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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Metabolic and Sensory Influences on Odor Sensitivity in Humans
Ramaekers, M.G. ; Verhoef, Alard ; Gort, G. ; Luning, P.A. ; Boesveldt, S. - \ 2016
Chemical Senses 41 (2016)2. - ISSN 0379-864X - p. 163 - 168.
Our olfactory sense plays an important role in eating behavior by modulating our food preferences
and intake. However, hunger or satiety may also influence how we perceive odors. Albeit
speculative, contradictory results found in the past may have resulted from confounding by type
of meal that participants ate to induce satiety. We aimed to investigate the influence of hunger state
on olfactory sensitivity, comparing hunger to satiety using 2 different types of lunch to control
for sensory-specific satiety. Odor detection thresholds were measured in 2 groups of participants
(39 per group, 18–40 years), under 3 conditions: when hungry (twice), after a sweet lunch, and
after a savory lunch. One group had their detection thresholds tested for a sweet odor, whereas
in the other group, sensitivity to a savory odor was measured. Differences in olfactory sensitivity
conditions were analyzed using linear mixed models. Participants had higher scores on the odor
sensitivity task in a hungry versus satiated state (P = 0.001). Within the satiated condition, there was
no effect of type of lunch on odor sensitivity. In conclusion, hunger slightly enhances sensitivity
to food odors, but did not significantly depend on the type of food participants ate, suggesting no
clear influence of sensory-specific satiety.
Food preference and appetite after switching between sweet and savoury odours in women
Ramaekers, M.G. ; Luning, P.A. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Gort, Gerrit ; Boesveldt, Sanne - \ 2016
PLoS ONE 11 (2016)1. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 16 p.

Background. Exposure to food odours increases the appetite for congruent foods and decreases the appetite for incongruent foods. However, the effect of exposure to a variety of food odours, as often occurs in daily life, is unknown. Objective. Investigate how switching between sweet and savoury odours affects the appetite for sweet and savoury products. Design Thirty women (age: 18-45y; BMI: 18.5-25kg/m2) intensely smelled the contents of cups filled with banana, meat or water (no-odour) in a within-subject design with four combinations: no-odour/banana, no-odour/meat, meat/banana and banana/meat. Participants received one combination per test day. In each combination, two cups with different fillings were smelled for five minutes after each other. Treatment order was balanced as much as possible. The effects of previous exposure and current odour on the appetite for (in)congruent sweet and savoury products, and odour pleasantness were analysed. A change from meat to banana odour or banana to meat odour was referred to as switch, whereas a change from no-odour to meat odour or no-odour to banana odour was no-switch. Results. The current odour (P

The appetizing and satiating effects of odours
Ramaekers, M.G. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Pieternel Luning; Catriona Lakemond. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739995 - 164
geurstoffen - eetlust - verzadigdheid - sensorische evaluatie - voedingsgewoonten - odours - appetite - satiety - sensory evaluation - feeding habits
Background and aim

Unhealthy eating habits such as unhealthy food choices or overeating increase the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and other diseases. Therefore, it is important to understand how separate factors, such as sensory processes, influence our eating behaviour. As one of the sensory modalities, olfaction has a relationship with food intake regulation. Previous research reveals that food odours can induce both appetite and satiation. In this thesis, we split appetite and satiation into a ‘general’ part and a ‘food specific’ part. General appetite and general satiation refer to the desire to eat in general. General satiation measured by subjective ratings (e.g. by using line scales) is also named ‘subjective satiation’. The specific part refers to the desire to eat a specific food: e.g. the appetite for a banana or the appetite for tomato soup.

The main objective of this thesis was to investigate under which circumstances odours are appetizing or satiating in order to identify factors that influence our eating behaviour.Odours arrive at the odour receptors via two routes: the orthonasal route via the nose to perceive the outside world or retronasally via the mouth to ‘taste’ the food. The appetizing and satiating effects of ortho- and retronasally smelled odours were investigated by varying the odour exposure time, the odour concentration(retronasal only), the odour type, passive versus active sniffing (orthonasal only) and by switching between odour types.


