Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    A standardized Physical Equivalent Temperature urban heat map at 1-m spatial resolution to facilitate climate stress tests in the Netherlands
    Koopmans, S. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Steeneveld, G.J. - \ 2020
    Building and Environment 181 (2020). - ISSN 0360-1323
    Climate scenario - GIS - Heat map - Physiological equivalent temperature - The Netherlands - Urban climate - Urban heat island - Urban planning

    In the Netherlands, municipalities and other sub-national governments have to conduct climate stress tests to examine the societal impact of heat load by citizens. So far, these parties have been hindered by the abundance of contrasting urban heat maps produced with different metrics and methods by different agencies. To unify the stress tests, we present a methodology for a standardized urban heat map at 1-m spatial resolution by selecting the Physical Equivalent Temperature (PET) as metric for heat stress. First we present an empirical regression model for PET, based on a variety of weather data and street configurations in the human thermal energy balance model Rayman. Thereafter, this empirical PET-model is evaluated for the midsized town Wageningen (the Netherlands). Meteorological observations taken at a nearby reference site and straightforward geographical data have been used as model input. Also, established methods were applied and elaborated to account for the urban heat island effect and wind speed reduction in the city. The presented method is validated against bike traverse observations of PET. Wind speed is the most challenging feature to map, due to its unsteady and local behaviour in cities. As a result, an afternoon averaged PET heat map is demonstrated as standard for an extreme heat day (1:1000 summer half year days), and a cumulative exceedance PET heat map for a representative year. Furthermore, a heat map is projected for 2050 according a warm climate change scenario.

    Integrated urban hydrometeorological, climate and environmental services : Concept, methodology and key messages
    Grimmond, Sue ; Bouchet, Veronique ; Molina, Luisa T. ; Baklanov, Alexander ; Tan, Jianguo ; Schlünzen, K.H. ; Mills, Gerald ; Golding, Brian ; Masson, Valery ; Ren, Chao ; Voogt, James ; Miao, Shiguang ; Lean, Humphrey ; Heusinkveld, Bert ; Hovespyan, Anahit ; Teruggi, Giacomo ; Parrish, Patrick ; Joe, Paul - \ 2020
    Urban Climate 33 (2020). - ISSN 2212-0955

    Integrated Urban hydrometeorological, climate and environmental Services (IUS) is a World Meteorological Organization (WMO) initiative to aid development of science-based services to support safe, healthy, resilient and climate friendly cities. Guidance for Integrated Urban Hydrometeorological, Climate and Environmental Services (Volume I) has been developed with the intent to provide an overview of the concept, methods and good practices for producing and providing these services to respond to urban hazards across a range of time scales (weather to climate). This involves combining (dense) heterogeneous observation networks, high-resolution forecasts, multi-hazard early warning systems and climate services to assist cities in setting and implementing mitigation and adaptation strategies for the management and building of resilient and sustainable cities. IUS includes research, evaluation and delivery with a wide participation from city governments, national hydrometeorological services, international organizations, universities, research institutions and private sector stakeholders. An overview of the IUS concept with key messages, examples of good practice and recommendations are provided. The research community will play an important role to: identify critical research challenges; develop impact forecasts and warnings; promote and deliver IUS internationally, and; support national and local communities in the implementation of IUS thereby contributing to the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals at all scales.

    Quantifying the Feedback Between Rice Architecture, Physiology, and Microclimate Under Current and Future CO2 Conditions
    Sikma, M. ; Ikawa, H. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Yoshimoto, M. ; Hasegawa, T. ; Groot Haar, L.T. ; Anten, N.P.R. ; Nakamura, H. ; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J. ; Sakai, H. ; Tokida, T. ; Usui, Y. ; Evers, J.B. - \ 2020
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 125 (2020)3. - ISSN 2169-8953
    food security - Free-Air CO Enrichment (FACE) - land-atmosphere - microclimate - plant physiology

    To assess the micrometeorological consequences of rice variety choices in relation to rising CO2 associated to climate change, we quantified the interplay between rice architecture, physiology, and microclimate in current (~385 μmol mol−1) and future (~580 μmol mol−1) CO2 microenvironments. Two rice varieties contrasting in canopy structure and physiology were grown embedded in irrigated rice paddies, under elevated CO2 (using a Free-Air CO2 Enrichment facility) and ambient CO2 conditions. The high-yielding indica variety Takanari is more photosynthetically active and characterized by a more open canopy than a commonly cultivated variety Koshihikari. Our results show a strong diurnal interplay between solar angle, canopy structure, plant physiology, and the overlying atmosphere. Plant architecture was identified as a strong determinant of the relation between plant physiology and microclimate that in turn affects the surface forcing to the overlying atmosphere. Takanari was able to maintain lower canopy temperature both in current and future CO2 owing to the greater atmospheric mixing and stomatal conductance than Koshihikari. In the perspective of food security, a shift to such a higher-yielding variety would have consequences on the regional surface energy balance, which subsequently might alter regional weather.

