Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Optimization of Sampling for Monitoring Chemicals in the Food Supply Chain Using a Risk-Based Approach : The Case of Aflatoxins and Dioxins in the Dutch Dairy Chain
    Wang, Z. ; Fels-Klerx, Ine van der; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2020
    Risk Analysis (2020). - ISSN 0272-4332
    Disease burden - economics - food safety - optimization - sampling

    Food safety monitoring faces the challenge of tackling multiple chemicals along the various stages of the food supply chain. Our study developed a methodology for optimizing sampling for monitoring multiple chemicals along the dairy supply chain. We used a mixed integer nonlinear programming approach to maximize the performance of the sampling in terms of reducing the risk of the potential disability adjusted life years (DALYs) in the population. Decision variables are the number of samples collected and analyzed at each stage of the food chain (feed mills, dairy farms, milk trucks, and dairy processing plants) for each chemical, given a predefined budget. The model was applied to the case of monitoring for aflatoxin B1/M1(AFB1/M1) and dioxins in a hypothetical Dutch dairy supply chain, and results were calculated for various contamination scenarios defined in terms of contamination fraction and concentrations. Considering various monitoring budgets for both chemicals, monitoring for AFB1/M1 showed to be more effective than for dioxins in most of the considered scenarios, because AFB1/M1 could result into more DALYs than dioxins when both chemicals are in same contamination fraction, and costs for analyzing one AFB1/M1 sample are lower than for one dioxins sample. The results suggest that relatively more resources be spent on monitoring AFB1/M1 when both chemicals’ contamination fractions are low; when both contamination fractions are higher, relatively more budget should be addressed to monitoring dioxins.

    Effective physical refining for the mitigation of processing contaminants in palm oil at pilot scale
    Oey, Sergio B. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van - \ 2020
    Food Research International 138 (2020)A. - ISSN 0963-9969
    3-monochloropropanediol - Elimination methods - Glycidyl esters - Mitigation strategies - Pilot plant refining - Refined edible oils

    This study aimed to develop a mitigation strategy for the formation of 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol esters (2-MCPDE), 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE), and glycidol fatty acid esters (GE) during palm oil refining. Single physical refining was the starting point (the control) for this study. Experimental treatments including a double refining repeating the entire single refining process (T1), double refining with a high-low deodorization temperature (T2), and double deodorization (T3) with similar temperature settings as T2 were performed. Compared with the control experiment, T2 successfully reduced the formation of GE by 87%; in particular, the second degumming and bleaching were crucial for eliminating GE. Both 2- and 3-MCPDE were formed prior to the deodorization process in all treatments. MCPDE concentrations remained stable throughout the refining process and, hence, they require a different mitigation approach as compared to GE. These results provide useful insights which can directly be implemented by the oil industry.

    Factors underlying Dutch farmers’ intentions to adapt their agronomic management to reduce Fusarium species infection in wheat
    Janssen, E.M. ; Mourits, M.C.M. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2020
    PLoS ONE 15 (2020)9 September 2020. - ISSN 1932-6203

    Infection of wheat by Fusarium species can lead to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) and mycotoxin contamination, thereby reducing food quality and food safety, and leading to economic losses. Agronomic management through the implementation of various pre-harvest measures can reduce the probability of Fusarium spp. infection in the wheat field. To design interventions that could stimulate wheat farmers to (further) improve their agronomic management to reduce FHB, it is key to understand farmers’ behaviour towards adapting their management. The aim of this paper was to understand the intention, underlying behavioural constructs, and beliefs of Dutch wheat farmers to adapt their agronomic management to reduce FHB and mycotoxin contamination in wheat, applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Data were collected from 100 Dutch wheat farmers via a questionnaire. The standard TPB analysis was extended with an assessment of the robustness of the belief results to account for the statistical validity of the analysis on TPB beliefs (i.e. to address the so-called expectancy-value muddle). Forty-six percent of the farmers had a positive intention to change their management in the next 5 years. The two behavioural constructs significantly related to this intention were attitude and social norm, whereas association with the perceived behavioural control construct was insignificant indicating that farmers did not perceive any barriers to change their behaviour. Relevant attitudinal beliefs indicated specific attributes of wheat, namely yield, quality and safety (lower mycotoxin contamination). This indicates that strengthening these beliefs—by demonstrating that a change in management will result in a higher yield and quality and lower mycotoxin levels—will result in a stronger attitude and, subsequently, a higher intention to change management. Interventions to strengthen these beliefs should preferably go by the most important referents for social norms, which were the buyers and the farmer cooperatives in this study.

