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|Lake retention of carbon-based nanoparticles and associated organic contaminants
Koelmans, A.A. ; Velzeboer, Ilona - \ 2015
Guidance for the Prognostic Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials in Aquatic Ecosystems
Koelmans, A.A. ; Diepens, N.J. ; Velzeboer, I. ; Besseling, E. ; Quik, J.T.K. - \ 2015
Science of the Total Environment 535 (2015). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 141 - 149.
engineered nanomaterials - tio2 nanoparticles - environmental fate - carbon nanotubes - manufactured nanoparticles - hediste-diversicolor - silver nanoparticles - scrobicularia-plana - cuo nanoparticles - fresh-water
Our understanding of the environmental fate and effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is in a state of fast transition. Recent scientific developments open new and powerful perspectives to define a framework for the prognostic risk assessment of ENMs in aquatic ecosystems. This requires abandoning the reductionist's approach of mechanistic analysis on particle or cellular scales and calls for engineering solutions that deal with uncertainties by applying assessment factors and probabilistic approaches. An ecological risk assessment (ERA) framework for ENMs is similar to that for other classes of substances, in that it requires clear protection goals based on ecosystem services, evidence-based concepts that link exposure to effects, and a transparent tiered effect assessment. Here, we discuss approaches to assess exposure and effects of ENMs. This includes recent developments in ENP fate modeling that greatly expanded the potential of prognostic exposure assessments. For the effect assessment, we advise a cost-effective screening based on principles of read-across as a conservative first tier. The feasibility of using species sensitivity distributions as a higher tier option is discussed. Controlled model ecosystem field experiments are proposed as a highest experimental tier, and are required for the calibration of the lower tiers. An outlook to unify information from various tiers by experimental work, fate modeling, and effect modeling as cost-effective prognostic tools for the ERA of ENMs is provided.
Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles
Koelmans, A.A. ; Quik, J.T.K. ; Velzeboer, I. - \ 2015
Environmental Pollution 196 (2015). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 171 - 175.
engineered nanomaterials - tio2 nanoparticles - fate models - aggregation - environment - sediment - exposure - heteroaggregation - impacts - release
For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hydraulic loadings covered the widest possible range among existing lakes. Sedimentation accounted for natural colloid as well as suspended solid settling regimes. An ENP-specific mixed sedimentation regime is proposed. This regime combines ENP sedimentation through slow settling with natural colloids from the water column, with faster settling with suspended solids from a selected part of the water column. Although sedimentation data and hydrodynamic concepts as such were not new, their first time combination for application to ENPs shows in which cases lake retention is important for these particles. In combination with ENP emission data, lake retention translates directly into potential risks of ENPs for lake benthic communities.
Implications of nanoparticles in the aquatic environment
Velzeboer, I. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bart Koelmans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739506 - 253
microplastics - polychloorbifenylen - nanotechnologie - adsorptie - ecotoxicologie - aquatisch milieu - verontreinigde sedimenten - aquatische ecologie - microplastics - polychlorinated biphenyls - nanotechnology - adsorption - ecotoxicology - aquatic environment - contaminated sediments - aquatic ecology
De productie en het gebruik van synthetische nanodeeltjes (ENPs) nemen toe en veroorzaken toenemende emissies naar het milieu. Dit proefschrift richt zich op de implicaties van ENPs in het aquatisch milieu, met de nadruk op het sediment, omdat er wordt verwacht dat ENPs hoofdzakelijk in het aquatisch sediment terecht zullen komen. ENPs kunnen directe effecten veroorzaken op organismen in het aquatisch milieu, indirecte effecten op het levensgemeenschap niveau en/of voedselweb en kunnen effecten op het gedrag en de risico’s van andere contaminanten hebben. Om de risico’s van ENPs vast te stellen, is niet alleen informatie nodig over het gevaar, oftewel de kans op een effect, maar ook over de kans op blootstelling.
