Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Finally: a way to eradicate red mites
    Mul, Monique - \ 2020
    Possibilities for IPM Strategies in European Laying Hen Farms for Improved Control of the Poultry Red Mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) : Details and State of Affairs
    Decru, Eva ; Mul, Monique ; Nisbet, Alasdair J. ; Vargas Navarro, Alejandro H. ; Chiron, Geoffrey ; Walton, Jon ; Norton, Tomas ; Roy, Lise ; Sleeckx, Nathalie - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7 (2020). - ISSN 2297-1769
    Dermanyssus gallinae - integrated pest management - layer houses - monitoring - non-chemical - poultry red mite - prevention - sustainable control

    The Poultry Red Mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is a major threat to the poultry industry worldwide, causing serious problems to animal health and welfare, and huge economic losses. Controlling PRM infestations is very challenging. Conventionally, D. gallinae is treated with synthetic acaricides, but the particular lifestyle of the mite (most of the time spent off the host) makes the efficacy of acaracide sprays often unsatisfactory, as sprays reach only a small part of the population. Moreover, many acaricides have been unlicensed due to human consumer and safety regulations and mites have become resistant to them. A promising course of action is Integrated Pest Management (IPM), which is sustainable for animals, humans and the environment. It combines eight different steps, in which prevention of introduction and monitoring of the pest are key. Further, it focusses on non-chemical treatments, with chemicals only being used as a last resort. Whereas IPM is already widely applied in horticulture, its application is still in its infancy to control D. gallinae in layer houses. This review presents the currently-available possibilities for control of D. gallinae in layer houses for each of the eight IPM steps, including monitoring techniques, established and emerging non-chemical treatments, and the strategic use of chemicals. As such, it provides a needed baseline for future development of specific IPM strategies, which will allow efficient and sustainable control of D. gallinae in poultry farms.

    Effects of heating laying hen houses between consecutive laying cycles on the survival of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae
    Mul, Monique F. ; Vugt, Sonja M.A. van; Goselink, Yvo S.M. ; Brand, Henry van den - \ 2020
    Veterinary Parasitology 288 (2020). - ISSN 0304-4017
    Dermanyssus gallinae - Heat treatment - Poultry Gallus gallus - Prevention - Survival

    The poultry red mite (PRM) Dermanyssus gallinae, the most common ectoparasite affecting laying hens worldwide, is difficult to control. During the period between consecutive laying cycles, when no hens are present in the layer house, the PRM population can be reduced drastically. Heating a layer house to temperatures above 45 °C for several days in order to kill PRM has been applied in Europe. The effect of such a heat treatment on the survival of PRM adults, nymphs and eggs, however, is largely unknown. To determine that effect, an experiment was executed in four layer houses. Nylon bags with ten PRM adults, nymphs or eggs were placed at five different locations, being a) inside the nest boxes, b) between two wooden boards, to simulate refugia, c) near an air inlet, d) on the floor, under approximately 1 cm of manure and e) on the floor without manure. Mite survival was measured in 6 replicates of each of these locations in each of four layer houses. After heating up the layer house, in this case with a wood pellet burning heater, the temperature of the layer house was maintained at ≥ 45 °C for at least 48 h. Thereafter, the bags were collected and the mites were assessed as being dead or alive. The eggs were assessed for hatchability. Despite a maximum temperature of only 44 °C being reached at one location, near an air inlet, all stages of PRM were dead after the heat treatment. It can be concluded that a heat treatment of layer houses between consecutive laying cycles appears to be an effective method to control PRM.

    Aanpak van vogelmijt bij pluimvee
    Mul, M.F. ; Neijenhuis, F. ; Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen Livestock Research 1226) - 117
    To manage Red Poultry Mite (RPM) in laying hen farms, a large project has bene carried out. With 20 commercial test farms the total concept IPM (Integrated Pest Management) has been tested and optimized. The RPM populations on these farms as well as on 10 control farms have been monitored. Monitoring has been optimized and an advice has been formed how this can best be done. The economic consequences of RPM are listed. For the use of chemicals against PRM an overview has been made of the allowed chemicals and under what legislation they are allowed. Also for new chemicals the possibilities are given for registration or obtaining allowance to use.
    Beheersen van vogelmijt; pleksgewijze bestrijding
    Mul, M.F. ; Messelink, G.J. - \ 2019
    De Pluimveehouderij (2019)14. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 22 - 23.
    Bedrijfsplan aanpak van vogelmijt bij leghennen
    Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Mul, M.F. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 16 p.
    Deze interactieve pdf van het bedrijfsplan bevat maatregelen, methoden en middelen die u reeds toepast c.q. kunt toepassen tegen vogelmijt. Er is onderscheid tussen de periode bij aankoop van de opfokhennen, tussen de legronden en tijdens de legronde. Binnen de legronde is er een onderscheid tussen de vogelmijtsituaties: geen vogelmijten, lage aantallen, matige aantallen en hoge aantallen. Voor iedere situatie is er weergegeven wat preventieve, onderdrukkende en bestrijdende maatregelen en methoden tegen vogelmijt zijn.
    Dermanysuss gallinae attacks humans. Mind the gap!
    Cafiero, Maria Assunta ; Barlaam, Alessandra ; Camarda, Antonio ; Radeski, Miroslav ; Mul, Monique ; Sparagano, Olivier ; Giangaspero, Annunziata - \ 2019
    Avian Pathology 48 (2019)sup1. - ISSN 0307-9457 - p. S22 - S34.
    dermatitis - diagnosis - Europe - future needs - humans - management

