigde de overheid in juli 2015 de invoering van fosfaatrechten voor de melkveehouderij aan. Voordat dit stelsel per januari 2018 daadwerkelijk werd ingevoerd, zijn in 2017 via het fosfaatreductieplan ingrijpende maatregelen getroffen om de melkveehouderij onder het nationale sectorplafond van de fosfaatproductie te brengen. De genoemde ontwikkelingen hebben hun weerslag gehad op de grondgebondenheid van de melkveehouderij in de periode 2015-2017.
Costs of regulating ammonia emissions from livestock farms near Natura 2000 areas - analyses of case farms from Germany, Netherlands and Denmark
Jacobsen, Brian H. ; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe ; Luesink, Harry ; Michels, Rolf ; Ståhl, Lisa - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Management 246 (2019). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 897 - 908.
Abatement costs - Ammonia emissions - Livestock regulation - Natura 2000 - Nitrogen deposition

Natura 2000 areas are designated according to the EU's Birds and Habitats Directives in order to protect particular habitats and species. A variety of these habitats and species are particularly sensitive to deposition of nitrogen caused by ammonia emissions. Livestock farming is the primary source of this pollution. The purpose of this paper is to compare the costs of reaching the ammonia emission targets for different livestock farms near Natura 2000 sites in the Netherlands, Germany (Schleswig-Holstein), and Denmark. These countries have some of the highest NH3 deposition rates in Europe, and Germany in particular will have to implement new measures to reach the NEC requirements for 2030. This will also benefit nature sites in Denmark as a large share of the ammonia emissions is dispersed over long distances. The general regulation includes implementation of BAT technologies and emission ceilings. The analysis looks at regulatory aspects, the emission requirements and the cost of implementing the technologies to reduce emissions further. The selected case farms are a finisher farm and a dairy farm, and the distance to a Natura 2000 site is 400 and 2000 m. In all three countries, relatively few livestock farms are situated near or inside Natura 2000 areas. The regulatory approach is very different in the three countries and key issues are: additional deposition from projects, neighbouring livestock farms (cumulation), the inclusion of background deposition and the use of the critical loads concept. The Dutch PAS system is interesting as projected reductions in emissions are distributed as additional “room for development” today. The costs for the case farm with finishers in Schleswig-Holstein are the highest as the Filter Decree requires the use of air scrubbers. The findings suggest that farms 400 m from a Natura 2000 site in the Netherlands face lower and less costly constraints than in the other countries, whereas the opposite is the case for farms 2000 m from Natura 2000 sites. The requirements near Natura 2000, where strict requirements apply, are so high that farms will expand at a different site instead.

Economische optimalisatie van de afzetketen voor varkens- en melkveemest : scenarioanalyse met het MERIT-model
Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Greijdanus, A.F. ; Luesink, H.H. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Rapport / Wageningen Economic Research 2019-051) - ISBN 9789463439794 - 60
Dutch dairy cows and pigs produce an estimated 118m kg of phosphate and 342m kg of nitrogen (after emission) in their manure in 2020, while in the Netherlands there is only room for these manure types of 113m kg of phosphate and 342m kg of nitrogen (with derogation). Calculations with the MERIT model show that the economically optimal solution requires a joint effort. Dairy farming lowers the mineral content in the feed and separates part of the manure. Fattening pig farming does not lower feed levels and processes a part of the manure. Breeding pig farming sometimes lowers feed levels and sometimes processes the manure. Of the scenarios, ‘Abolition of derogation’ has a greater effect on the total manure chain costs than ‘Use of phosphate from sewage sludge in agriculture’.
Mestafzetkosten, mestafzetprijzen en mestboetes
Koeijer, Tanja de; Luesink, Harry - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research nota 2019-016) - 29
Methodology for estimating emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands : Calculations of CH4, NH3, N2O, NOx, NMVOC, PM10, PM2.5 and CO2 with the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA), Update 2019
Lagerwerf, L.A. ; Bannink, A. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt technical report 148) - 215
The National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) is used to calculate emissions to air from agricultural activities in the Netherlands on a national scale. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and other N compounds (NOx and N2O) are calculated for animal housing, manure storage, manure application and grazing using a flow model for total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). Emissions from the application of inorganic N fertilizer, compost and sewage sludge, cultivation of organic soils, crop residues, and ripening of crops are calculated as well. The NEMA is also used to estimate emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management, nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and particulate matter (PM) from manure management and agricultural soils, as well as for carbon dioxide (CO2) from liming. Emissions are calculated in accordance with the criteria of international guidelines and reported in an annual Informative Inventory Report (IIR; for air pollutants) and National Inventory Report (NIR; for greenhouse gases). This methodology report provides an outline of and describes the background to the calculation of emissions according to the NEMA.