Rapid settling of nanoparticles due to heteroaggregration with suspended sediment
Velzeboer, I. ; Quik, J.T.K. ; Meent, D. van de; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2014
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33 (2014)8. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 1766 - 1773.
engineered nanomaterials - silver nanoparticles - aquatic environments - aggregation - exposure - water - particles - matrices - carbon - quantification
Sedimentation of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has been studied mainly in artificial media and stagnant systems mimicking natural waters. This neglects the role of turbulence and heteroaggregation with sediment. We studied the apparent sedimentation rates of selected ENPs (CeO2, PVP-Ag and SiO2-Ag) in agitated sediment-water systems resembling fresh, estuarine and marine waters. Experiments were designed to mimic low energy and periodically resuspended sediment water systems (14 days), followed by a long term aging, resuspension and settling phase (6 months), as would occur in receiving shallow lakes. ENPs in systems with periodical resuspension of sediment were removed with sedimentation rates between 0.14 and 0.50¿m/d. The sedimentation rates did not vary much among ENP type, salinity and aging time, which is attributed to the capture of ENPs in sediment flocks. The sedimentation rates were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported for aggregation-sedimentation in stagnant systems without suspended sediment. Heteroaggregation rates were estimated and ranged between 0.151 and 0.547 L/mg/d, which is up to 29 times higher than those reported for natural colloids under quiescent settling conditions. We conclude that rapid scavenging and sedimentation drives removal of ENPs from the water column
Strong Sorption of PCBs to Nanoplastics, Microplastics, Carbon Nanotubes, and Fullerenes
Velzeboer, I. ; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2014
Environmental Science and Technology 48 (2014)9. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 4869 - 4876.
polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons - hydrophobic organic-chemicals - polychlorinated biphenyl sorption - mytilus-edulis l. - aquatic sediments - activated carbon - marine-environment - passive samplers - humic acids - adsorption
The presence of microplastic and carbon-based nanoparticles in the environment may have implications for the fate and effects of traditional hydrophobic chemicals. Here we present parameters for the sorption of 17 CB congeners to 10–180 µm sized polyethylene (micro-PE), 70 nm polystyrene (nano-PS), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), fullerene (C60), and a natural sediment in the environmentally relevant 10–5–10–1 µg L–1 concentration range. Effects of salinity and sediment organic matter fouling were assessed by measuring the isotherms in fresh- and seawater, with and without sediment present. Sorption to the “bulk” sorbents sediment organic matter (OM) and micro-PE occurred through linear hydrophobic partitioning with OM and micro-PE having similar sorption affinity. Sorption to MWCNT and nano-PS was nonlinear. PCB sorption to MWCNT and C60 was 3–4 orders of magnitude stronger than to OM and micro-PE. Sorption to nano-PS was 1–2 orders of magnitude stronger than to micro-PE, which was attributed to the higher aromaticity and surface–volume ratio of nano-PS. Organic matter effects varied among sorbents, with the largest OM fouling effect observed for the high surface sorbents MWCNT and nano-PS. Salinity decreased sorption for sediment and MWCNT but increased sorption for the polymers nano-PS and micro-PE. The exceptionally strong sorption of (planar) PCBs to C60, MWCNT, and nano-PS may imply increased hazards upon membrane transfer of these particles.
Heteroaggregation and sedimentation rates for nanomaterials in natural waters
Quik, J.T.K. ; Velzeboer, I. ; Wouterse, M. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Meent, D. van de - \ 2014
Water Research 48 (2014)1. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 269 - 279.