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite primarily known as a pest of domestic and wild birds. It occasionally feeds on a range of mammals, and, more importantly, is of growing concern in human medicine. This review highlights mite attacks on people working with poultry, and updates the increasing incidence of dermanyssosis in urban environments in Europe. Although several cases of dermanyssosis have been documented, there are a number of reasons why diagnosis of D. gallinae infestations in humans is likely to be underestimated. Firstly, medical specialists are not well aware of D. gallinae infestations in humans. There is also a lack of collaboration with specialists from other disciplines. The problem is compounded by misdiagnoses and by the lack of diagnostic tools. We review the literature on human dermanyssosis cases in Europe, and also provide information on the epidemiology, clinical, histo-pathological and immunological aspects of dermanyssosis. We stress the need for improved recognition of this challenging infestation in humans, and provide straightforward recommendations for health practitioners, starting with collection of the correct anamnestic information and including appropriate management methods for case recognition and resolution. Finally, we indicate the most urgent areas to be addressed by future research. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSDermanyssus gallinae is of growing concern in human medicine. Most physicians are not well aware of dermanyssosis in humans. Bio-epidemiological and clinical aspects of this ectoparasitosis are highlighted. Practical key actions for diagnosis and correct management of infestation in humans are provided.

    Vogelmijt, wat weten we? : Handvatten voor aanpak van vogelmijtproblemen op legpluimveebedrijven
    Mul, Monique ; Weeghel, Ellen van - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1146) - 42
    The poultry red mite is the most common ectoparasite in poultry, causing damage worldwide, both financially as well as in terms of animal welfare and health. This report presents (in Dutch) current insights in the red mite itself, its functioning and behaviour, the influence of biotic an abiotic factors determining survival and reproduction of the mite, as well as the financial losses incurred by poultry red mite populations in a laying hen house. Next, both preventive and curative measures are described, as well as ways to suppress populations. Finally, the needs of the poultry red mite itself, and the specific requirements for living and survival of (a population of) mites are elaborated. These needs and requirements can be used to develop strategies to prevent their growth.
    Survey on the prevalence of Dermanyssus gallinae in commercial laying farms in Portugal
    Waap, Helga ; Nunes, Telmo ; Mul, M.F. ; Gomes, Jacinto ; Bartley, Kathryn - \ 2019
    Avian Pathology 48 (2019)sup1. - ISSN 0307-9457 - p. S2 - S9.
    Dermanyssus gallinae - laying farms - Portugal - poultry red mite - prevalence - survey

    Dermanyssus gallinae, also known as the poultry red mite (PRM), is a blood-feeding ectoparasite of poultry and sylvatic birds. This mite is endemic in many parts of the globe and poses a threat to the egg industry, while compromising the health and welfare of hens, both directly and as a vector of diseases. In addition, people attacked by D. gallinae may develop gamasoidosis. Despite the high prevalence in several European countries, epidemiological information on D. gallinae in Portugal is scarce. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and infestation levels in laying farms in Portugal and evaluate the perception and attitudes of producers regarding D. gallinae. A survey was performed between August 2016 – November 2017, which included 24 farms in the NUTS2 regions Centro and Norte. Mites were sampled with corrugated cardboard traps and the perception and attitudes of farmers regarding the PRM were evaluated with the European COREMI questionnaire prepared by WG 1 of the COST action FA1404. D. gallinae was detected in 95.8% of farms (95% CI: 79.8–99.3%). The average number of trapped mites among farms was 5200 ± 16,522, with a median of 359 mites (interquartile range = 46–3135). Results from the questionnaire show that insufficient monitoring, under-detection and late and suboptimal treatment may contribute to the maintenance of significant infestation levels. The present data highlight the need for adequate monitoring of D. gallinae, timely action and effective treatment in order to improve poultry productivity and ensure human and animal health and welfare. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS A survey on the prevalence of D. gallinae in Portuguese layer farms is presented The perceived importance of D. gallinae was assessed with a questionnaire D. gallinae was detected in 95.8% of farms The results emphasize the need for adequate monitoring and treatment optimization.