We conducted six within-subject experiments. All participants were healthy normal-weight women (age 18-45 y and BMI 18.5-26 kg/m2). In four experiments (studies 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B), we investigated the appetizing and satiating effects of orthonasal odours, with two experiments addressing odours that were smelled passively in rooms with ambient odours (chapter 2) and two addressing actively smelled odours by sniffing the contents of a cup (chapter 3). In studies 2A (passive, n=21), 2B (passive, n=13) and 3A (active, n=61), we investigated the effects of exposure timeand odour typeon appetite, the appetite for specific foods, food preference and food intake. Differences between passiveand active exposure were investigated by comparing the data from 2A and 3A. In the fourth experiment (n=30) using a similar set-up, sweet and savoury odours were presented directly after each other, to explore the effects of daily encounters with a variety of food odours (i.e. switching). In all orthonasal studies, general appetite and the appetite for specific foods were monitored over time, using visual analogue scales. General appetite comprised hunger and desire-to-eat ratings. The appetite for specific products addressed the appetite for smelled products and the appetites for a set of other products that were congruent and incongruent with the odour (studies 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B). Food preference was assessed using a computerised program offering pairs of food pictures (studies 2A, 2B and 3B).

Furthermore, two experiments addressed the satiating effects of retronasal odours while consuming tomato soup ad libitum (studies 4A and 4B). The retronasal odour exposure was disconnected from the soup base consumptionby use of a retronasal tube that was connected to an olfactometer. The odours were delivered directly into the nasal cavity at the moment a sip of soup base was swallowed. In study 4A (n=38), the satiating effects of odour exposure time(3 and 18 s) and odour concentration(5x difference) were investigated. In study 4B(n=42),we investigated whether addition of cream odourto tomato soup, in combination with a low or high viscosity, affected satiation. Hunger and appetite ratings were monitored over time during odour exposure, by using 100 mm visual analogue scales (VAS).


The results showed that orthonasalexposure to food odours influenced the appetite for specific foods via a typical pattern: the appetite ratings for the smelled foods increased by +6-20 mm(SSA; all P<0.001), the appetite for congruent sweet and savoury foods increased by +5 mmand the appetite for incongruent sweet and savoury foods decreased by -5 mm (all P<0.01), measured by using 100 mm VAS (studies 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B). This typical pattern was found in all studies, independently of passive or active smelling, exposure time or switching between odours (studies 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B). Results in study 3B showed that the appetite for specific products adjusted to the new odour within one minute after a switch between sweet and savoury odours. Similar results were found with a computerised food preference program, in which participants chose repeatedly between pairs of foods (studies 2A, 2B and 3B). Food preference shifted in circa 20% of the choices. Furthermore, passively smelled food odours had a large effect on the appetite for the smelled foods (+15 mm; P<0.001) and a small effect on general appetite (+4 mm; P=0.01; study 2A). Actively smelled food odours had nosignificant effect on general appetite or food intake (studies 3A and 3B). Non-food odours appeared to suppress general appetite slightly (-2 mm, P=0.01). The appetizing effects did not change over timeduring a twenty-minute odour exposure (studies 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B) and the typical pattern of odour effects on the appetite for specific foods was not affected by switching between sweet and savoury odours (study 3B). The pleasantness of the odour decreased by -4 mmduring active smelling (P=0.005), whereas the appetite for the smelled food remained high (P<0.001; study 3B).

Furthermore, the results from the retronasalstudies showed that an increase in both retronasal odour exposure time and concentration reduced ad libitum intake by 9 % (i.e. 3 sips and 22 kJ; P=0.04) and had no effect on subjective satiation (study 4A). Adding cream odour decreased subjective satiation with circa 5 %between 7 and 13 minutes after the start of consumption (P=0.009), but did not affect ad libitumintake (study 4B). Retronasally smelled odour significantly contributed to the development of sensory-specific satiety (study 4A).


Orthonasally smelled odours affect to a larger extend what you eat, than how much you eat. They influence the appetite for specific foods via a typical pattern: the appetite for the smelled foods and for congruent sweet or savoury foods increases, whereas the appetite for incongruent sweet or savoury foods decreases. This typical pattern is independent of exposure time, passive or active smelling and switchingbetween odours. The reason for this pattern is unknown, however, it may be caused by the preparation of the body for the intake of the smelled food, as food odours may provide information about the nutrient composition of their associated foods. Furthermore, passiveodour exposure may enhance general appetite (how much), whereas activesmelling appears to have no effect. Interestingly,the appetite for the smelled foods remained elevated during the 20-minute smelling, althoughthe pleasantness of the smelled odour decreased a little over time. This shows an earlier assumption from literature incorrect: a decrease in pleasantness of the odour does not lead to less appetite for the smelled food. This seeming contradiction may result from different mechanisms, such as a decrease in hedonic value during prolonged sensory stimulation on the one hand and anticipation of food intake on the other hand. Furthermore, food odours were found to change preference in circa 20% of the cases. Probably, food odours shift food preference, but do not overrule strong initial preferences in circa 80% of the cases.

