Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Participation rate of farmers in different multifunctional activities in the Netherlands
    Hassink, Jan ; Agricola, Herman ; Thissen, Jac - \ 2016
    Outlook on Agriculture 45 (2016)3. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 192 - 198.
    Landscape - Multifunctional agriculture - Social services - Type of agricultural holding - Urbanization

    In this article, we present the findings from a study into the relationships between socio demographic, economic, and geographical characteristics of farm holdings and their participation rate in multifunctional activities. Recreation, nature management, care, and education services are most widespread among dairy farms. Farm holders of arable and dairy farms with extended activities are younger and the economic size of their enterprises is larger than that of conventional enterprises. For horticultural and intensive husbandry farmers, there were no age differences and, unlike the land-based types of holdings, the economic size of farms with extended activities was smaller than that of conventional farms. While care and education are more widespread in urbanized areas, the opposite was found for nature management. Proximity to sea has a positive impact on the participation rate in recreation, on-farm selling, and nature management. In order to understand the decisions of farmers, it is crucial to take the type of multifunctional activity, type of agricultural holding, and location into consideration.

    Replacement of meat and dairy by plant-derived foods: estimated effects on land use, iron and SFA intakes in young Dutch adult females
    Temme, E.H.M. ; Voet, H. van der; Thissen, J.T.N.M. ; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J. ; Donkersgoed, G. van; Nonhebel, S. - \ 2013
    Public Health Nutrition 16 (2013)10. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 1900 - 1907.
    consumption patterns - life-style - climate-change - consumers - health - diet - requirements - perspectives - vegetarians - energy
    Objective: Reduction in the current high levels of meat and dairy consumption may contribute to environmental as well as human health. Since meat is a major source of Fe, effects on Fe intake need to be evaluated, especially in groups vulnerable to negative Fe status. In the present study we evaluated the effects of replacing meat and dairy foods with plant-based products on environmental sustainability (land requirement) and health (SFA and Fe intakes) in women. Design: Data on land requirements were derived from existing calculation methods. Food composition data were derived from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2006. Data were linked to the food consumption of young Dutch women. Land requirements and nutrient intakes were evaluated at baseline and in two scenarios in which 30% (Scenario_30 %) or 100% (Scenario_100 %) of the dairy and meat consumption was randomly replaced by the same amount of plant-based dairy- and meat-replacing foods. Setting: The Netherlands. Subjects: Three hundred and ninety-eight young Dutch females. Results: Replacement of meat and dairy by plant-based foods benefited the environment by decreasing land use. The intake of SFA decreased considerably compared with the baseline situation. On average, total Fe intake increased by 2?5 mg/d, although most of the Fe intake was from a less bioavailable source. Conclusions: Replacement of meat and dairy foods by plant-based foods reduced land use for consumption and SFA intake of young Dutch females and did no compromise total Fe intake.
    Effectiveness of buffer strips without added fertilizer to reduce phosphorus loads from flat fields to surface waters
    Noij, I.G.A.M. ; Heinen, M. ; Heesmans, H.I.M. ; Thissen, J.T.N.M. ; Groenendijk, P. - \ 2013
    Soil Use and Management 29 (2013)Suppl. 1. - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 162 - 174.
    riparian buffers - soil - netherlands - scale - retention - phosphate - sediment - removal - nitrate - losses
    Buffer strips with no added fertilizers are a mitigation measure to reduce P loads from agricultural land to surface water. However, the experimental evidence on their effectiveness (BSE) has been from sloping locations with shallow flow and surface runoff. The aim of this experimental study was to quantify BSE for P on flat agricultural lowland, predominantly with deep flow. We selected sites characteristic of five major hydrogeological classes in the Netherlands and in each experimental field installed paired 5-m-wide unfertilized grass (BS) and reference treatments (REF) that abutted the ditch. The REF treatments were managed similar to the adjacent grass or maize field, but BS treatments were only harvested. Each treatment had a reservoir in the ditch to collect and measure discharge and flow-proportional P concentration for 3 or 4 yr. We also measured net P withdrawal, the P status of the soil and P concentration in upper groundwater. We found a significant BSE for P of 61% on the site with the shallowest flow and steepest slope (2%). At the other sites, BSE was low and statistically insignificant. We conclude that harvested unfertilized buffer strips reduce P loads from flat fields only in specific areas with high surface runoff and/or shallow flow, especially in combination with a high original soil P status
    Meta-analysis of effects of microbial phytase on digestibility and bioavailability of copper and zinc in growing pigs
    Bikker, P. ; Jongbloed, A.W. ; Thissen, J.T.N.M. - \ 2012
    Journal of Animal Science 90 (2012)suppl. 4. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 134 - 136.