    Measuring low-altitude winds with a hot-air balloon and their validation with Cabauw tower observations
    Bruijn, Evert I.F. De; Bosveld, Fred C. ; Haan, Siebren de; Heusinkveld, Bert G. - \ 2020
    Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 37 (2020)2. - ISSN 0739-0572 - p. 263 - 277.

    A field experiment with a hot-air balloon was conducted in the vicinity of the meteorological observatory of Cabauw in The Netherlands. Recreational hot-air balloon flights contain useful wind information in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). On a yearly basis between 8000 and 9000 flights are taking place in The Netherlands, mainly during the morning and evening transition. An application (app) for smartphones has been developed to collect location data. We report about a feasibility study of a hot-air balloon experiment where we investigated the accuracy of the smartphone’s Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver using an accurate geodetic GNSS receiver as a reference. Further, we study the dynamic response of the hot-air balloon on variations in the wind by measuring the relative wind with a sonic anemometer, which is mounted below the gondola. The GNSS comparison reveals that smartphones equipped with a GNSS chip have in the horizontal plane an absolute position error standard deviation of 5 m, but their relative position error standard deviation is smaller. Therefore, the horizontal speeds, which are based on relative positions and a time step of 1 s, have standard deviations of σu = 0.8 m s-1 and σv = 0.6 m s-1. The standard deviation in altitude is 12 m. We have validated the hot-air balloon derived wind data with observations from the Cabauw tower and the results are encouraging. We have studied the dynamics of a hot-air balloon. An empirical value of the response length has been found which accounts for the balloon’s inertia after a changing wind, and which compared favorable with the theoretical derived value. We have found a small but systematic movement of the hot-air balloon relative to the surrounding air. The model for the balloon dynamics has been refined to account for this so-called inertial drift.

    Hydrometeorological monitoring using opportunistic sensing networks in the Amsterdam metropolitan area
    Vos, L.W. De; Droste, A.M. ; Zander, M.J. ; Overeem, A. ; Leijnse, H. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Uijlenhoet, R. - \ 2020
    Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (2020). - ISSN 0003-0007 - 15 p.
    Several opportunistic sensors (private weather stations, commercial microwave links and smartphones) are employed to obtain weather information and successfully monitor urban weather events.
    The ongoing urbanisation and climate change urges further understanding and monitoring of weather in cities. Two case studies during a 17-day period over the Amsterdam metropolitan area, the Netherlands, are used to illustrate the potential and limitations of hydrometeorological monitoring using non-traditional and opportunistic sensors. We employ three types of opportunistic sensing networks to monitor six important environmental variables: (1) air temperature estimates from smartphone batteries and personal weather stations; (2) rainfall from commercial microwave links and personal weather stations; (3) solar radiation from smartphones; (4) wind speed from personal weather stations; (5) air pressure from smartphones and personal weather stations; (6) humidity from personal weather stations. These observations are compared to dedicated, traditional observations where possible, although such networks are typically sparse in urban areas. First we show that the passage of a front can be successfully monitored using data from several types of non-traditional sensors in a complementary fashion. Also we demonstrate the added value of opportunistic measurements in quantifying the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect during a hot episode. The UHI can be clearly determined from personal weather stations, though UHI values tend to be high compared to records from a traditional network. Overall, this study illustrates the enormous potential for hydrometeorological monitoring in urban areas using non-traditional and opportunistic sensing networks.
    Op deze plekken in de stad was het afgelopen zomer het heetst
    Heusinkveld, Bert - \ 2019
    'Higher speeds at night not smart'
    Heusinkveld, Bert - \ 2019

    Om Nederland uit de stikstofcrisis te trekken, gaat de maximumsnelheid op de snelwegen terug naar 100. Alleen ’s nachts mag 130 nog rijden. Niet slim, vindt meteoroloog Bert Heusinkveld.

