Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The impact of regional designing: New perspectives for the Maastricht/Heerlen, Hasselt/Genk, Aachen and Liège (MHAL) Region
    Kempenaar, Annet ; Brinkhuijsen, M. ; Brink, A. van den - \ 2019
    Environment and Planning B - Planning and Design 46 (2019)2. - ISSN 0265-8135 - p. 359 - 376.
    Regional designing is employed to envision regional futures that aim to guide decisions on the environment in the region over a longer period of time. However, longitudinal studies on the long-term use and effect of regional designing are lacking. This paper investigates the impacts of regional designing in the complex and fragmented setting of a cross-border region. Since the late 1980s, the region was subject to four regional design episodes that each had different impacts: from a new perception of the region to initiating regional collaboration and effects on the Dutch professional debate. The study showed that regional designing is a powerful means to overcome difficulties that arise from the fragmented setting of a cross-border region. Moreover, it revealed that the context in which regional designing is embedded determines in what areas regional designing will have its impact. Both plans and people are important in the transference of regional design outcomes to other planning arenas and conditions, such as status and available funding, improve the chances of transference.
    Regional designing : A strategic design approach in landscape architecture
    Kempenaar, Annet ; Brink, Adri van den - \ 2018
    Design Studies 54 (2018). - ISSN 0142-694X - p. 80 - 95.
    collaborative design - landscape architecture - regional design - strategic design
    Regional designing is a strategic design approach in landscape architecture that envisions desirable future situations for regions in which the spatial situation is under pressure. This paper studies the principles that regional designers use to structure and organize their design process. The regional design principles highlight the extremely ill-defined, unstructured and volatile design situations that regional designing engages with. Moreover, the study reveals that the design process is an inextricable part of the broader process of change it aims to contribute to. This draws attention to a dynamic perspective in designing, to the interaction with stakeholders, to the position of the designer in the design process, and it calls for a (re)new(ed) culture in design.
    Territorial cohesion through cross-border landscape policy? The European case of the Three Countries park (BE-NL-DE)
    Brüll, A. ; Wirth, T.M. ; Lohrberg, F. ; Kempenaar, Annet ; Brinkhuijsen, M. ; Godart, M.F. ; Coppens, A. ; Nielsen, M. - \ 2017
    Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems 3 (2017)1. - ISSN 2300-3669 - p. 68 - 92.
    Landscapes can be understood as socialecological systems under constant change. In Europe various territorial dynamics pose persistent challenges to maintaining diverse landscapes both as European heritage and in their capacity to provide vital functions and services. Concurrently, under the competence of cohesion policy, the EU is attempting to improve policy making by better policy coordination and respecting regional specifics. This paper explores the question how a policy dedicated to landscape can help to handle territorial change and support territorial cohesion. It presents results and performances of the ESPON applied research study LP3LP: (1) a common landscape policy for the Three Countries Park, across the Dutch, German and Belgium borders, including a spatial landscape vision, a governance proposal of adaptive landscape management, and thematic strategies dealing with green infrastructure, cultural heritage, complementary biomass and quality production; (2) recommendations at the EU level. In discussing the significance of a landscape approach for EU policy,three dimensions of landscape are linked withimportant aspects of territorial cohesion: ‘landscape as asset’ addressing natural-cultural territorial capital as an indigenous base forsmart, sustainable, and inclusivedevelopment;‘landscape as place’ stressing the relevance of landscape for place-based policies; and ‘landscape as common ground’ highlighting its potential for horizontal, vertical, and territorial integration.
    Design in the planning arena : how regional designing influences strategic spatial planning
    Kempenaar, Annet - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A. van den Brink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436335 - 178
    physical planning - landscape architecture - regional planning - regional development - ruimtelijke ordening - landschapsarchitectuur - regionale planning - regionale ontwikkeling

    Regional designing is a form of spatial design that engages with the future physical form and arrangement of regions, including its aesthetic appearances and how it can come about. As such it is closely entangled with spatial planning. This thesis studies the influence of regional designing on strategic spatial planning and how this influence is realized. From the case studies, four categories of influence emerge: regional designing influences 1) the aims, 2) the process and 3) the conditions of spatial planning, and it can impact 4) the planning and design disciplines. However, not every regional design effort has similar effects. Regional designing is highly responsive to its context. The expertise of the designer, the interaction with stakeholders, and the context in which regional designing is embedded, are critical factors, making the design process the breeding ground for the influence of regional designing.