    dietary zinc - piglets
    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of microbial phytase in pig diets on digestibility and bioavailability of Cu and Zn. Studies (n = 22) into effects of microbial phytase on digestibility and plasma levels of Cu and Zn were included in a dataset and regression analysis was performed to quantify the effect of Aspergillus niger derived 3-phytase in studies (n = 14) with a maximum dietary Zn content of 100 mg/kg and a maximum Cu addition of 20 mg/kg. Phytase inclusion increased digestibility of Zn (P = 0.003) and plasma Zn content (P <0.001) without affecting digestibility and plasma level of Cu. Based on a comparison with dose-response studies with Zn, we estimated 500 phytase units (FTU) of microbial phytase is equivalent to 27 mg of Zn from ZnSO(4).
    Vereenvoudiging van het Welfare Quality protocol voor vleeskalveren
    Reenen, C.G. van; Vereijken, P.F.G. ; Buist, W.G. ; Thissen, J.T.N.M. ; Engel, B. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 536) - 49
    rundveehouderij - vleesproductie - vleeskalveren - dierenwelzijn - protocollen - beoordeling - nederland - frankrijk - italië - dierlijke productie - cattle husbandry - meat production - veal calves - animal welfare - protocols - assessment - netherlands - france - italy - animal production
    This report describes research into possibilities to simplify the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for veal calves.
    Description of the calculations to transform measures into criterion for the Welfare Quality assessment protocol for laying hens = Beschrijving van de berekeningen om metingen om te zetten naar criteria scores voor het Welfare Quality protocol voor leghennen
    Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Thissen, J.T.N.M. ; Reenen, C.G. van - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 590) - 50
    pluimveehouderij - hennen - eierproductie - dierenwelzijn - diergedrag - diergezondheid - huisvesting, dieren - diervoeding - methodologie - meting - evaluatie - poultry farming - hens - egg production - animal welfare - animal behaviour - animal health - animal housing - animal nutrition - methodology - measurement - evaluation
    Results of a study on the Welfare Quality assessment protocol for laying hens. It reports the calculations for transformation of welfare measures into scores per criteria of the Welfare Quality assessment protocol.
    Effectiveness of unfertilized buffer strips for reducing nitrogen loads from agricultural lowland to surface waters
    Noij, I.G.A.M. ; Heinen, M. ; Heesmans, H.I.M. ; Thissen, J.T.N.M. ; Groenendijk, P. - \ 2012
    Journal of Environmental Quality 41 (2012)2. - ISSN 0047-2425 - p. 322 - 333.
    vegetative filter strips - stream riparian zones - nitrate removal - groundwater-flow - field-scale - retention - landscape - transport - constituents - attenuation
    Unfertilized buffer strips (BS) are widely accepted to reduce nitrogen (N) loads from agricultural land to surface water. However, the relative reduction of N load or concentration (BS effectiveness, BSE), varies with management and local conditions, especially hydrogeology. We present novel experimental evidence on BSE for 5-m-wide grass BS on intensively drained and managed plain agricultural lowland with varying hydrogeology. We selected characteristic sites for five major hydrogeological classes of the Netherlands and installed paired 5-m-wide unfertilized grass (BS) and reference (REF) treatments along the ditch. The REF was managed like the adjacent field, and BS was only harvested. Treatments were equipped with reservoirs in the ditch to collect and measure discharge and flow proportional N concentration for 3 or 4 yr. In addition, N concentration in upper groundwater was measured. We found a statistically significant BSE of 10% on the peat site. At the other sites, BSE for N was low and statistically insignificant. Low BSE was explained by denitrification between adjacent field and ditch, as well as by the site-specific hydrologic factors including low proportion of shallow groundwater flow, downward seepage, low residence time in the BS, and surface runoff away from the ditch. We emphasize that a REF treatment is needed to evaluate BSE in agriculture and recommend reservoirs if drainage patterns are unknown. Introduction of a 5-m-wide BS is ineffective for mitigating N loads from lowland agriculture to surface waters. We expect more from BS specifically designed to abate surface runoff.