Phosphorus Recycling from manure – A Case Study on the Circular Economy : Work package 4
Smits, M.J.W. ; Woltjer, G.B. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Beekman, V. ; Koeijer, T.J. de; Daatselaar, C.H.G. ; Duin, Laurens - \ 2018
EU - 61 p.
Economische optimalisatie van oplossingen
Luesink, Harry - \ 2018
toepassing WEcR-MERIT model
Handelsverkeer in de mestmarkt: opties voor interventies
Koeijer, Tanja de; Lauwere, Carolien de; Luesink, Harry ; Prins, Henri - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2018-057) - ISBN 9789463430432 - 53
The Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality is looking for action strategies to reduce the risk of fraud in the manure market. This can be done by means of lower manure disposal costs and by introducing a competing interest for exports. The high costs of manure disposal can be tackled by reducing supply or increasing demand. Processing a larger amount of manure, with adequate corresponding enforcement, is the most realistic of the options. The presence of competing interests between the manure supplier and the buyer as regards the amount of minerals serves to inhibit fraud. This is lacking in the case of exports because no mineral accounting needs to be approved abroad. Here too, co-ordination with other countries could create competing interests and thus reduce the incentive to defraud.
Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw in 2016 : Berekeningen met het model NEMA
Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt technical report 119) - 124
Agricultural activities are in the Netherlands a major source of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). The emissions in 2016 were calculated using the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA). Some figures in the time series 1990-2015 were revised. The method calculates the NH3 emission from livestock manure based on the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) content in manure. In 2016 NH3 emissions from livestock manure, fertilizer and other sources in agriculture, from hobby farms, private parties and manure disposal in nature areas amounted to 116.8 million kg NH3, 1.3 million kg more than in 2015. Nitrogen excretion increased due to expansion of the dairy herd, but because of a larger share of low emission housing and more manure exports outside agriculture, the increase in NH3 emission remained limited. N2O emissions in 2016 were 21.1 million kg at virtually the same level as in 2015(21.2). NO emissions in 2016 totaled 22.8 million kg compared to 22.6 million kg in 2015. CH4 emissions increased from 496 to512 million kg due to the expansion of the dairy herd. Emissions of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5, 6.5 and 0.6 million kg respectively, did not change compared to 2015. NH3 emissions from livestock manure in the Netherlands dropped by almost two thirds since 1990, mainly as a result of lower nitrogen excretion rates by livestock and low emission manure application. Emissions of N2O and NO also decreased over the same period, but less strongly (38% and 31% respectively), due to higher emissions from manure injection into the soil and the shift from poultry housing systems with liquid manure towards solid manure systems. CH4 emissions reduced by 13% between 1990 and 2016 caused by a decrease in livestock numbers and increased feed efficiency of dairy cattle.
Ammonia regulations near nature areas in Denmark and the Netherlands compared
Luesink, Harry ; Michels, Rolf - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research report 2018-009) - ISBN 9789463437660 - 45
Farms that want to expand within 400 m from Natura 2000 areas, have extra costs compared to farms with no negative influence on nature areas. These extra costs are higher for farms in Denmark than in the Netherlands. For farms further away from Natura 2000 areas (2,000 m) it is the other way around: then farmers in the Netherlands are confronted with higher costs than in Denmark
Effecten van het amendement voedermestovereenkomsten onder het fosfaatrechtenstelsel
Silvis, Huib ; Luesink, Harry ; Reijs, Joan ; Koeijer, Tanja de; Daatselaar, Co - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research reflectie 2018-038) - 2
Methodology for estimating emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands – update 2018 : calculations of CH4, NH3, N2O, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and CO2 with the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA)
Vonk, J. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Bannink, A. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Lagerwerf, L.A. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Velthof, G.L. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 115) - 176
The National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) is used to calculate emissions to air from agricultural activities in the Netherlands on a national scale. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and other N-compounds (NOx and N2O) are calculated from animal housing, manure storage, manure application and grazing using a Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (TAN) flow model. Furthermore, emissions from application of inorganic N fertilizer, compost and sewage sludge, cultivation of organic soils, crop residues, and ripening of crops are calculated. NEMA is also used to estimate emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management, particulate matter (PM) from manure management and agricultural soils and carbon dioxide (CO2) from liming. Emissions are calculated in accordance with international guidance criteria and reported in an annual Informative Inventory Report (IIR; for air pollutants) and National Inventory Report (NIR; for greenhouse gases). This methodology report describes the outline and backgrounds of the emission calculations with NEMA.