Moreover, retronasally smelled odours probably have a small influence on satiation, though the evidence is not very strong. An increase in both retronasal odour concentrationand odour exposure timemay enhance satiation. Adding cream odourmay temporarily affect subjective satiation but does not affect food intake. However, the satiating effects that were found in these studies with retronasal odour exposure were borderline significant and data on food intake and subjective appetite ratings were not consistent, which probably reflects thesmall effect size.

Orthonasal odours influence food preference and could potentially be used to encourage healthy eating behaviour. The studies in this thesis were conducted under controlled circumstances and the results possibly deviate from behaviour in daily life. Therefore, it is unclear how strong the influence of odours is on our eating behaviour in daily situations. Finally, we advise product developers not to focus on changing retronasal odour characteristics in order to enhance satiation of products, seen the small effects that were found in this thesis.

Sensory-specific appetite is affected by actively smelled food odors and remains stable over time in normal-wight women
Ramaekers, M.G. ; Boesveldt, S. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Luning, P.A. - \ 2014
The Journal of Nutrition 144 (2014)8. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1314 - 1319.
cephalic phase responses - cue exposure - unrestrained eaters - olfactory-bulb - chewing gum - satiety - hunger - humans - perception - attention
Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The objective of this study was to investigate how actively sniffing banana odors affects general appetite, SSA, and subsequent food intake. In a crossover study, 61 women actively smelled cups containing natural banana, artificial banana odor, or water (no odor) for 10 min. Treatment order was randomly assigned as much as possible. General appetite and SSA were monitored by using 100-mm visual analog scales during the 10 min of active sniffing, followed by ad libitum intake of banana milkshake. Results showed that SSA was consistently high (+12 mm) during actively sniffing natural or artificial banana odors, with no decrease in SSA over time. Sniffing both banana odors increased the appetite for banana (+11 mm) and other sweet products (+4 mm), whereas the appetite for savory products decreased by 7 mm (all P <0.01) compared with no odor. Actively sniffing banana odor did not significantly influence food intake (P = 0.68) or general appetite scores (P = 0.06). In conclusion, SSA scores during active sniffing were identical to the SSA found in a similar study that used passive smelling, suggesting that SSA is independent of the manner of sniffing and exposure time. Moreover, sweet/savory categorization may suggest that food odors communicate information about the nutrient composition of their associated foods. These data clearly show the appetizing effects of food odors.
Aroma exposure time and aroma concentration in relation to satiation
Ramaekers, M.G. ; Luning, P.A. ; Ruijschop, R.M.A.J. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Bult, J.H.F. ; Gort, G. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2014
The British journal of nutrition 111 (2014)03. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 554 - 562.
sensory-specific satiety - food-intake - repeated consumption - flavor retention - release - size - orthonasal - perception - behavior - taste
The present study investigated the effect of aroma exposure time and aroma concentration on ad libitum intake and subjective satiation. In a within-subject study, thirty-eight unrestrained, healthy female participants (age: 18-39 years; BMI: 18·5-26·0 kg/m2) were asked to consume tomato soup during lunchtime, until they felt comfortably full. Every 30 s, the participants consumed 10 g of a bland soup base while tomato soup aroma was delivered separately through the nose via a retronasal tube that was attached to an olfactometer. This gave the impression of consuming real tomato soup. For each sip, the aroma varied in exposure time (3 and 18 s) and concentration (5 × ), resulting in four different test conditions. Ad libitum food intake and appetite profile parameters were measured. A 9 % lower food intake was observed when the participants were exposed to the condition with 18 s exposure time and a high concentration than when exposed to the other three conditions. These results indicate that changing the retronasal aroma release by aroma concentration and aroma exposure time affects food intake
Odors: appetizing or satiating? Development of appetite during odor exposure over time
Ramaekers, M.G. ; Boesveldt, S. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Luning, P.A. - \ 2014
International Journal of Obesity 38 (2014). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 650 - 656.
sensory-specific satiety - cephalic phase responses - food-cue exposure - dietary restraint - chewing gum - perception - humans - stimuli - flavor - meal
