Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 on mink farms between humans and mink and back to humans
    Oude Munnink, Bas B. ; Sikkema, Reina S. ; Nieuwenhuijse, David F. ; Molenaar, Robert Jan ; Munger, Emmanuelle ; Molenkamp, Richard ; Spek, Arco Van Der; Tolsma, Paulien ; Rietveld, Ariene ; Brouwer, Miranda ; Bouwmeester-vincken, Noortje ; Harders, Frank ; Hakze-van Der Honing, Renate ; Wegdam-blans, Marjolein C.A. ; Bouwstra, Ruth J. ; Geurts van Kessel, Corine ; Eijk, Annemiek A. Van Der; Velkers, Francisca C. ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Stegeman, Arjan ; Poel, Wim H.M. Van Der; Koopmans, Marion P.G. - \ 2020
    Science (2020). - ISSN 0036-8075
    Animal experiments have shown that non-human primates, cats, ferrets, hamsters, rabbits and bats can be infected by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in felids, mink and dogs in the field. Here, we describe an in-depth investigation using whole genome sequencing of outbreaks on 16 mink farms and the humans living or working on these farms. We conclude that the virus was initially introduced from humans and has since evolved, most likely reflecting widespread circulation among mink in the beginning of the infection period several weeks prior to detection. Despite enhanced biosecurity, early warning surveillance and immediate culling of infected farms, transmission occurred between mink farms in three big transmission clusters with unknown modes of transmission. Sixty-eight percent (68%) of the tested mink farm residents, employees and/or contacts had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Where whole genomes were available, these persons were infected with strains with an animal sequence signature, providing evidence of animal to human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within mink farms.
    Supersnelle diagnose bij uitbraak nieuwe dierziekte
    Poel, Wim van der - \ 2020

    Een uitbraak van een besmettelijke dierziekte heeft grote maatschappelijke en economische gevolgen. Om grote uitbraken te voorkomen, heeft Wageningen University & Research een diagnostische pijplijn ontwikkeld waarmee nieuwe ziekteverwekkers sneller kunnen worden gekarakteriseerd. De overheid kan dan gerichter maatregelen nemen.

    Rapid host response to an infection with Coronavirus. Study of transcriptional responses with Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus
    Hou, Wei ; Liu, Fei ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Hulst, M.M. - \ 2020
    BioRxiv - 26 p.
    The transcriptional response in Vero cells (ATCC® CCL-81) infected with the coronavirus Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) was measured by RNAseq analysis 4 and 6 hours after infection. Differential expressed genes (DEGs) in PEDV infected cells were compared to DEGs responding in Vero cells infected with Mammalian Orthoreovirus (MRV). Functional analysis of MRV and PEDV DEGs showed that MRV increased the expression level of several cytokines and chemokines (e.g. IL6, CXCL10, IL1A, CXCL8 [alias IL8]) and antiviral genes (e.g. IFI44, IFIT1, MX1, OASL), whereas for PEDV no enhanced expression was observed for these “hallmark” antiviral and immune effector genes. Pathway and Gene Ontology “enrichment analysis” revealed that PEDV infection did not stimulate expression of genes able to activate an acquired immune response, whereas MRV did so within 6h. Instead, PEDV down-regulated the expression of a set of zinc finger proteins with putative antiviral activity and enhanced the expression of the transmembrane serine protease gene TMPRSS13 (alias MSPL) to support its own infection by virus-cell membrane fusion (Shi et al, 2017, Viruses, 9(5):114). PEDV also down-regulated expression of Ectodysplasin A, a cytokine of the TNF-family able to activate the canonical NFKB-pathway responsible for transcription of inflammatory genes like IL1B, TNF, CXCL8 and PTGS2. The only 2 cytokine genes found up-regulated by PEDV were Cardiotrophin-1, an IL6-type cytokine with pleiotropic functions on different tissues and types of cells, and Endothelin 2, a neuroactive peptide with vasoconstrictive properties. Furthermore, by comprehensive datamining in biological and chemical databases and consulting related literature we identified sets of PEDV-response genes with potential to influence i) the metabolism of biogenic amines (e.g. histamine), ii) the formation of cilia and “synaptic clefts” between cells, iii) epithelial mucus production, iv) platelets activation, and v) physiological processes in the body regulated by androgenic hormones (like blood pressure, salt/water balance and energy homeostasis). The information in this study describing a “very early” response of epithelial cells to an infection with a coronavirus may provide pharmacologists, immunological and medical specialists additional insights in the underlying mechanisms of coronavirus associated severe clinical symptoms including those induced by SARS-CoV-2. This may help them to fine-tune therapeutic treatments and apply specific approved drugs to treat COVID-19 patients.
    Update: proposed reference sequences for subtypes of hepatitis E virus (species Orthohepevirus A)
    Smith, Donald B. ; Izopet, Jacques ; Nicot, Florence ; Simmonds, Peter ; Jameel, Shahid ; Meng, Xiang Jin ; Norder, Heléne ; Okamoto, Hiroaki ; Poel, Wim H.M. van der; Reuter, Gábor ; Purdy, Michael A. - \ 2020
    Journal of General Virology 101 (2020)7. - ISSN 0022-1317 - p. 692 - 698.
    hepatitis E virus - Hepeviridae - Orthohepevirus A