    The participating government; Shifting boundaries in collaborative spatial planning of urban regions
    Westerink, J. ; Kempenaar, J. ; Lierop, M.J.H.M. van; Groot, Stefan ; Valk, A.J.J. van der; Brink, A. van den - \ 2017
    Environment and Planning C. Government and Policy 35 (2017)1. - ISSN 0263-774X - p. 147 - 168.
    collaborative planning - planning discourses - participating government - self governance - boundary management
    This article identifies two alternative collaborative spatial planning discourses: a leading government with societal participation and self-governance by societal actors with government participation. It shows how the boundary between the roles of governments and societal actors in collaboration discourses is shifting, but also how both collaborative planning discourses exist alongside each other in two Dutch urban regions: Eindhoven Region and Parkstad Limburg. In both regions, these alternative discourses on role division in collaborative planning are similar, even though Eindhoven is a growing region in which the local and regional governments collaborate intensively with companies, and Parkstad Limburg is a shrinking region that more actively involves citizens. The article concludes with reflections on the need to manage boundaries in collaborative planning.
    Participeren met oog voor democratische principes
    Westerink, J. ; Kempenaar, J. - \ 2016
    Ruimtevolk 2016 (2016)22-06. - p. 1 - 1.
    Judith Westerink moet eerste auteur zijn, volgens haar
    Change of Thought : Findings on Planning for Shrinkage from a Regional Design Competition
    Kempenaar, J. ; Lierop, M.J.H.M. van; Westerink, J. ; Valk, A.J.J. van der; Brink, A. van den - \ 2016
    Planning Practice & Research 31 (2016)1. - ISSN 0269-7459 - p. 23 - 40.
    shrinkage - strategic spatial planning - regional design - design competition - process design
    Shrinkage or ‘no growth’ is expected to condition the long-term perspective of many Western cities and regions. Planning for shrinkage differs substantively from planning for growth and therefore calls for a change of thought in spatial planning. In our paper, we analyse how planning professionals responded to a ‘planning for shrinkage’ challenge in a regional design competition. We found that they fully adapted to the shrinking perspective, took a strategic approach, and promoted a leading role for local inhabitants. Collaboration with local inhabitants and entrepreneurs, creating new alliances, and timing emerge as key themes for planning professionals in planning for shrinkage.
    "Design makes you understand"-Mapping the contributions of designing to regional planning and development
    Kempenaar, Annet ; Westerink, Judith ; Lierop, Marjo van; Brinkhuijsen, Marlies ; Brink, Adri van den - \ 2016
    Landscape and Urban Planning 149 (2016). - ISSN 0169-2046 - p. 20 - 30.
    Landscape architecture - Regional design - Regional planning - Stakeholder participation - Urban design

    Designing has assumed a prominent position in current regional planning and development. There is, however, no coherent body of knowledge on how designing contributes to, alters or influences planning processes. Our essay explores a leading example: the contributions of designing to Dutch regional planning and development, and identifies topics for scholarly research that will improve the understanding of design approaches in planning and advance regional design practice. We interviewed stakeholders involved in Dutch regional planning practice and identified eleven contributions of designing: four to the content and seven to the process of planning. An exploration of scholarly literature in landscape architecture and urban design added more depth and understanding to these contributions. We conclude that the long-term scope of regional design means its impacts must also be evaluated over the long term. Moreover, stakeholder involvement in a design process draws attention to the political aspects of designing and the need to develop skills to balance multiple interests. Finally, as designing and planning are never the same in different situations, empirical research and design experiments in different planning settings can reveal which characteristics determine the potential of designing in different planning contexts.

    LP3LP Landscape Policy for the Three Countries Park, Final Report - Atlas of Maps
    Lohrberg, F. ; Wirth, M. ; Brüll, A. ; Nielsen, M. ; Coppens, A. ; Kempenaar, J. ; Brinkhuijsen, M. - \ 2014
    ESPON - 180 p.