    How can Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer 1778) (Acari_Dermanyssidae) walk upwards on slippery surfaces
    Palma, Antonella Di; Mul, Monique F. - \ 2019
    Avian Pathology 48 (2019)sup1. - ISSN 0307-9457 - p. S10 - S16.
    ambulacrum - claws - functional morphology - leg adaptations - Poultry red mite - pulvillus - scanning electron microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy observations of the distal leg region of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer 1778) identified the presence of a compound ambulacrum, the part of the leg that contacts the substratum when the mite walks. The ambulacrum is comprised of a praetarsus (the ambulacrum stalk), a pulvillus and two claws. The pulvillus is a weakly sclerotized structure that can be partly expanded or retracted in the praetarsus. When expanded, the pulvillus shows a cushion-like shape which can, as a result of its soft surface, function as a sucker, thus allowing D. gallinae to adhere to a smooth surface. When traversing an irregular surface, or clinging to a soft surface, the mite retracts the pulvillus and uses only its strongly sclerotized movable claws. These observed morphological adaptations explain the ability of D. gallinae to climb upwards on a slippery surface, resist an air flux, walk on smooth and rigid feathers of its avian hosts, and cling to the bird’s or human's soft skin. This knowledge is important to better understand the attachment mechanism of this species to its host and to the substratum on which it moves, and also to provide insight into the circumstances under which it is able to move. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS The ambulacrum is the distal part of the leg touching the substratum D. gallinae’s ambulacrum consists of a praetarsus, a pulvillus and two claws The weakly sclerotized pulvillus can be part expanded/retracted in the praetarsus The expanded pulvillus functions as a sucker to adhere to smooth surfaces The claws are used to walk on an irregular surface or cling to a soft surface.

