Mass balance models to derive critical loads of nitrogen and acidity for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
Posch, M. ; Vries, W. de; Sverdrup, H.U. - \ 2015
In: Critical Loads and Dynamic Risk Assessments: Nitrogen, Acidity and Metals in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Environmental Pollution / de Vries, W., Hettelingh, J.P., Posch, M., Springer Verlag - ISBN 9789401795081 - p. 171 - 205.
This chapter describes the standard approaches (mass balance models) to calculate critical loads of nutrient nitrogen (N) as well as for sulphur (S) and N acidity for both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The description focuses on the so-called Simple Mass Balance (SMB) model for nutrient nitrogen and acidity for terrestrial ecosystems and on the First-order Acidity Balance (FAB) model for aquatic ecosystems. The model descriptions are in accordance with the methods for calculating critical loads under the LRTAP Convention. For both types of models, a discussion is presented on the required input data, data sources and standard model parameter values used in their application. For acidity, the chapter elaborates on the critical load function as there is no unique critical load of S and N acidity, and on the approach to assess critical load exceedances. The chapter ends with a discussion on the possible formulation of critical loads based on biodiversity criteria.
Geochemical indicators for use in the computation of critical loads and dynamic risk assessments
Vries, W. de; Posch, M. ; Sverdrup, H.U. ; Larssen, T. ; Wit, H.A. ; Bobbink, R. ; Hettelingh, J.P. - \ 2015
In: Critical Loads and Dynamic Risk Assessments: Nitrogen, Acidity and Metals in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems / de Vries, W., Hettelingh, J.P., Posch, M., Springer (Environmental Pollution 25) - ISBN 9789401795081 - p. 15 - 158.
This chapter provides an overview of geochemical indicators for nitrogen (N), acidity, and metals in soil and water (soil solution, ground water and surface water) in view of their impacts on different endpoints (tree growth/health, human health, soil biodiversity etc.). Relevant indicators for N are the soil C/N ratio, nitrate (NO3) concentration in ground water and total N concentration in soil and surface water. For acidity the most relevant endpoint indicators are the exchangeable base cation pool or base saturation in the soil, the ratio of aluminium (Al) to base cation (Bc) in soil solution, the total Al concentration in ground water and the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in surface water. Relevant indicators for metals are the total or reactive metal concentration in the soil and the free or total metal ion concentration in water. Using critical limits for those endpoint indicators, it is possible to assess critical loads for both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems based on geochemical modelling. An overview is given of the derivation of those limits, mostly under laboratory circumstances, and a critical evaluation of their relevance in the field situation.
Dynamic geochemical models to assess deposition impacts and target loads of acidity for soils and surface waters
Bonten, L.T.C. ; Reinds, G.J. ; Groenenberg, J.E. ; Vries, W. de; Posch, M. ; Evans, C. ; Belyazid, S. ; Braun, S. ; Moldan, F. ; Sverdrup, H.U. ; Kurz, D. - \ 2015
In: Critical Loads and Dynamic Risk Assessments: Nitrogen, Acidity and Metals in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems / de Vries, W., Hettlingh, J.-P., Posch, M., Springer (Environmental Pollution 25) - ISBN 9789401795081 - p. 225 - 251.
This chapter presents four geochemical dynamic models (VSD, MAGIC, ForSAFE and SMARTml) that have been used to assess impacts of nitrogen and acidity inputs on soil and soil solution chemistry. These models differ in their complexity and description of some processes. Some models can be used to calculate effects on surface waters as well. For all models this chapter shows examples of site-scale applications at intensively monitored forested plots in the UK, Germany, Switzerland and Norway, illustrating the adequacy of the model behaviour. Impacts of legislated emission reductions and forest harvest scenarios on soil solution chemistry are illustrated with a MAGIC model application. Besides scenario analyses, dynamic models can also be used to determine target loads, i.e. the deposition to reach a prescribed condition within a given time frame. This chapter introduces the target load concept and presents target load calculations with the MAGIC and the VSD model.
Long-term risks of inadequate management practices on the sustainability of agricultural soils
Vries, W. de; Groenenberg, J.E. ; Murányi, A. ; Curlík, J. ; Sefcík, P. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. ; Reinds, G.J. ; Bril, J. ; Modin, A.K. ; Sverdrup, H.U. ; Alloway, B.J. - \ 2003
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 816) - 229
landbouwgronden - bodembeheer - oefening - risicoschatting - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - langdurige zorg - besmetting - bodemverontreiniging - hongarije - bodemchemie - verzuring - agricultural soils - soil chemistry - acidification - soil management - practice - risk assessment - sustainability - long term care - contamination - soil pollution - hungary
This report describes the major result of a research project funded by the INCO-Copernicus programma of European Commission under Contract number ERB-IC15-CT98-0133. The study focused on the long-term environmental risk of soil acidification on: (i) mobilisation and leaching and (ii) plant uptake of potentially toxic heavy metals (i.e. lead, cadmium, zinc and copper) from well-drained agricultural soils in Slovakia and Hungary. The research was mainly carried out in the period 1998-2001, but there was a strong delay in the final reporting of the results as summarised in this report. This report includes the major papers resulting from this study. The major result obtained from the various studies is that transfer functions and soil-to-plant transfer relationships, allowing the calculation of dissolved metal concentrations and plant meta contents from soil metal contents accounting for differences in soil properties, such as pH and organic matter content, in the solid phase, are practical and reasonably reliable approaches for use in regional risk assessments, as carried out for Hungary and Slovakia.