sedimentatie - zwevende deeltjes - aggregatie - nanotechnologie - emissie - schatting - colloïden - waterstroming - zeewater - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - sedimentation - suspended solids - aggregation - nanotechnology - emission - estimation - colloids - water flow - sea water - surface water quality - engineered nanomaterials - silver nanoparticles - carbon nanotubes - manufactured nanoparticles - aggregation kinetics - aquatic environments - ceo2 nanoparticles - organic-matter - fate - exposure
Exposure modeling of engineered nanomaterials requires input parameters such as sedimentation rates and heteroaggregation rates. Here, we estimate these rates using quiescent settling experiments under environmentally relevant conditions. We investigated 4 different nanomaterials (C60, CeO2, SiO2-Ag and PVP-Ag) in 6 different water types ranging from a small stream to seawater. In the presence of natural colloids, sedimentation rates ranged from 0.0001md-1 for SiO2-Ag to 0.14md-1 for C60. The apparent rates of heteroaggregation between nanomaterials and natural colloids were estimated using a novel method that separates heteroaggregation from homoaggregation using a simplified Smoluchowski-based aggregation-settling equation applied to data from unfiltered and filtered waters. The heteroaggregation rates ranged between 0.007 and 0.6Lmg-1 day-1, with the highest values observed in seawater. We argue that such system specific parameters are key to the development of dedicated water quality models for ENMs.
Koolstofnanodeeltjes hebben invloed op samenstelling waterleven
Velzeboer, I. - \ 2013
Nature Today (2013).
waterorganismen - ongewervelde dieren - fauna - nanotechnologie - nadelige gevolgen - aquatic organisms - invertebrates - nanotechnology - adverse effects
Koolstofnanodeeltjes blijken op lange termijn al bij lage concentraties effecten te hebben op het leven in het oppervlaktewater. Uit een proef onder natuurlijke veldomstandigheden komt naar voren dat de soortensamenstelling van ongewervelde waterdieren veranderde na langdurige blootstelling aan deze minuscule deeltjes. Het onderzoek is gedaan door Ilona Velzeboer van Wageningen University en onderzoeksinstituut IMARES van Wageningen UR. Zij publiceerde haar onderzoek in het toonaangevende tijdschrift Environmental Science & Technology.
Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations Affect the Composition of Benthic Communities
Velzeboer, I. ; Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2013
Environmental Science and Technology 47 (2013)13. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 7475 - 7482.
macroinvertebrate community - manufactured nanoparticles - engineered nanomaterials - contaminated sediments - aquatic sediments - black carbon - long-term - toxicity - bioavailability - ecotoxicology
To date, chronic effect studies with manufactured nanomaterials under field conditions are scarce. Here, we report in situ effects of 0, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, and 2 g/kg multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in sediment on the benthic community composition after 15 months of exposure. Effects observed after 15 months were compared to those observed after 3 months and to community effects of another carbonaceous material (activated carbon; AC), which was simultaneously tested in a parallel study. Redundancy analysis with variance partitioning revealed a total explained variance of 51.7% of the variation in community composition after 15 months, of which MWCNT dose explained a statistically significant 9.9%. By stepwise excluding the highest MWCNT concentrations in the statistical analyses, MWCNT effects were shown to be statistically significant already at the lowest dose investigated, which can be considered environmentally relevant. We conclude that despite prolonged aging, encapsulation, and burial, MWCNTs can affect the structure of natural benthic communities in the field. This effect was similar to that of AC observed in a parallel experiment, which however was applied at a 50 times higher maximum dose. This suggests that the benthic community was more sensitive to MWCNTs than to the bulk carbon material AC.
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes affect long term recolonization and structure of benthic communities
Velzeboer, I. - \ 2013
To date, chronic effect studies with manufactured nanomaterials under field conditions are scarce. Here, we report in situ effects of 0, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, and 2 g/kg multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in sediment on the benthic community composition after 15 months of exposure. Effects observed after 15 months were compared to those observed after 3 months and to community effects of another carbonaceous material (activated carbon; AC), which was simultaneously tested in a parallel study. Redundancy analysis with variance partitioning revealed a total explained variance of 51.7% of the variation in community composition after 15 months, of which MWCNT dose explained a statistically significant 9.9%. By stepwise excluding the highest MWCNT concentrations in the statistical analyses, MWCNT effects were shown to be statistically significant already at the lowest dose investigated, which can be considered environmentally relevant. We conclude that despite prolonged aging, encapsulation, and burial, MWCNTs can affect the structure of natural benthic communities in the field. This effect was similar to that of AC observed in a parallel experiment, which however was applied at a 50 times higher maximum dose. This suggests that the benthic community was more sensitive to MWCNTs than to the bulk carbon material AC
Sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate to carbon nanotubes in aquatic sediments
Kwadijk, C.J.A.F. ; Velzeboer, I. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2013
Chemosphere 90 (2013)5. - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 1631 - 1636.