    A novel method to determine buffer strip effectiveness on deep soils
    Heinen, M. ; Noij, I.G.A.M. ; Heesmans, H.I.M. ; Groenigen, J.W. van; Groenendijk, P. ; Thissen, J.T.N.M. - \ 2012
    Journal of Environmental Quality 41 (2012)2. - ISSN 0047-2425 - p. 334 - 347.
    vegetative filter strips - (h2o)-o-18 transport model - nonpoint-source pollution - stream riparian zones - shallow ground-water - stable-isotope hdo - nitrogen removal - nitrate removal - surface-water - agricultural watersheds
    Unfertilized buffer strips (BS) generally improve surface water quality. High buffer strip effectiveness (BSE) has been reported for sloping shallow aquifers, but experimental data for plain landscapes with deeply permeable soils is lacking. We tested a novel method to determine BSE on a 20-m-deep, permeable sandy soil. Discharge from soil to ditch was temporarily collected in an in-stream reservoir to measure its quantity and quality, both for a BS and a reference (REF) treatment. Treatments were replicated once for the first, and three times for the next three leaching seasons. No significant BSE was obtained for nitrogen and phosphorus species in the reservoirs. Additionally, water samples were taken from the upper groundwater below the treatments. The effect of BS for nitrate was much bigger in upper groundwater than in the reservoirs that also collected groundwater from greater depths that were not influenced by the treatments. We conclude that measuring changes in upper groundwater to assess BSE is only valid under specific hydrogeological conditions. We propose an alternative experimental set-up for future research, including extra measurements before installing the BS and REF treatments to deal with spatial and temporal variability. The use of such data as covariates will increase the power of statistical tests by decreasing between-reservoir variability.
    Effectiveness of unfertilized grass buffer strips along ditches in the Netherlands to reduce nutrient loads from intensive agriculture
    Noij, I.G.A.M. ; Heinen, M. ; Groenendijk, P. ; Heesmans, H.I.M. ; Thissen, J.T.N.M. - \ 2011
    In: Wageningen Conference on Applied Soil Science, Soil science in a Changing World, Wageningen, The Netherlands. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Communication Services - p. 254 - 254.
    Dose-response relationships between dietary copper level and growth performance in piglets and growing-finishing pigs and effect of withdrawal of a high copper level on subsequent growth performance
    Jongbloed, A.W. ; Bikker, P. ; Thissen, J.T.N.M. - \ 2011
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 483) - 18
    varkenshouderij - varkensvoeding - biggenvoeding - koper - voedertoevoegingen - groeianalyse - pig farming - pig feeding - piglet feeding - copper - feed additives - growth analysis
    This study showed a clear optimum level at approx. 150 mg added Cu per kg feed on growth performance of pigs from 5 to 25 kg. Reduction of a high to a low Cu dose in the feed may hamper overall growth performance compared with the negative control group.
    Performance and long-term stability of the barley hordothionin gene in multiple transgenic apple lines
    Krens, F.A. ; Schaart, J.G. ; Groenwold, R. ; Walraven, A.E.J. ; Hesselink, T. ; Thissen, J.T.N.M. - \ 2011
    Transgenic Research 20 (2011)5. - ISSN 0962-8819 - p. 1113 - 1123.
    receptor-like genes - scab resistance - venturia-inaequalis - expression - thionins - vf - transformation - agrobacterium - plants - wheat
    Introduction of sustainable scab resistance in elite apple cultivars is of high importance for apple cultivation when aiming at reducing the use of chemical crop protectants. Genetic modification (GM) allows the rapid introduction of resistance genes directly into high quality apple cultivars. Resistance genes can be derived from apple itself but genetic modification also opens up the possibility to use other, non-host resistance genes. A prerequisite for application is the long-term performance and stability of the gene annex trait in the field. For this study, we produced and selected a series of transgenic apple lines of two cultivars, i.e. ‘Elstar’ and ‘Gala’ in which the barley hordothionin gene (hth) was introduced. After multiplication, the GM hth-lines, non-GM susceptible and resistant controls and GM non-hth controls were planted in a random block design in a field trial in 40 replicates. Scab resistance was monitored after artificial inoculation (first year) and after natural infection (subsequent years). After the trial period, the level of expression of the hth gene was checked by quantitative RT-PCR. Four of the six GM hth apple lines proved to be significantly less susceptible to apple scab and this trait was found to be stable for the entire 4-year period. Hth expression at the mRNA level was also stable
    Biometris GenStat Procedure Library Manual 13th Edition
    Goedhart, P.W. ; Thissen, J.T.N.M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit (Biometris report 18.08.10) - 126
    statistiek - handleidingen - computer software - computertechnieken - statistics - guide books - computer software - computer techniques
    The Biometris GenStat Procedure Library contains procedures in which new and existing statistical methodology is implemented, as well as procedures to make GenStat more user-friendly. The Biometris library can be used and distributed freely. The Library is standardly distributed over the Dutch agricultural research sites.