    Detection of Gluten in Duplicate Portions to Determine Gluten Intake of Celiac Disease Patients on A Gluten Free Diet
    Fels-Klerx, H.J. Van Der; Smits, N.G.E. ; Bremer, M.G.E.G. ; Schultink, J.M. ; Nijkamp, M.M. ; Castenmiller, J.J.M. ; Vries, J.H.M. De - \ 2020
    The British journal of nutrition (2020). - ISSN 0007-1145
    Celiac disease - dietary intake - ELISA - gluten - gluten free diet

    This study determined the gluten content of foods and meals consumed by celiac disease (CD) patients who adhere to a gluten free diet, and to estimate the total daily intake of gluten of these patients. CD patients fulfilling defined inclusion criteria were preselected and approached for participation in the study. Duplicate portions (DP) of foods and mixed dishes were collected from the CD patients for evaluating complete daily food intake during two individual days. Also, for these days written food records were completed by the participants. From each DP a laboratory sample was prepared, analysed for its gluten concentration and total daily gluten intake was calculated. Individual's total daily intakes of energy and macronutrients were calculated using the Dutch food composition database.In total 27 CD patients participated, 7 males and 20 females, aged between 21 and 64 years. In 32 (6%) of in total 499 food samples collected, more than 3 mg/kg gluten was present. In four of these 32 samples, the gluten concentration was above the European legal limit of 20 mg/kg and 3 of the 4 samples had a gluten-free label.The maximal gluten intake was 3.3 mg gluten per day. The gluten tolerance for sensitive CD patients (> 0.75 mg per day) was exceeded on at least 6 out of 54 study days. To also protect these sensitive CD patients, legal thresholds should be re-evaluated and the detection limit of analytical methods for gluten analysis lowered.

    Communication inside Risk Assessment and Risk Management (COMRISK): Final report
    Andersson, Mats Gunnar ; Elving, Josefine ; Nordkvist, Erik ; Urdl, Marcus ; Engblom, Linda ; Mader, Anneluise ; Altmeyer, Sara ; Kowalczyk, Janine ; Lahrssen‐Wiederholt, Monika ; Tuominen, Pirkko ; Joutsen, Suvi ; Suomi, Johanna ; Mikkelä, Antti ; Hinkka, Noora ; Siekkinen, Kirsi-Maarit ; Fels‐Klerx, H.J. van der; Borne, Bart van den; Ali, Beshir - \ 2020
    EFSA Supporting Publications 17 (2020)7. - ISSN 2397-8325
    A key feature of risk analysis is that risk assessment and risk management should be functionally separated. However, the usefulness of a risk assessment may be limited if the output is not designed to help with risk management decisions. The COMRISK project investigated the communication between risk assessors and risk managers. The overall goal of the project was to identify current practices and challenges in communication between risk assessors and risk managers during the risk analysis process, and thus increase and improve the understanding and the quality of the communication between them. Specific actions to achieve this aim included reviewing of historical food safety cases, analysing risk assessment requests, identifying communication guiding documents, including legislation and agreements, conducting semi‐structured interviews with risk assessors and risk managers, and identifying tools for facilitating the communication between risk assessors and risk managers. It was concluded that the usefulness of a risk assessment is strongly dependent on well‐defined and mutually recognised risk questions and that scarce or poor communication between risk assessors and risk managers is one of the major reasons when an output from risk assessment fails to support risk management. The communication between risk assessors and risk managers preceding the onset of the risk assessment, when the risk assessment requests with its risk questions are defined, is especially identified as one of the critical points to ensure a risk assessment that is fit for purpose. However, difficulties in understanding were also reported for the communication between risk assessors and risk managers during and after the risk assessment. Lack of communication is seldom a result of formal constraints or agreements nor can it be explained by a wish of the risk assessors or risk managers. Instead, perceived constraints or traditions appear to be possible underlying factors leading to scarce or poor communication between risk assessors and risk managers. It is essential that both risk assessors and risk managers acknowledge the crucial importance of communication between them while at the same time respect their different roles in a risk analysis.According to respondents, the best solution to facilitate the framing of the risk assessment questions isan open dialogue between risk assessors and risk managers to agree on the goal of the assessment and to build trust. Further, the interviewresults indicate that a formal systematic process may facilitate communication during the risk analysis. Where there is uncertainty, e.g due to data gaps or issues related to the methodology and models, it should be acknowledged and described properly by risk assessors to risk managers. Training of risk assessors and risk managers may improve the possibility of a timely and fit‐for‐purpose output.Such a training should give a deeper insight in the risk management process, give a better understanding of the risk managers role, and especially raise the awareness of the importance of the communication between risk assessors and risk managers.To improve the risk analysis process, it is also important that the risk assessor gets feedback regarding how risk assessments have met the needs of the risk managers.The present study also found that aspects of risk communication studied in this project are not extensively discussed in the guidance documents for risk analysis. More research is needed to identify the barriers for a fit for purpose communication.
    Microbiological Reduction Strategies of Irrigation Water for Fresh Produce
    Banach, J.L. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2020
    Journal of Food Protection 83 (2020)6. - ISSN 0362-028X - p. 1072 - 1087.
    Decision tree - Food safety - Growers - Irrigation water criteria - Pathogenic microorganisms - Water disinfection