    LP3LP Landscape Policy for the Three Countries Park, Final Report – Scientific Report
    Lohrberg, F. ; Wirth, M. ; Brüll, A. ; Nielsen, M. ; Coppens, A. ; Kempenaar, J. ; Brinkhuijsen, M. - \ 2014
    ESPON - 41 p.
    LP3LP Landscape Policy for the Three Countries Park, Final Report – Main Report
    Lohrberg, F. ; Wirth, M. ; Brüll, A. ; Nielsen, M. ; Coppens, A. ; Kempenaar, J. ; Brinkhuijsen, M. - \ 2014
    Position at : Werkgemeenschap voor Landschapsonderzoek WLO
    Kempenaar, Annet - \ 2014
    Application of social media in a regional design competition: a case study in the Netherlands
    Waal, R.M. de; Kempenaar, J. ; Lammeren, R.J.A. van; Stremke, S. - \ 2013
    In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Information Technologies in Landscape Architecture, DLA Conference 2013. - Anhalt : Wichmann Verlag - p. 186 - 200.
    Many scholars argue for significant stakeholder involvement in landscape planning and design1 (for instance STEINITZ, 2012; BOOHER & INNES, 2002; CRAIG, 1998). Facilitating public engagement can be a challenging task, which involves the sharing of information, enabling citizens to form opinions, the exchange of opinions, and community building to create trust and acceptance (MACINTOSH, 2008). When applying traditional methods for participation – such as participation meetings and workshops – accessibility and inclusiveness of the process can be problematic due to boundaries in time and space. Web-based methods offer participants the opportunity to engage without being physically present, at a time and place that suits them, and anonymously if necessary (BRABHAM, 2009; MACINTOSH, 2008; VAN LAMMEREN ET AL., 2007). Moreover, new technologies allow interactions with the public at relatively low cost and high levels of efficiency (MACINTOSH, 2008; KAPLAN & HAENLEIN, 2009; BRABHAM, 2009, KINGSTON ET AL., 2000). Several publications explore the potential use of web based technologies to enhance public involvement in spatial planning and design, for instance in the form of online visualization tools (VERVOORT ET AL, 2010; SHEN, 2009), serious games (POPLIN, 2012), so-called argumentation maps (RINNER ET AL., 2008) and crowdsourcing (JEANSSON ET AL., 2012, LIGTENBERG & VAN LAMMEREN, 2012; HAMMON & HIPPNER, 2012; BRABHAM, 2009); all advocating further development of such technologies to enable online participation and collaboration in planning and design. The extent to which existing platforms, such as social networking sites of MySpace and Facebook, can support participation and collaboration is rather underestimated in planning and design literature and practice. As we are witnessing increased use of social media in society – and the impact of social media on society – their use as a means to enable citizen participation and collaboration needs to be explored. In this paper, we analyse the role of social media in the Eo Wijers regional design competition in the Netherlands, which provides examples of the use of social media from the perspective of integrated design/ planning teams. We studied A) which social media the teams proposed and applied in the competition entries and B) the level of interaction with the public that the teams aimed for.
    Position at : Werkgemeenschap voor Landschapsonderzoek WLO
    Kempenaar, Annet - \ 2013
    Contested Spaces? The Use of Place Concepts to Communicate Visions for Peri-Urban Areas
    Westerink - Petersen, J. ; Lagendijk, A. ; Dühr, S. ; Jagt, P.D. van der; Kempenaar, J. - \ 2013
    European Planning Studies 21 (2013)6. - ISSN 0965-4313 - p. 780 - 800.