    Increased efficacy for in-house validation of real-time PCR GMO detection methods
    Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Kok, E.J. ; Hougs, L. ; Molenaar, B. ; Thissen, J.T.N.M. ; Voet, H. van der - \ 2010
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 396 (2010)6. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 2213 - 2227.
    genetically-modified maize - zea-mays l. - reference molecules - quantitation - quantification
    To improve the efficacy of the in-house validation of GMO detection methods (DNA isolation and real-time PCR, polymerase chain reaction), a study was performed to gain insight in the contribution of the different steps of the GMO detection method to the repeatability and in-house reproducibility. In the present study, 19 methods for (GM) soy, maize canola and potato were validated in-house of which 14 on the basis of an 8-day validation scheme using eight different samples and five on the basis of a more concise validation protocol. In this way, data was obtained with respect to the detection limit, accuracy and precision. Also, decision limits were calculated for declaring non-conformance (>0.9%) with 95% reliability. In order to estimate the contribution of the different steps in the GMO analysis to the total variation variance components were estimated using REML (residual maximum likelihood method). From these components, relative standard deviations for repeatability and reproducibility (RSDr and RSDR) were calculated. The results showed that not only the PCR reaction but also the factors ‘DNA isolation’ and ‘PCR day’ are important factors for the total variance and should therefore be included in the in-house validation. It is proposed to use a statistical model to estimate these factors from a large dataset of initial validations so that for similar GMO methods in the future, only the PCR step needs to be validated. The resulting data are discussed in the light of agreed European criteria for qualified GMO detection methods.
    Statistische procescontrole ten behoeve van borging mestlaboratoria
    Thissen, J.T.N.M. ; Voet, H. van der - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Biometris - 21 p.
    Biometris GenStat Procedure Library Manual 12th Edition
    Goedhart, P.W. ; Thissen, J.T.N.M. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : PRI/Biometris (Biometris report 15.08.09) - 124
    statistiek - handleidingen - computer software - computertechnieken - statistics - guide books - computer software - computer techniques
    The Biometris GenStat Procedure Library contains procedures in which new and existing statistical methodology is implemented, as well as procedures to make GenStat more user-friendly. The Biometris library can be used and distributed freely. The Library is standardly distributed over the Dutch agricultural research sites.
    Biometris GenStat Procedure Library Manual
    Goedhart, P.W. ; Thissen, J.T.N.M. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : PRI Biometris (Rapport Biometris 15.09.09)
    Salmonella serotype distribution in the Dutch broiler supply chain
    Asselt, E.D. van; Thissen, J.T.N.M. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2009
    Poultry Science 88 (2009). - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 2695 - 2701.
    resistance - poultry
    Salmonella serotype distribution can give insight in contamination routes and persistence along a production chain. Therefore, it is important to determine not only Salmonella prevalence but also to specify the serotypes involved at the different stages of the supply chain. For this purpose, data from a national monitoring program in the Netherlands were used to estimate the serotype distribution and to determine whether this distribution differs for the available sampling points in the broiler supply chain. Data covered the period from 2002 to 2005, all slaughterhouses (n = 22), and the following 6 sampling points: departure from hatchery, arrival at the farm, departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, departure from the slaughterhouse, and end of processing. Furthermore, retail data for 2005 were used for comparison with slaughterhouse data. The following serotypes were followed throughout the chain: Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Paratyphi B var. Java (Salmonella Java), Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Virchow, and Salmonella Mbandaka. Results showed that serotype distribution varied significantly throughout the supply chain (P <0.05). Main differences were found at the farm and at the slaughterhouse (within one stage), and least differences were found between departure from one stage and arrival at the next stage. The most prominent result was the increase of Salmonella Java at farm level. This serotype remained the most prominent pathogen throughout the broiler supply chain up to the retail phase
    Pollen-mediated gene flow in maize tested for coexistence of GM and non-GM crops in the Netherlands: effect of isolation distances between fields
    Wiel, C.C.M. van de; Groeneveld, R.M.W. ; Dolstra, O. ; Kok, E.J. ; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Thissen, J.T.N.M. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Lotz, L.A.P. - \ 2009
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 56 (2009)4. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 405 - 423.