    Monitoren vogelmijt. Zo doe je dat!
    Mul, M.F. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 1 p.
    The possible side-effect of two different drinking water additives on control of the poultry red mite : The effect of suppleting the products Alphamites DW and Hensupp+ on the Dermanyssus gallinae adult’s ability to produce eggs and the ability of nymphs of Dermanyssus gallinae to moult
    Mul, M.F. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Riel, J.W. van; Wikselaar, G.P. van - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research report 1098) - 18
    In laying hen facilities drinking water additives are used to support the hens natural resistance. It seems that these productshave a side-effect on the life cycle of the ecto-parasitic miteDermanyssus gallinae; either because mites do not approach the laying hens by the products repellent effects or by making the blood indigestible for the poultry red mite. Whether these products do need a registration as veterinary medicine or as biocide was not the subject of this study. The aim ofthis studywas to test the effect ofHensupp+ and Alphamites DWon D. gallinaefemale adults’ability to lay eggs and on the D. gallinaenymphs’ability to moult. Here we measuredindirect the effect of the products onthe lifecycle of D. gallinae. D. gallinaemites were collected at 3 commercial farms using Alphamites DW and at 4 commercialfarms using Hensupp+. Mites were also collected at a commercial control farm where no water additives were used, but only a silica product to control D. gallinae. Recently engorged female adults and nymphs were individually placed in 96 well plates enabling to determine mite egg production or moulting. No significant differences were found in the percentage of adult mites producing eggs or the percentage of moulting nymphs of the collected mites from the farms with drinking water additives, compared to the mites from the control farm. A trend however was seen for a lower percentage of moulting nymphs from farms which supplyAlphamites DW compared to the percentage of moultingnymphs from the control farm.This observational studywas carried out at seven commercial farms of which it can be expected that they carried outthe advised treatment protocol, but of which we are not sure. Neither do we know if there werefactors present (such as health status of the flock and water and feed quality)which could have influenced the test results. In this test, we determined a small part of the possible effects of the two drinking water additives on red mites and therefore we are not able to draw conclusions about the total effect of the two water additives on the poultry red mite.
    Stop de terreur van de vogelmijt (bloedluis)
    Mul, M.F. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 2 p.
    Bloedluis bestrijdbaar?
    Mul, M.F. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Livestock Stories blog, Wageningen University & Research
    animal welfare - animal production - poultry - animal health - animal diseases - mites
    Using serological monitoring, internet-based feedback and on-farm auditing to improve Toxoplasma gondii control at Dutch pig farms
    Oorburg, D. ; Eppink, Dorien ; Heijltjes, Janneke ; Bouwknegt, Martijn ; Urlings, Bert ; Giessen, Joke van der; Krijger, Inge ; Mul, Monique ; Swanenburg, M. ; Wisselink, H.J. - \ 2017
    In: 12th International Symposium on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological,Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork - Proceedings Book, Foz doIguaçu, august 21-24, 2017. - Embrapa - p. 201 - 201.
    Toxoplasma gondii is a relevant foodborne pathogen due to its human disease burden. In the Netherlands, pork is estimated to contribute to 11% of the meatborne T. gondii infections. The European Food Safety Authority advised to perform serological testing of pigs and on farm audits on risk factors for T. gondii infection.
    Enabling Practice-driven Innovation in the Animal Production Sector
    Dijk, L. ; Buller, H. ; MacAllister, L.K. ; Baker, P. ; Mul, M.F. ; Neijenhuis, F. ; Plomp, M. ; Wichman, A. ; Yngvesson, J. ; Temple, D. ; Zak, J. ; Jozefova, J. ; Stokes, J. ; Weeks, C.A. ; Main, D.J.C. - \ 2017
    - 12 p.
    practice-driven - innovation - multi-actor networks - conditions - facilitation
    Using the laying hen sector as a case study, the EU-H2020-funded Hennovation project has been testing mechanisms to enable practice-driven innovation through the establishment of innovation networks of farmers and within the laying-hen-processing industry that are facilitated to proactively search for, share and use new ideas to improve hen welfare, efficiency and sustainability. Networks are variably supported by scientists, veterinarians, advisors and others. Nineteen multi-actor networks have been mobilised on local and regional levels across the UK, Sweden, Netherlands, Spain and Czech-Republic.
    Practice-driven innovation processes were network specific and evolved as the actors within the network came together to share common problems, experiment with possible solutions and learn. Their success was also affected by the institutional context, the structure of the poultry sector, current market forces and wider Agricultural Innovation Systems in each country. This paper explores the circumstances considered necessary by the facilitators to enable practice-driven innovation, providing examples of conditions affecting the innovation process. Further influences included conditions for innovation to happen (e.g. shared opportunity, motivation and knowledge), conditions to work effectively as a network (e.g. trust, collective purpose and contacts) and conditions for successful application in practice (e.g. capacity within the production system and market and legislative ability).
    Network approach to stimulate and support practice-led onfarm innovations in the laying hen sector
    Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Baker, P. ; Mul, M.F. ; Plomp, M. ; Stokes, J.R. ; Wichman, A. ; Zak, J. - \ 2017
    Gasbetonblok meest geliefde piksteen
    Wisserhof, J. ; Zetten van, Hanno ; Plomp, M. ; Mul, M.F. - \ 2017
    De Pluimveehouderij (2017). - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 30 - 31.
    Development of a model forecasting Dermanyssus gallinae's population dynamics for advancing Integrated Pest Management in laying hen facilities
    Mul, Monique F. ; Riel, Johannes van; Roy, Lise ; Zoons, Johan ; Andre, Geert ; George, David R. ; Meerburg, Bastiaan G. ; Dicke, Marcel ; Mourik, Simon van; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G. - \ 2017
    Veterinary Parasitology 245 (2017). - ISSN 0304-4017 - p. 128 - 140.
    Dermanyssus gallinae - Integrated Pest Management (IPM) - Population model - Poultry Gallus gallus - Treatment effect

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most significant pest of egg laying hens in many parts of the world. Control of D. gallinae could be greatly improved with advanced Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. The development of a model forecasting the pests’ population dynamics in laying hen facilities without and post-treatment will contribute to this advanced IPM and could consequently improve implementation of IPM by farmers. The current work describes the development and demonstration of a model which can follow and forecast the population dynamics of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities given the variation of the population growth of D. gallinae within and between flocks. This high variation could partly be explained by house temperature, flock age, treatment, and hen house. The total population growth variation within and between flocks, however, was in part explained by temporal variation. For a substantial part this variation was unexplained. A dynamic adaptive model (DAP) was consequently developed, as models of this type are able to handle such temporal variations. The developed DAP model can forecast the population dynamics of D. gallinae, requiring only current flock population monitoring data, temperature data and information of the dates of any D. gallinae treatment. Importantly, the DAP model forecasted treatment effects, while compensating for location and time specific interactions, handling the variability of these parameters. The characteristics of this DAP model, and its compatibility with different mite monitoring methods, represent progression from existing approaches for forecasting D. gallinae that could contribute to advancing improved Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for D. gallinae in laying hen facilities.

    ‘Preventie belangrijkst in strijd tegen vogelmijt’
    Mul, M.F. - \ 2017

    mulEen vogelmijtplaag is lastig onder controle te houden. Preventieve maatregelen zijn daarom noodzakelijk om de populatie zo klein mogelijk te houden. Dit zegt Monique Mul, onderzoeker diergezondheid bij Livestock Research.

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