Economic implications of ammonia regulation in the Netherlands near Natura 2000 areas
Luesink, Harry ; Michels, Rolf - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research report 2018-010) - ISBN 9789463438452 - 43
Monitoring grondgebondenheid melkveehouderij : Nulmeting
Silvis, Huib ; Luesink, Harry ; Voskuilen, Martien - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research nota 2018-045) - 27
De Algemene Maatregel van Bestuur grondgebonden groei melkveehouderij, die per 1 januari 2016 van kracht werd, beoogt grondloze groei van de melkveehouderij te beperken. Per 1 januari 2018 is de inhoud van de AMvB verankerd in de Wet grondgebonden groei melkveehouderij. Dit rapport beschrijft de grondgebondenheid van de melkveehouderij in 2015, het jaar voor de invoering van de maatregel. Hiermee wordt ook het raamwerk van de toekomstige monitoring neergelegd: welke basisgegevens (begrippen, indicatoren en databronnen) worden verzameld en hoe deze gegevens worden gepresenteerd.
Kosteneffectieve oplossing voor fosfaatprobleem met Nederlandse vleesvarkensmest : Toepassing van MERIT-model
Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Greijdanus, A.F. ; Luesink, H.H. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2018-020) - ISBN 9789463437486 - 35
Dutch finishing pigs produce around 24.0 million kg of phosphate in their manure, whereas only 10.8 million kg can be applied in the Netherlands in 2018. Calculations with the MERIT model show that lowering the phosphor content in the pig feed is economically not interesting to solve this problem. Processing the manure is economically interesting, with the most promising techniques granulating the manure and granulating the thick fraction after separation the manure with a decanting centrifuge. This is under the assumption that the price of the granulate is determined by their mineral content
Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw in 2015 : Berekeningen met het model NEMA
Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 98) - 139
Agricultural activities are in the Netherlands a major source of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). The emissions in 2015 were calculated using the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA). Some figures in the time series 1990-2014 were revised. The method calculates the ammonia emission from livestock manure based on the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) content in manure. Ammonia emissions from livestock manure, fertilizers and other sources in 2015 were 117.6 million kg, which was almost equal to the emission in 2014 (117.3 million kg). Nitrogen excretion increased, mainly due to expansion of the dairy herd, but did not result in a higher ammonia emission because of a larger share of low emission housing, more manure export outside agriculture and a larger share of manure injection in the total manure application. N2O emissions increased from 20.0 million kg in 2014 to 20.6 million kg in 2015. NO emission increased from 17.8 to 18.7 million kg. Methane emissions increased from 503 to 520 million kg due to higher numbers of dairy cattle. Emissions of particulate matter increased slightly from 6.4 to 6.5 million kg PM10 as a result of higher poultry numbers. Emission of PM2.5 in both years was 0.6 million kg. Ammonia emissions from livestock manure in the Netherlands dropped by almost two thirds since 1990, mainly as a result of lower nitrogen excretion rates by livestock and low emission manure application. Nitrous oxide and nitrogen oxide also decreased over the same period, but less strongly (35% and 40% respectively), due to higher emissions from manure injection into the soil and the shift from poultry housing systems with liquid manure towards solid manure systems. Methane emissions reduced by 14% between 1990 and 2015 caused by a decrease in livestock numbers and increased feed efficiency of dairy cattle.
Quickscan amendement voeder-mestovereenkomsten
Silvis, Huub ; Luesink, Harry ; Reijs, Joan ; Koeijer, Tanja de; Daatselaar, Co - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research nota 2017-107) - 21
Het stelsel van verantwoorde en grondgebonden groei van de melkveehouderij begrenst deontwikkeling van melkveebedrijven. Bedrijven met een melkveefosfaatoverschot van meer dan 20 kgper ha moeten grond verwerven als ze willen groeien. De eventuele invoering van voedermestovereenkomstenmaakt groei van melkveebedrijven mogelijk zonder dat deze zelf grondverwerven. In deze nota wordt becijferd dat, zonder rekening te houden met andere begrenzingenzoals een fosfaatrechtenstelsel, de melkveehouderij in Nederland met maximaal 26% zou kunnengroeien. De groei zal vooral in het oostelijke deel kunnen plaatsvinden. Ook wordt ingegaan opuitvoeringsaspecten zoals borging van levering, hoeveelheidsbepaling en oppervlakteregistratie
Milieueffectrapportage van maatregelen zesde Actieprogramma Nitraatrichtlijn : Op planniveau
Groenendijk, P. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Schröder, J.J. ; Koeijer, T.J. de; Luesink, H.H. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2842) - 109
nitraat - milieueffectrapportage - nederland - nitrate - environmental impact reporting - netherlands
Om aan de doelstellingen van de Nitraatrichtlijn te voldoen. wordt om de vier jaar een Actieprogramma geformuleerd waarin het rijksbeleid voor de komende vier jaar is aangegeven. In het 6e Actieprogramma wordt een aantal extra maatregelen doorgevoerd ten opzichte van het 5e Actieprogramma. In dit rapport worden de effecten van de extra maatregelen op het milieu (lucht, grondwater en oppervlaktewater) beschreven.
Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw in 2014 : berekeningen met het model NEMA
Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 90) - 96
ammoniak - landbouw - emissie - mest - distikstofmonoxide - dierhouderij - modellen - nederland - ammonia - agriculture - emission - manures - nitrous oxide - animal husbandry - models - netherlands
Landbouwkundige activiteiten zijn in Nederland een belangrijke bron van ammoniak (NH3), stikstofoxide (NO), lachgas (N2O),methaan (CH4) en fijnstof (PM10 en PM2,5). De emissies in 2014 zijn berekend met het National Emission Model for Agriculture(NEMA). Tegelijk zijn enkele cijfers in de reeks 1990-2013 aangepast op basis van nieuwe inzichten. De rekenmethodiek gaatbij de berekening van de ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest uit van de hoeveelheid totaal ammoniakaal stikstof (TAN) in demest. De ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest, kunstmest en overige bronnen in 2014 bedroeg 121 miljoen kg NH3, bijna4 miljoen kg meer dan in 2013. De stijging komt voornamelijk door uitbreiding van de melkveestapel en een hogerstikstofgehalte van het ruwvoer. De N2O-emissie nam toe van 19,1 miljoen kg in 2013 naar 19,4 miljoen kg in 2014. De NOemissienam toe van 16,9 naar 17,2 miljoen kg. De methaanemissie nam iets toe van 499 tot 503 miljoen kg. De emissie vanfijnstof nam licht toe van 6,3 miljoen kg PM10 tot 6,4 miljoen kg, door een toename van het aantal stuks pluimvee. De emissievan PM2,5 bedroeg in beide jaren 0,6 miljoen kg. Sinds 1990 is de ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest en kunstmest mettweederde gedaald, vooral door een lagere stikstofuitscheiding door landbouwhuisdieren en emissiearme mesttoediening.Emissies van lachgas en stikstofoxide daalden in dezelfde periode eveneens, maar minder sterk (ca. 40%) omdat doorondergronds toedienen van mest de emissies hoger zijn geworden en door de omschakeling van stalsystemen met dunne naarvaste mest bij pluimvee. Tussen 1990 en 2014 daalde de emissie van methaan met 16% door een afname in de dieraantallenen een hogere voeropname en productiviteit van melkvee---Agricultural activities are in the Netherlands a major source of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O),methane (CH4) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). The emissions in 2014 were calculated using the National EmissionModel for Agriculture (NEMA). At the same time some figures in the time series 1990-2013 were revised. The method calculatesthe ammonia emission from livestock manure on the basis of the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) content in manure. Ammoniaemissions from livestock manure, fertilizers and other sources in 2014 were 121 million kg, which was almost 4 million kghigher than in 2013, mainly due to expansion of the dairy herd and a higher N-content of roughage. N2O emissions increasedfrom 19.1 million kg in 2013 to 19.4 million kg in 2014. NO emission increased slightly from 16.9 to 17.2 million kg. Methaneemissions increased from 499 to 503 million kg. Emissions of particulate matter increased slightly from 6.3 to 6.4 million kgPM10 as a result of higher poultry numbers. Emission of PM2.5 in both years was 0.6 million kg. Ammonia emissions fromlivestock manure in the Netherlands dropped by almost two thirds since 1990, mainly as a result of lower nitrogen excretionrates by livestock and low-emission manure application. Nitrous oxide and nitrogen oxide also fell over the same period, butless steeply (by about 40%), due to higher emissions from manure injection into the soil and to the shift from poultry housingsystems based on liquid manure to solid manure systems. Methane emissions fell by 16% between 1990 and 2014 caused by adrop in livestock numbers and increased feed uptake and productivity of dairy cattle
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