    zea-mays l. - genetically-modified maize - quantification - dna - feasibility - endosperm - kernel - embryo - impact
    In 2006 and 2007, field trials were performed to study the effects of the two isolation distances indicated by the Dutch Coexistence Committee, i.e., 25 m between GM (genetically modified) and conventional maize, and 250 m between GM and deliberately non-GM (e.g., organic) maize, on pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) under representative agricultural conditions in the Netherlands. Each isolation distance was tested at three different locations across the Netherlands in both years. For testing PMGF with the 25 m isolation distance, GM source fields of 100 m × 100 m (1 ha) were surrounded by four equally sized non-GM receptor fields at a distance of 25 m. For testing PGMF with the 250 m isolation distance, 1-ha GM source fields were surrounded by four 50 m × 50 m (0.25 ha) receptor fields in four different directions at 250 m. For the GM source field, the maize variety DKC3421YG containing the MON810 event was used with both distances. A maize variety near-isogenic to the GM variety was grown in the receptor fields to obtain good flowering synchronicity between GM and non-GM maize and thus optimal conditions for PGMF. Levels of the transgene in grain samples from the receptor fields were measured by a validated real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) quantification method for the MON810 event. Analyses showed the following levels of grain admixture as a consequence of PMGF, averaged over 12 fields for each isolation distance tested: at 25 m 0.084% (individual field averages ranged from 0.009%t0 0.296%) in 2006 and 0.080% (0.002% to 0.318%) in 2007, respectively, and at 250 m 0.005% (individual field averages ranged from o to 0.040%) in 2006 and 0.007% (0 to 0.037%) in 2007, respectively. Although weather conditions clearly differed between 2006 and 2007 (a hot and dry summer in 2006 vs. a relatively wet one with about-average temperatures in 2007), outcrossing rates did not differ significantly between these years
    Toetsing van afspraken over coëxistentie van genetisch gemodificeerde (GG) en niet-GG maïsproductie in Nederland : resultaten van metingen aan de mate van vermenging door uitkruising onder praktijkomstandigheden in 2006 en 2007
    Wiel, C.C.M. van de; Dolstra, O. ; Groeneveld, R.M.W. ; Kok, E.J. ; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Thissen, J.T.N.M. ; Lotz, L.A.P. ; Smulders, M.J.M. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (Rapport / Plant Research International 184) - 24
    zea mays - maïs - rassen (planten) - kruisingen - monitoring - registreren - genetische modificatie - transgene planten - proeven - onderzoek - zea mays - maize - varieties - crosses - monitoring - recording - genetic engineering - transgenic plants - trials - research
    Resultaten van metingen aan de mate van vermenging door uitkruising in een praktijktoets in de jaren 2006 en 2007 tussen transgene en conventionele maïsteelten op isolatieafstand van 25 m
    Sensitivity of submersed freshwater macrophytes and endpoints in laboratory toxicity tests
    Arts, G.H.P. ; Belgers, J.D.M. ; Hoekzema, C.C. ; Thissen, J.T.N.M. - \ 2008
    Environmental Pollution 153 (2008)1. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 199 - 206.
    aquaticum vell. verdcourt - myriophyllum-spicatum l - risk-assessment - lemna-gibba - herbicide - growth - plants - metabolism - pesticides - atrazine
    The toxicological sensitivity and variability of a range of macrophyte endpoints were statistically tested with data from chronic, non-axenic, macrophyte toxicity tests. Five submersed freshwater macrophytes, four pesticides/biocides and 13 endpoints were included in the statistical analyses. Root endpoints, reflecting root growth, were most sensitive in the toxicity tests, while endpoints relating to biomass, growth and shoot length were less sensitive. The endpoints with the lowest coefficients of variation were not necessarily the endpoints, which were toxicologically most sensitive. Differences in sensitivity were in the range of 10-1000 for different macrophyte-specific endpoints. No macrophyte species was consistently the most sensitive. Criteria to select endpoints in macrophyte toxicity tests should include toxicological sensitivity, variance and ecological relevance. Hence, macrophyte toxicity tests should comprise an array of endpoints, including very sensitive endpoints like those relating to root growth.
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