    ABSTRACT: Irrigation water can be a source of pathogenic contamination of fresh produce. Controlling the quality of the water used during primary production is important to ensure food safety and protect human health. Several measures to control the microbiological quality of irrigation water are available for growers, including preventative and mitigation strategies. However, clear guidance for growers on which strategies could be used to reduce microbiological contamination is needed. This study evaluates pathogenic microorganisms of concern in fresh produce and water, the microbiological criteria of water intended for agricultural purposes, and the preventative and mitigative microbial reduction strategies. This article provides suggestions for control measures that growers can take during primary production to reduce foodborne pathogenic contamination coming from irrigation water. Results show that controlling the water source, regime, and timing of irrigation may help to reduce the potential exposure of fresh produce to contamination. Moreover, mitigation strategies like electrolysis, ozone, UV, and photocatalysts hold promise either as a single treatment, with pretreatments that remove suspended material, or as combined treatments with another chemical or physical treatment(s). Based on the literature data, a decision tree was developed for growers, which describes preventative and mitigation strategies for irrigation-water disinfection based on the fecal coliform load of the irrigation water and the water turbidity. It helps guide growers when trying to evaluate possible control measures given the quality of the irrigation water available. Overall, the strategies available to control irrigation water used for fresh produce should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis because one strategy or technology does not apply to all scenarios.

    Web-based system for mycotoxin prevention and control along the chain
    Fels-Klerx, Ine van der; Liu, Cheng ; Focker, Marlous ; Rossi, V. ; Manstretta, Valentina ; Montero Castro, I. ; Magan, N. ; Krska, R. - \ 2020
    Aflatoxin disease burden and monitoring
    Fels-Klerx, Ine van der; Focker, Marlous - \ 2020
    Effectiveness of a peracetic acid solution on Escherichia coli reduction during fresh-cut lettuce processing at the laboratory and industrial scales
    Banach, J.L. ; Bokhorst-van de Veen, H. van; Overbeek, L.S. van; Zouwen, P.S. van der; Zwietering, M.H. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2020
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 321 (2020). - ISSN 0168-1605
    Cross-contamination - Disinfection - Food industry - Vegetables - Water

    Fresh leafy greens like lettuce can be consumed raw and are susceptible to foodborne pathogens if they become contaminated. Recently, the number of reported pathogenic foodborne outbreaks related to leafy greens has increased. Therefore, it is important to try to alleviate the human health burden associated with these outbreaks. Processing of fresh-cut lettuce, including washing, is a step in the supply chain that needs to be well controlled to avoid cross-contamination. Current measures to control the quality of lettuce during washing include the use of chemicals like chlorine; however, questions regarding the safety of chlorine have prompted research for alternative solutions with peracetic acid (PAA). This study evaluates the effectiveness of a PAA (c.a. 75 mg/L) solution on the reduction of a commensal E. coli strain during the washing of fresh-cut lettuce. Experiments were performed at the laboratory scale and validated at the industrial scale. We observed that the use of PAA was not adversely affected by the organic load in the water. The contact time and dose of the PAA showed to be relevant factors, as observed by the approximately 5-log reduction of E. coli in the water. Results showed that once introduced during washing, E. coli remained attached to the lettuce, thus supporting the need to control for pathogenic bacteria earlier in the supply chain (e.g., during primary production) as well as during washing. Moreover, our results showed that the use of PAA during washing did not have an apparent effect on the levels of fluorescent pseudomonads (FP) and total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) in lettuce. Overall, our results at the laboratory and industrial scales confirmed that during the processing of fresh-cut produce, where the accumulation of soil, debris, and other plant exudates can negatively affect washing, the use of a PAA (c.a. 75 mg/L) solution was an effective and safe wash water disinfectant that can potentially be used at the industrial scale