    Heusinkveld is onderzoeker bij de leerstoelgroep Meteorologie en Luchtkwaliteit. Zijn groep doet veel studie naar de gebeurtenissen in de zogeheten grenslaag, de laag lucht die wij ademen en waar ons weer zich afspeelt.

    Waarom is 130 's nachts niet slim?
    ‘De atmosfeer warmt overdag van onderaf op. Die warme lucht stijgt op en vormt de zogeheten grenslaag, de dunne laag lucht waarin wij leven en ademen. En waarin ook alle vervuiling terechtkomt. ’s Nachts koelt de lucht af, krimpt en vormt een dunne stabiele luchtlaag waarin door afnemende wind nauwelijks nog vermenging plaatsvindt. Een grenslaag die overdag een kilometer dik is, kan ’s nachts krimpen tot slechts honderd meter. Vervuilende stoffen uit het wegverkeer veroorzaken dan een hogere concentratie in die stabiele grenslaag.’

    Moet de maatregel dan andersom zijn: overdag 130 en ’s nachts 100?
    ‘Zo ver wil ik niet gaan. Maar 130 rijden is met het oog op luchtvervuiling overdag minder erg dan ’s nachts. Daar staat tegenover dat er overdag natuurlijk veel meer auto’s rijden dan ’s nachts.’

    Dus eigenlijk helemaal geen 130 km/uur?
    ‘Nee. Een limiet van 130 brengt onrustig rijgedrag met zich mee. Onderlinge snelheidsverschillen leiden sneller tot files en veroorzaken ongevallen. De grote milieuwinst van 100 rijden ontstaat door rustiger rijgedrag en minder files. Een auto in de file stoot per kilometer meer vervuilende stoffen uit dan eentje die kan doorrijden. Maar 130 rijden zorgt voor 30 procent meer vervuiling dan 100.’

    Zijn er nog andere meteorologische redenen om juist ’s nachts niet hard te rijden?
    ‘Ja, het geluid draagt ’s nachts veel verder. Doordat de grenslaag afkoelt, ontstaan flinke verschillen in de temperatuur in die laag. Bovenin kan het wel 10-15 graden warmer zijn dan onderin. In het warmere deel is de geluidsnelheid hoger. Geluid slaat daardoor makkelijker over geluidswallen heen. Het kan zelfs zo zijn dat het effect van zo’n wal daardoor volledig teniet wordt gedaan. Harder rijden in de nacht zorgt daardoor voor meer overlast dan overdag. In Duitsland mogen om die reden auto’s rond steden ’s nacht maar 80. En vrachtauto’s zelfs maar 60.’

    Impact of Future Warming and Enhanced [CO2] on the Vegetation‐Cloud Interaction
    Sikma, M. ; Vilà‐Guerau De Arellano, J. ; Pedruzo‐bagazgoitia, X. ; Voskamp, T. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Anten, N.P.R. ; Evers, J.B. - \ 2019
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124 (2019)23. - ISSN 2169-897X - p. 12444 - 12454.
    The effects of increases in carbon dioxide and temperature on the vegetation‐atmosphere‐cloud interaction are studied with a bottom‐up approach. Using the 3‐D large‐eddy simulation technique coupled with a CO2‐sensitive dynamic plant physiological submodel, we aimed to spatially and temporally understand the surface and vegetation forcing on the coupled land‐atmosphere interactions in future scenarios. Four simulations were designed: a control simulation for current conditions, an enhanced carbon dioxide simulation (current +200 ppm), an elevated temperature simulation (current +2 K), and a simulation covering the combination of both elevations in temperature and CO2. With elevations in carbon dioxide, plant transpiration is reduced due to stomatal closure, resulting in reduced latent‐ and increased sensible heat fluxes. Although no effects on cloud cover were found in this simulation, the in‐cloud moisture flux was enhanced. Elevations in temperature yielded opposite results with reduced sensible and increased latent heat fluxes, which reduced the turbulent kinetic energy and buoyancy rates, thereby negatively impacting cloud formation. Our future climate mimicking simulation shows minimal changes in the regional energy balance due to offsetting effects between increased temperature and [CO2], while plant photosynthesis increased and transpiration decreased. The atmospheric boundary layer was drier, even though surface fluxes were very similar current conditions, thereby hampering cloud formation and development. Our results highlight the necessity of small scales and interactions, which require a bottom‐up approach to be able to accurately capture the nonlinear plant‐atmosphere interactions.

