Macro-evolutionary trade-offs as the basis for the distribution of European bats
Haarsma, R.J. ; Siepel, H. - \ 2013
Animal Biology 63 (2013). - ISSN 1570-7555 - p. 451 - 471.
long-eared bats - life-history strategies - geographic range size - species richness - pipistrellus-pipistrellus - insectivorous bats - foraging behavior - plecotus-auritus - roost temperature - myotis-lucifugus
Bats have a high species diversity and show unique ecological traits. The distribution patterns of European bat species differ between species. In this paper we seek to explain which life history traits, or interrelations between traits, can best explain observed differences in the distribution patterns of bats. Traits are interrelated and sometimes involve trade-offs, implying that a change in one trait may have positive or negative consequences for other traits. We describe the main morphological, physiological and ecological adaptations of insectivorous European bat species. We make pair-wise relations between traits, indicating the interrelations between traits, in terms of possible trade-offs. We relate the consequences of these trade-offs to the distribution maps of the species, focusing on the traits relevant for southern and northern distribution limits. We found coarse patterns that might indicate the distribution of related species are a consequence of their physiological, morphological and ecological adaptations and the interrelations between these adaptations. Hence, we think life-history strategies can be used to explain differences in species distribution. The method presented in this paper might also be useful for other mammal groups with a high species diversity, such as Rodentia and Soricidae.
Assessing 20th century climate-vegetation feedbacks of land-use change and natural vegetation dynamics in a fully coupled vegetation-climate model
Strengers, B.J. ; Müller, C. ; Schaeffer, M. ; Haarsma, R.J. ; Severijns, C. ; Gerten, D. ; Schaphoff, S. ; Houdt, R. Van den; Oostenrijk, R. - \ 2010
International Journal of Climatology 30 (2010)13. - ISSN 0899-8418 - p. 2055 - 2065.
cover change - carbon-cycle - tropical deforestation - community land - atmospheric response - stomatal conductance - boundary-layer - boreal forest - variability - atlantic
This study describes the coupling of the dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), Lund–Potsdam–Jena Model for managed land (LPJmL), with the general circulation model (GCM), Simplified Parameterizations primitivE Equation DYnamics model (SPEEDY), to study the feedbacks between land-use change and natural vegetation dynamics and climate during the 20th century. We show that anthropogenic land-use change had a stronger effect on climate than the natural vegetation's response to climate change (e.g. boreal greening). Changes in surface albedo are an important driver of the climate's response; but, especially in the (sub)tropics, changes in evapotranspiration and the corresponding changes in latent heat flux and cloud formation can be of equal importance in the opposite direction. Our study emphasizes that implementing dynamic vegetation into climate models is essential, especially at regional scales: the dynamic response of natural vegetation significantly alters the climate change that is driven by increased atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and anthropogenic land-use change
Representing the atmospheric boundary layer in climate models of intermediate compexity
Ronda, R.J. ; Haarsma, R.J. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2003
Climate Dynamics 21 (2003)3-4. - ISSN 0930-7575 - p. 327 - 335.
general-circulation model - surface fluxes - part i - parameterization - simulations - turbulence - land - diffusion - schemes - energy
In this study the role of atmospheric boundary layer schemes in climate models is investigated. Including a boundary layer scheme in an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC) produces only minor differences in the estimated global distribution of sensible and latent heat fluxes over land (upto about 15% of the net radiation at the surface). However, neglecting of boundary layer processes, such as the development of a well-mixed layer over land or the impact of stability on the exchange coefficient in the surface layer, leads to erroneous surface temperatures, especially in convective conditions with low wind speeds. As these conditions occur frequently, introducing a boundary layer scheme in an EMIC gives reductions in June-July-August averaged surface temperature of 1¿2 °C in wet areas, to 5¿7 °C in desert areas. Even a relatively simple boundary layer scheme provides reasonable estimates of the surface fluxes and surface temperatures. Detailed schemes that solve explicitly the turbulent fluxes within the boundary layer are only required when vertical profiles of potential temperature are needed.