    netherlands - policy
    In Dutch planning, there has always been an important role for spatial concepts. Their role has arguably changed with the recent decentralization of planning to the regional and local level. At the national level, guiding concepts of a more procedural nature have replaced the more substantive and place-based spatial concepts, leaving more room for regional and local interpretation. At the regional and local level, spatial concepts are still in use, but this seems to be in a more communicative, negotiating and developing role than before. In this paper, we analyse how place concepts are used to exercise power, mobilize recourses and frame meaning over the use of the peri-urban areas, in the changing Dutch planning context. This paper focuses on two competing place concepts for overlapping green urban fringe areas in The Hague Region, which have been promoted by different actor constellations and which represent different visions about the meaning of these peri-urban areas. The case study allows conclusions about the changing role of spatial concepts in Dutch spatial planning
    Nieuwe energie voor de Veenkoloniën, op zoek naar regionale comfortzones; Plananalyse
    Kempenaar, J. ; Waal, R.M. de; Brink, A. van den - \ 2012
    Deventer : Eo Wijersstichting - 51
    regionale planning - landschapsarchitectuur - gebiedsontwikkeling - duurzame energie - prijzen (competitie) - veenkolonien - biobased economy - regional planning - landscape architecture - area development - sustainable energy - prizes - veenkolonien - biobased economy
    De 9e Eo Wijers ideeënprijsvraag is gehouden tussen juni 2011 en maart 2012 met als titel ‘Nieuwe energie voor de Veenkoloniën, op zoek naar regionale comfortzones’. Net als in voorgaande jaren heeft de Eo Wijersstichting een analyse laten uitvoeren van de ingezonden plannen, deze keer uitgevoerd door de leerstoelgroep Landschapsarchitectuur van Wageningen UR. De plananalyse heeft zich gericht op een typering van de inzendingen, de voorgestelde ‘methodiek voor duurzame waardecreatie’ in de inzendingen en op het thema (puzzelstukje) energie. De inzendingen zijn voor de plananalyse op een systematische wijze met elkaar vergeleken en bekeken. Hierbij is getracht zo dicht mogelijk bij de opgave en de inzendingen te blijven. Daarnaast is als onderdeel van de plananalyse een vragenlijst uitgezet onder de deelnemers aan de 9e Eo Wijersprijsvraag. In de opgave van de 9e Eo Wijersprijsvraag is gevraagd naar een ‘methodiek voor duurzame waardecreatie’. De opgave richtte zich daarmee in deze prijsvraag op een strategie of procesontwerp. De inzendingen die hierop zijn binnen gekomen variëren van ‘klassieke’ regionale ontwerpen die uitgewerkt zijn op drieschaalniveaus, tot procesgerichte inzendingen zonder ruimtelijke uitwerking. In het merendeel van de inzendingen staat niet de vormgegeven ruimte of voorgestelde ruimtelijke ontwikkeling centraal, maar ruimtelijke principes, bouwstenen, voorbeelduitwerkingen, schematische weergaves van het procesontwerp of tijdslijnen presenteren die ideeën. Het zijn hulpmiddelen die ingezet kunnen worden in het proces.
    Parknatuur : over de kijkrichtingen beleefbare natuur en inpasbare natuur
    Haas, W. de; Aalbers, C.B.E.M. ; Kruit, J. ; Arnouts, R.C.M. ; Kempenaar, J. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 296) - 24
    parken - natuur - perceptie - landschapsbeleving - interviews - burgers - nederland - parks - nature - perception - landscape experience - interviews - citizens - netherlands
    In 2011 onderzocht Alterra, onderdeel van Wageningen UR, in opdracht van het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving de mogelijke ruimtelijke en organisatorische betekenis van de kijkrichtingen Beleefbare natuur en Inpasbare natuur uit de Natuurverkenning 2010-2040. Daartoe interviewden de onderzoekers burgers en bedrijven en verzamelden zij voorbeelden van nieuwe natuur- en recreatie-initiatieven en organisatievormen. In dit werkdocument zijn deze nieuwe initiatieven geordend langs een as tussen twee uitersten: ‘natuur als doel’ enerzijds en ‘natuur als middel’ anderzijds. Vervolgens zijn de organisatorische thema’s en trends beschreven. De conclusie is dat het nieuwe gebruik dat vorm krijgt in Parknatuur allereerst een maatschappelijk proces is. In 2012 zal Alterra de kijkrichtingen Beleefbare natuur en Inpasbare natuur in drie proefgebieden uitwerken. Deze uitwerking richt zich vooral op de manier waarop nieuw gebruik gerealiseerd kan worden en op de relatie tussen ontwerpen van de fysieke ruimte en het ontwikkelen van een maatschappelijk of economisch initiatief.