natural organic-matter - adsorption - nanomaterials - environment - attenuation - release - surface - acids - pfos
To date, sorption of organic compounds to nanomaterials has mainly been studied for the nanomaterial in its pristine state. However, sorption may be different when nanomaterials are buried in sediments. Here, we studied sorption of Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to sediment and to sediment with 4% multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), as a function of factors affecting PFOS sorption; aqueous concentration, pH and Ca2+ concentration. Sorption to MWCNT in the sediment–MWCNT mixtures was assessed by subtracting the contribution of PFOS sorption to sediment-only from PFOS sorption to the total sediment–MWCNT mixture. PFOS Log KD values ranged 0.52–1.62 L kg-1 for sediment and 1.91–2.90 L kg-1 for MWCNT present in the sediment. The latter values are relatively low, which is attributed to fouling of MWCNT by sediment organic matter. PFOS sorption was near-linear for sediment (Freundlich exponent of 0.92 ± 0.063) but non-linear for MWCNT (Freundlich exponent of 0.66 ± 0.03). Consequently, the impact of MWCNT on sorption in the mixture was larger at low PFOS aqueous concentration. Effects of pH and Ca2+ on PFOS sorption to MWCNT were statistically significant. We conclude that MWCNT fouling and PFOS concentration dependency are important factors affecting PFOS–MWCNT interactions in sediments.
|Sedimentation of nanomaterials in natural waters
Quik, J.T.K. ; Velzeboer, I. ; Wouterse, M. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Meent, D. van de - \ 2012
|Rapid settling of nanomaterials due to hetero-aggregation with suspended sediment
Velzeboer, I. ; Quik, J.T.K. ; Meent, D. van de; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2012
Electrical stunning of captured fish
Vis, J.W. van de; Digre, H. ; Grong Aursand, I. ; Grimsmo, L. ; Burggraaf, D. ; Abbink, W. ; Marlen, B. van; Velzeboer, I. ; Lambooij, E. - \ 2012
In: HSA Centenary International Symposium : Recent Advances in the Welfare of Livestock at Slaughter, Herts, UK, 30 June - 1 July, 2011. - Herts UK : Universities Federation for Animal Welfare - p. 151 - 151.
Electrical stunning to protect welfare of food animals at slaughter is established for a range of farm animals. For fish, it is reported that when sufficient current is passed through the head, a general epileptiform insult will occur, which is recorded on an EEG. The epileptiform insult is indicative for loss of consciousness. Fish species’ specific specifications to achieve an instantaneous stun without recovery, should be based on EEG recordings. It is known that electrical stunning of fish may lead to carcase damage. For Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) it is reported that so called ‘dry stunning’ results in a very low incidence of damages. With ‘dry stunning’, a current is administered to a fish, after de-watering, via rows of positive plate electrodes and a conveyor belt as negative electrode. Preliminary experiments performed by SINTEF with captured fish indicate that electrical stunning could allow for more rapid gutting and rinsing of fish onboard. Stunning of captured fish prior to killing could, therefore, increase the fish quality and at the same time protect welfare of fish at slaughter. The issue of electrical stunning of captured cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) onboard is one of the sub-objectives of a Norwegian project, led by SINTEF. This project started in 2010 and focuses on development and assessment of novel technologies onboard. In this project we assessed ‘dry stunning’ of captured cod and haddock onboard the Jan Mayen. For the ‘dry stunning’, experimental equipment developed by the Norwegian manufacturer SeaSide was used. EEG recordings revealed that when on average 52 Vrms (100 Hz alternating current component, coupled with a direct current component) was applied across the electrodes for 1 s, sufficient current was passed through cod and haddock to provoke immediate loss of consciousness. In 2009 a group of fishermen in The Netherlands decided to initiate a project on stunning of captured sole (Solea solea), turbot (Psetta maxima), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), dab (Limanda limanda) and cod onboard. It is the view of these fishermen that sustainability of fisheries should also include welfare of captured fish. The Dutch project, which started in 2010, is managed by the company Scienta Nova. The first step is to establish conditions for ‘dry stunning’ to achieve instantaneous loss of consciousness in plaice and dab.