    Food safety hazards in the European seaweed chain
    Banach, J.L. ; Hoek-van den Hil, E.F. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2020
    Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 19 (2020)2. - ISSN 1541-4337 - p. 332 - 364.
    contamination - food safety - hazard - seafood - seaweed

    Seaweed is a source of protein that can help overcome the anticipated challenges of a growing world population and the current challenges for finding alternatives for animal proteins in the Western diet. Thus far, data on the safety of seaweed for feed and food purposes in the Western world are scattered. This study aimed to review the available knowledge on the presence of food safety hazards in seaweed, including factors influencing their presence, and to prioritize the hazards that may pose a risk to human health. Given current knowledge from the literature, data from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, and results from a stakeholder survey, 22 food safety hazards were ranked into major (4), moderate (5), and minor (13) hazards. Arsenic, cadmium, iodine, and Salmonella were identified as major hazards. Hazards, where data gaps exist, should be carefully assessed. These include pesticide residues, dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, marine biotoxins, allergens, micro- and nanoplastics, other pathogenic bacteria, norovirus, and hepatitis E virus. It is recommended to collect more data on these hazards in future studies. Many factors can affect the presence of hazards including seaweed type, physiology, season, harvest and cultivation environment, geography including the location of cultivation, alongside further processing. Moreover, when seaweed is cultivated near industrialized or anthropogenic activities, these activities may negatively influence water quality, which can increase the likelihood of hazards in seaweed. Results of the ranking prioritized hazards can be used to prioritize monitoring programs and adjusted given future additional knowledge covering the data gaps.

    Forecasting mycotoxins in grains at the European level
    Liu, Cheng ; Fels-Klerx, Ine van der; Liu, Ningjing ; Manstretta, Valentina ; Rossi, V. - \ 2019
    MyToolbox Decision Support for mycotoxin prevention and control
    Fels-Klerx, Ine van der - \ 2019
    Cost-effective monitoring of aflatoxins in maize
    Focker, Marlous ; Fels-Klerx, Ine van der; Oude Lansink, Alfons ; Manstretta, Valentina ; Rossi, V. - \ 2019
    E-platform for mycotoxin prevention and control along the chain
    Fels-Klerx, Ine van der; Montero Castro, I. - \ 2019
    Chemical food safety related to using supermarket returns for rearing Hermetica illucens for feed and food uses
    Fels-Klerx, Ine van der - \ 2019
    Mitigation of 2-, 3-MCPD Esters & Glycidyl Esters in (Organic) Vegetable Oils: Pilot Plant Results
    Oey, S.B. ; Fels, H.J. van der; Fogliano, V. ; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van - \ 2019
    Physical refining mitigation strategies of 2-, 3-MCPD Esters and Glycidyl Esters in organic palm oil
    Oey, Sergio ; Leeuwen, Stefan van; Fels-Klerx, Ine van der; Fogliano, Vincenzo - \ 2019
    Circulaire systemen
    Bos, Harriëtte ; Groenestijn, John van; Harmsen, Paulien ; Hugenholtz, Jeroen ; Appelmans, Wilfred ; Jetten, Jan ; Bussmann, Pauil ; Bon, Jeroen van; Burgering, Maurits ; Verdoes, Nico ; Groenestein, Karin ; Duinkerken, Gert van; Fels-Klerx, Ine van der; Schans, Milou van de; Gerrits, Elise ; Schoumans, Oscar ; Haas, Wim de; Regelink, Inge ; Stuiver, Marian ; Bakker, Sjaak ; Dijk, Wim van; Visser, Saskia - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 41
    Hazards associated with animal feed
    Jong, Jacob de; Kleter, Gijs ; Banach, Jennifer ; Raamsdonk, Leo van; Hoogenboom, Ron ; Nijs, Monique de; Fels-Klerx, Ine van der; Kok, Esther ; Slot, Martijn ; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Noordam, Maryvon - \ 2019
    Rome : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Report / FAO Animal Production and Health 14) - ISBN 9789251319093 - 265
    Effects of selected insecticides on Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae
    Meijer, N.P. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Loon, J.J.A. van; Fels, H.J. van der - \ 2019
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