Background: Exposure to palatable food odors influences appetite responses, either promoting or inhibiting food intake. Possibly, food odors are appetizing after a short exposure (of circa 1–3¿min), but become satiating over time (circa 10–20¿min). Objective: To investigate the effect of odor exposure on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA) over time. Design: In a cross-over study, 21 unrestrained women (age: 18–45 years; BMI: 18.5–25¿kg¿m-2) were exposed for 20¿min to eight different odor types: five food odors, two nonfood odors and no-odor. All odors were distributed in a test room at suprathreshold levels. General appetite, SSA and salivation were measured over time. Results: All food odors significantly increased general appetite and SSA, compared with the no-odor condition. The nonfood odors decreased general appetite. All effects did not change over time during odor exposure. Savory odors increased the appetite for savory foods, but decreased appetite for sweet foods, and vice versa after exposure to sweet odors. Neither food odors nor nonfood odors affected salivation. Conclusions: Palatable food odors were appetizing during and after odor exposure and did not become satiating over a 20-min period. Food odors had a large impact on SSA and a small impact on general appetite. Moreover, exposure to food odors increased the appetite for congruent foods, but decreased the appetite for incongruent foods. It may be hypothesized that, once the body is prepared for intake of a certain food with a particular macronutrient composition, it is unfavorable to consume foods that are very different from the cued food.
On the use of Bayesian networks to combine raw data from related studies on sensory satiation
Phan, V.A. ; Ramaekers, M.G. ; Bolhuis, D.P. ; Garczarek, U. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Dekker, M. - \ 2012
Food Quality and Preference 26 (2012)1. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 119 - 127.
clostridium-botulinum - risk-assessment - consumption - metaanalysis
Bayesian networks were used to combine raw datasets from two independently performed but related studies. Both studies investigated sensory satiation by measuring ad libitum intake of a tomato soup model. The Aroma study varied aroma concentration and aroma duration as the explanatory variables, and the Taste study varied salt intensity. To combine the data from the two studies, the Aroma study needed information on salt aspects for all of its observations. Equally, the Taste study needed information on aroma aspects. This information was used to link the two single networks, each representing one study, into a combined network; therefore, it is referred to as structural linking information. The approach taken is seen as an example for the potential benefit and the challenges when combining raw datasets from different studies. The combined network is able to generate additional insights into complex relationships encountered with research on satiation. The main challenge results from the missing of structural linking information. In this paper, we (1) suggest solutions for obtaining the structural linking information, and (2) propose an approach to global experimental design to prevent this situation. The nature of the paper is theoretical rather than analytical due to the limitations caused by the small size of datasets.
Effect of Aroma Release Profiles on Ad Libitum Food Intake
Ramaekers, M.G. ; Luning, P.A. ; Ruijschop, R.M.A.J. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2009
In: Proceedings of the XVIIIth Congress of European Chemoreception, Portoroz, Slovenia, September 3–7, 2008. - - p. E20 - E20.
As a response to obesity and over consumption this project focuses on increasing the (sensory) satiation power of foods by changing their physical and chemical characteristics. Important factors that play a role in the early development of meal termination and satiety are sensory processes [1]. The effect of one of these sensory processes 'smell' has been investigated recently in a study by Ruijschop et al. [2]. They found an increase of reported satiation after longer retronasal stimulation with a strawberry aroma (compared with control condition) during consumption of a sweetened milk drink. The present study deals with the relationship between retronasal aroma stimulation and ad libidum food intake, using savoury stimuli. In a full factorial design, during 4 separate weeks at lunch time, 40 female participants (age 18–45) were asked to consume tomato soup until they were comfortably full. At each time when the participants swallowed 10 grams of a bland soup base, tomato soup aroma was administered in the nasal cavity with an Olfactometer, giving the impression of tomato soup. Ad libidum intake and appetite profile measurements were recorded. The retronasal aroma release profiles were varied in concentration (10x higher/lower) and duration (3s and 18s) resulting in 4 different profiles. Bite size and eating rate were fixed. Preliminary results indicate an effect between the aroma concentration of tomato soup and the ad libidum intake, which is in line with the hypotheses. Moreover in this presentation experimental pitfalls and lessons will be discussed
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