|Sedimentation and dissolution of nanomaterials in natural waters
Quik, J.T.K. ; Velzeboer, I. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Meent, D. van de - \ 2011
Community effects of carbon nanotubes in aquatic sediments
Velzeboer, I. ; Kupryianchyk, D. ; Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2011
Environment International 37 (2011)6. - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 1126 - 1130.
manufactured nanoparticles - engineered nanoparticles - black carbon - environment - nanomaterials - bioavailability - ecotoxicology - toxicity - behavior - risks
Aquatic sediments form an important sink for manufactured nanomaterials, like carbon nanotubes (CNT) and fullerenes, thus potentially causing adverse effects to the aquatic environment, especially to benthic organisms. To date, most nanoparticle effect studies used single species tests in the laboratory, which lacks ecological realism. Here, we studied the effects of multiwalled CNT (MWCNT) contaminated sediments on benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment was taken from an unpolluted site, cleaned from invertebrates, mixed with increasing levels of MWCNTs (0, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2 and 2 g/kg dry weight), transferred to trays and randomly relocated in the original unpolluted site, which now acted as a donor system for recolonization by benthic species. After three months of exposure, the trays were regained, organic (OC) and residual carbon (RC) were measured, and benthic organisms and aquatic macrophytes were identified. ANOVA revealed a significantly higher number of individuals with increasing MWCNT concentrations. The Shannon index showed no significant effect of MWCNT addition on biodiversity. Multivariate statistics applied to the complete macroinvertebrate dataset, did show effects on the community level. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed differences in taxa composition related to MWCNT levels indicating differences in sensitivity of the taxa. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) revealed that MWCNT dose, presence of macrophytes, and spatial distribution explained 38.3% of the total variation in the data set, of which MWCNT dose contributed with 18.9%. Still, the net contribution of MWCNT dose was not statistically significant, indicating that negative community effects are not likely to occur at environmentally relevant future CNT concentrations in aquatic sediments.
|Community effects of carbon nanotubes in aquatic sediments
Velzeboer, I. ; Kupryianchyk, D. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2010
|Extremely strong Sorption of PCBs to Fullerence C60 seems not to be attenuated by Organic Matter Fouling - A Pilot Study
Velzeboer, I. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2010
|Community effects of carbon-based nanoparticles
Velzeboer, I. ; Kupryianchyk, D. ; Reichman, E.P. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2010
Beperkte survey organotinverbindingen
Velzeboer, I. ; Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, M. van; Tjon Atsoi, M.M.G. - \ 2010
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport C062/10 ) - 17
organo-tinverbindingen - organo-tinpesticiden - tributyltinoxide - aangroeiwerende middelen - marien milieu - vis - voedselveiligheid - noordzee - monitoring - organotin compounds - organotin pesticides - tributyltin oxide - antifouling agents - marine environment - fish - food safety - north sea
In 2009 heeft het Europees Parlement ingestemd met de Kaderrichtlijn Mariene Strategie. Uiterlijk in 2010 moet de richtlijn in nationale wet-en regelgeving worden overgenomen. De richtlijn verplicht landen om maatregelen te nemen die een achteruitgang van het mariene milieu tegengaan. Deze maatregelen treden in 2015 in werking. Daarna volgt de uitwerking van de richtlijn per regio. Voor Nederland is dat de Noordzee. Een van de doelen van de kaderrichtlijn heeft betrekking op contaminanten in vis- en schelpdieren voor de consumptie. Het gaat dan met name om organotinverbindingen, een zoutwater contaminant met reeds aangetoonde milieu-effecten.