    Multifunctionele landbouw in Nederland : meer dan boeren alleen
    Kierkels, T. ; Ypma, T. ; Kars, J. ; Veen, E.J. ; Vijn, M.P. ; Elings, M. ; Oostindië, H.A. ; Methorst, R.G. ; Winter, M.A. de; Engelsma, K.A. ; Kempenaar, J. ; Visser, A.J. ; Alebeek, F.A.N. van - \ 2012
    Zutphen : Roodbont - ISBN 9789087401184 - 140
    multifunctionele landbouw - inkomsten van buiten het landbouwbedrijf - ondernemerschap - diversificatie - boerderijwinkels - zorgboerderijen - boerderijeducatie - dagopvang - agrarisch natuurbeheer - boerderijtoerisme - multifunctional agriculture - non-farm income - entrepreneurship - diversification - on-farm sales - social care farms - farm education - day care - agri-environment schemes - farm tourism
    Multifunctionele landbouw combineert verschillende functies op het boerenbedrijf: een agrarische tak met bijvoorbeeld huisverkoop of zorglandbouw. Inmiddels vormt de sector met bijna een half miljard euro omzet, die vergelijkbaar is met de bollensector, een sterke economische drager van het platteland. In het boek komen thema’s aan bod als economie, ondernemerschap, verbinding, vers voedsel en beleving. Verder worden de belangrijkste deelsectoren belicht: kinderopvang, boerderijverkoop, zorglandbouw, agrarisch natuurbeheer, recreatie/toerisme en boerderij-educatie. In tien ‘dubbelportretten’ komen mensen aan het woord die via de multifunctionele landbouw met elkaar in verbinding staan, zoals gastvrouw en gast, leverancier en verwerker, educatieboerin en docent.
    Omringd door het verleden : scenario's voor de toekomst van de Hoge en Lage Linie van Doesburg
    Westerink - Petersen, J. ; Kempenaar, J. ; Heutinck, L.B.M. ; Grift, E.A. van der - \ 2011
    Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 277) - ISBN 9789085857334
    verdedigingswerken - geschiedenis - stedelijke gebieden - cultuurgeschiedenis - belevingswaarde - achterhoek - defensive works - history - urban areas - cultural history - experiential value - achterhoek
    Niet voor niets zijn de vestingwerken van Doesburg aangewezen als beschermd Rijksmonument. Op verzoek van Stichting Stadsherstel is onderzocht op welke manier de cultuurhistorische waarden van de vestingwerken beter in beeld gebracht kunnen worden, zonder al te veel afbreuk te doen aan de bestaande natuurwaarden.
    Multifunctionele Landbouw en Landschap : onderzoek naar de invloed van multifunctionele landbouw op het landschap, nu en in de toekomst
    Kempenaar, J. ; Kruit, J. ; Jagt, P.D. van der; Westerink - Petersen, J. ; Heutinck, L.B.M. ; Jeurissen, L.J.J. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1937) - 106
    landschap - landbouw - effecten - regionale ontwikkeling - regio's - nederland - multifunctionele landbouw - gebiedsontwikkeling - gelderse vallei - zeeuwse eilanden - oost-groningen - noord-holland - landscape - agriculture - effects - regional development - regions - netherlands - multifunctional agriculture - area development - gelderse vallei - zeeuwse eilanden - oost-groningen - noord-holland
    Een verkennend onderzoek naar de ruimtelijke impact van multifunctionele landbouw (MFL) op het landschap. De analyse richt zich op de fysieke veranderingen in het landschap als gevolg van MFL en de factoren achter de ontwikkeling van MFL. De sturende factoren zijn te verdelen in omgevingsfactoren, ondernemersfactoren en overheidsfactoren. Het onderzoek behelst een literatuurstudie, een regionale analyse en aan de hand van interviews en veldbezoeken zijn 4 casestudie gebieden onder de loep genomen. Dit zijn: Gelderse vallei, Walcheren, Bellingwolde en Waterland. Op basis van de analyse wordt een beeld geschetst van de te verwachte impact van MFL op het landschap in de toekomst en worden aanbevelingen gedaan voor een gebiedsgerichte benadering.
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