    Nocturnal speed limits
    Heusinkveld, Bert - \ 2019
    Het groene dak wint aan populariteit: goed voor het milieu en fijn om op uit te kijken
    Heusinkveld, B.G. - \ 2019
    Met temperaturen boven de 40 graden beleeft Nederland een ‘ondenkbare’ hittegolf
    Steeneveld, G.J. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. - \ 2019

    Noem het een nieuw tijdperk. Met 40,7 graden in Gilze-Rijen donderdagmiddag laat bereikte de thermometer in Nederland niet alleen een nieuw warmterecord, maar ook een temperatuur die een eeuw geleden statistisch gezien tot de onmogelijkheden behoorde. Dat laat eens te meer zien hoezeer de klimaatverandering de grenzen van het denkbare oprekt.

    Ontwikkeling van een standaard hittekaart voor klimaatstresstesten
    Steeneveld, G.J. ; Koopmans, S. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. - \ 2019
    Meteorologica / Nederlandse Vereniging van Beroeps Meteorologen 2019 (2019)2. - ISSN 0929-1504 - p. 8 - 11.
    Boven de stad is het nog heter
    Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Krol, M.C. ; Steeneveld, G.J. - \ 2019

    Hitte-eiland Een stad wordt warmer dan het buitengebied, door al die stenen en een gebrek aan wind. Maar tot hoe hoog gaat dat ‘hitte-eiland’ door? Onderzoekers deden unieke proeven, in hartje Amsterdam.

    Alarm over smog: risico voor de gezondheid
    Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Steeneveld, G.J. - \ 2019

    In heel Nederland is de kans op zware smog door de hitte en de wind uit het Ruhrgebied zo groot dat de 'alarmdrempel' wordt bereikt. Niet alleen astmapatiënten krijgen last, maar iedereen loopt risico.

    Weerballonnen meten stedelijke hitte
    Steeneveld, G.J. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. - \ 2019

    Op de Dam in Amsterdam worden woensdag de hele dag door weerballonnen opgelaten. Din doen ze om temperaturen te meten op grote hoogte. Gert-Jan van Wageningen University staat met verslaggever Peter Boender op de Dam.

    Koffiebekertjes zoeken op hoogte naar hitte
    Steeneveld, G.J. ; Heusinkveld, Bert - \ 2019

    De stad is een hitte-eiland. Het kan er zomers langer aangenaam zijn dan op het platteland en autobezitters hoeven er ’s winters amper hun auto te krabben. Maar hoe zit dat precies, wetenschappelijk gezien? En hoe kunnen we die gegevens gebruiken in het wapenen van steden tegen hittestress?

    Weerballonnen brengen Amsterdamse stadsklimaat in kaart
    Steeneveld, G.J. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. - \ 2019

    Om het stadsklimaat beter te begrijpen en voorspellen, lieten onderzoekers van WUR samen met het Amsterdam Institute for Metropolitan Solutions woensdag 24 juni weerballonnen op vanaf onder meer de Dam in Amsterdam. Een uniek experiment: de laatste keer dat er verticale waarnemingen zijn verzameld was met een helikopter, meer dan vijftig jaar geleden in New York.

    Op zoek naar het ‘hitte-eiland’ boven Amsterdam
    Steeneveld, G.J. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. - \ 2019

    Steden als Amsterdam lijden aan hittestress. Onderzoekers willen weten hoe ze de druk kunnen verminderen.

    Onderzoekers meten hitte met weerballon
    Steeneveld, G.J. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Tsiringakis, Aristofanis - \ 2019

    Om het stadsklimaat beter te begrijpen, meten onderzoekers van Wageningen University & Research met een weerballon tot welke hoogte de hitte in de stad verschilt van de temperaturen buiten de stad. De metingen werden verricht in Amsterdam en Breukelen.

    Alarm over smog: risico voor de gezondheid
    Steeneveld, G.J. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. - \ 2019

    In heel Nederland is de kans op zware smog door de hitte en de wind uit het Ruhrgebied zo groot dat de 'alarmdrempel' wordt bereikt. Niet alleen astmapatiënten krijgen last, maar iedereen loopt risico.

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