Optimising investments from elephant tourist revenues in the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique
Boer, W.F. de; Stigter, J.D. ; Ntumi, C.P. - \ 2007
Journal for Nature Conservation 15 (2007)4. - ISSN 1617-1381 - p. 225 - 236.
wildlife conservation - african elephant - protected areas - incentives - management - people - zambia - damage - kenya
Private enterprises are active in conservation initiatives in Africa. Some of these enterprises have long-term licences for the development of conservation areas. The motivation of these organisations to participate in conservation is ultimately determined by the economic output of their activities. An electric fence is being constructed in the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique. A costs-benefit analysis was carried out, in order to assist in the optimisation of the management activities of the elephant population, based on elephant population size, fence costs, crop raid costs, elephant poaching, and benefits derived from tourism (game-viewing and hunting). Tourist numbers increased with increasing elephant density through a concave utility function. Optimal harvest/hunting strategies were calculated from optimal control theory, using dynamic optimisation (Pontryagin's Maximum Principle). Poaching and raid costs could be compared to fence construction costs at different elephant population sizes. Costs generated through elephant poaching and elephant crop raid costs were higher than fence construction costs at a population size >100. Elephant hunting was a less favourable activity, economically and ecologically, than elephant viewing, due to the large game-viewing profits per elephant. Only if the licence fee increases from US$6500 to 28,500 would hunting become attractive, although ecological and economical constraints would probably prevent the development of hunting activities in the area. The assumed resource price of elephant (US$5000) was lower than the marginal value derived from tourism, indicating that elephants should be bought until the maximum stocking rate is reached.
|Use of space and habitat use by elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique
Ntumi, C.P. ; Aarde, R.J. van; Fairall, N. ; Boer, W.F. de - \ 2005
South African Journal of Wildlife Research 35 (2005)2. - ISSN 0379-4369 - p. 139 - 146.
chobe-national-park - home-range analysis - radio-tracking data - satellite tracking - botswana - megaherbivore - organization - estimators - density - kenya
Satellite tracking units fitted to five elephants in the Maputo Elephant Reserve provided information on habitat use. We used the CALHOME program with Adaptive Kernel and MCP (minimum convex polygon) techniques to calculate home range sizes. We interpreted vegetation use by elephants using a vegetation map in conjunction with ArcView GIS. The home range areas (90% adaptive kernel) of cows ranged from 169-267 km(2), while that of a bull measured 453 km(2). The core areas (50% adaptive kernel) covered less than 6% of the reserve's area. Season did not influence home range size. Elephants did not use the available habitats randomly - the forest and Futi floodplain were preferred, while mangroves, tidal wetlands and the Maputo floodplain were seldom, if ever, used. Habitat preference was not 11 function of time of day.
|A dynamic programming approach to optimise elephant management in the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique
Boer, W.F. de; Stigter, J.D. ; Ntumi, C.P. - \ 2003
Conservation can go hand-in-hand with exploitation of conservation areas through tourism. Private enterprises are active in local conservation initiatives in Africa. In Mozambique, some of these enterprises have long-term licences for the development of national parks or reserves. The motivation of these organisation to participate in these type of activities is ultimately determined by the economic output of their activities. An electric fence has been constructed in the Maputo Elephant Reserve. A costs-benefit analysis was carried out, in order to assist in the optimisation of the management of the elephant population. The model, based on dynamic programming, included several factors: elephant population size, electric fence costs, elephant raid costs, poaching costs, and benefits derived from tourism (game-viewing and hunting). Through this dynamic model poaching and raid costs could be compared to fence construction costs at different elephant population sizes. Marginal benefits elephant-1 derived from non-consumptive use were compared with those from consumptive use. Profits derived from elephant hunting could be evaluated on the basis of their economic or ecological impact, however, due to the large game-viewing profits elephant-1, game-viewing was extremely profitable. The elephant population size influenced the trade-offs derived from different activities. Elephant population growth influenced the time path of the model by reaching maximum stocking rate faster. Total profits increased at a larger elephant population size, as tourist numbers were assumed to increase with increasing elephant density. The resource price of elephant (US $ 5,000) was compared with the marginal value derived from tourism, in order to evaluate the economic consequences of re-stocking. The optimal solution for the planning of the different economic activities in relation to elephant population size are discussed.