    In this recommendation, we update our 2016 table of reference sequences of subtypes of hepatitis E virus (HEV; species Orthohepevirus A, family Hepeviridae) for which complete genome sequences are available (Smith et al., 2016). This takes into account subsequent publications describing novel viruses and additional proposals for subtype names; there are now eight genotypes and 36 subtypes. Although it remains difficult to define strict criteria for distinguishing between virus subtypes, and is not within the remit of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the use of agreed reference sequences will bring clarity and stability to researchers, epidemiologists and clinicians working with HEV.

    Development and validation of SYBR Green- and probe-based reverse-transcription real-time PCR assays for detection of the S and M segments of Schmallenberg virus
    Azkur, Ahmet Kursat ; Poel, Wim H.M. van der; Aksoy, Emel ; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate ; Yildirim, Murat ; Yıldız, Kader - \ 2020
    Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 32 (2020)5. - ISSN 1040-6387 - p. 710 - 717.
    M segment - RT-rtPCR - S segment - Schmallenberg virus - SYBR Green

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), discovered in Germany in 2011, causes congenital malformations in ruminants. Reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-rtPCR) assays based on various segments of SBV have been developed for molecular detection. We developed alternative RT-rtPCR assays for SBV detection to avoid earlier reported mutations and hypervariable regions of the S and M segments of the viral genome. For SYBR Green-based detection of the S segment, the R2 value and efficiency of the developed assay were 0.99 and 99%, respectively. For probe-based S segment detection, 2 assays were developed; the first had an R2 value of 0.99 and 102% efficiency, and the second had a R2 value of 0.98 and 86% efficiency. The probe-based M segment assay had an R2 value of 1.00 and 103% efficiency. Detection limits of the RT-rtPCR assays with new primer sets were 102 and 101 copies/µL for the S and M segments, respectively. Field samples from cattle and sheep were also used for primary validation of the developed assays. Our assays should be suitable for SBV detection in ruminants and for in vitro studies of various SBV strains.

    Eindrapportage SARS-CoV-2 bij besmette nertsenbedrijven
    Stegeman, Arjan ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Vreman, S. ; Honing-Hakze, R.W. van der; Harders, F.L. ; Tacken, M.G.J. ; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Hulst, M.M. ; Koopmans, Marion ; Oude Munnink, B.B. ; Sikkema, Reina S. ; Molenaar, Robert Jan ; Bouwstra, Ruth ; Smit, Lidwien ; Rooij, M. de; Stegeman, Arjan - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research - 14 p.
    animal welfare - animal production - mink - animal health - animal diseases - Coronavirus
    Clinical and Pathological Findings in SARS-CoV-2 Disease Outbreaks in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison)
    Molenaar, Robert Jan ; Vreman, Sandra ; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W. ; Zwart, Rob ; Rond, Jan de; Weesendorp, Eefke ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Koopmans, Marion ; Bouwstra, Ruth ; Stegeman, Arjan ; Poel, Wim H.M. van der - \ 2020
    Veterinary Pathology 57 (2020)5. - ISSN 0300-9858 - p. 653 - 657.
    COVID-19 - mink - pneumonia - respiratory disease - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 - zoonoses

    SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, caused respiratory disease outbreaks with increased mortality in 4 mink farms in the Netherlands. The most striking postmortem finding was an acute interstitial pneumonia, which was found in nearly all examined mink that died at the peak of the outbreaks. Acute alveolar damage was a consistent histopathological finding in mink that died with pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 infections were confirmed by detection of viral RNA in throat swabs and by immunohistochemical detection of viral antigen in nasal conchae, trachea, and lung. Clinically, the outbreaks lasted for about 4 weeks but some animals were still polymerase chain reaction–positive for SARS-CoV-2 in throat swabs after clinical signs had disappeared. This is the first report of the clinical and pathological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in mink farms.

    SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks, the Netherlands, April and May 2020
    Oreshkova, Nadia ; Molenaar, Robert Jan ; Vreman, Sandra ; Harders, Frank ; Oude Munnink, Bas B. ; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W. ; Gerhards, Nora ; Tolsma, Paulien ; Bouwstra, Ruth ; Sikkema, Reina S. ; Tacken, Mirriam G.J. ; Rooij, Myrna M.T. de; Weesendorp, Eefke ; Engelsma, Marc Y. ; Bruschke, Christianne J.M. ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Koopmans, Marion ; Poel, Wim H.M. van der; Stegeman, Arjan - \ 2020
    Eurosurveillance 25 (2020)23. - ISSN 1025-496X
    interstitial pneumonia - mink - SARS-CoV-2 - transmission

    Respiratory disease and increased mortality occurred in minks on two farms in the Netherlands, with interstitial pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 RNA in organ and swab samples. On both farms, at least one worker had coronavirus disease-associated symptoms before the outbreak. Variations in mink-derived viral genomes showed between-mink transmission and no infection link between the farms. Inhalable dust contained viral RNA, indicating possible exposure of workers. One worker is assumed to have attracted the virus from mink.

    Detection of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H10N7 in Poultry and Environmental Water Samples During a Clinical Outbreak in Commercial Free-Range Layers, Netherlands 2017
    Germeraad, Evelien A. ; Elbers, Armin R.W. ; Bruijn, Naomi D. de; Heutink, Rene ; Voorst, Wendy van; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate ; Bergervoet, Saskia A. ; Engelsma, Marc Y. ; Poel, Wim H.M. van der; Beerens, Nancy - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7 (2020). - ISSN 2297-1769
    environmental sampling - LPAIV - outbreak - poultry - water

    Wild birds are the natural reservoir of the avian influenza virus (AIV) and may transmit AIV to poultry via direct contact or indirectly through the environment. In the Netherlands, a clinically suspected free-range layer flock was reported to the veterinary authorities by the farmer. Increased mortality, a decreased feed intake, and a drop in egg production were observed. Subsequently, an infection with low pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected. This study describes the diagnostic procedures used for detection and subtyping of the virus. In addition to routine diagnostics, the potential of two different environmental diagnostic methods was investigated for detecting AIV in surface water. AIV was first detected using rRT-PCR and isolated from tracheal and cloacal swabs collected from the hens. The virus was subtyped as H10N7. Antibodies against the virus were detected in 28 of the 31 sera tested. An intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) experiment was performed, but no clinical signs (IVPI = 0) were observed. Post-mortem examination and histology confirmed the AIV infection. Multiple water samples were collected longitudinally from the free-range area and waterway near the farm. Both environmental diagnostic methods allowed the detection of the H10N7 virus, demonstrating the potential of these methods in detection of AIV. The described methods could be a useful additional procedure for AIV surveillance in water-rich areas with large concentrations of wild birds or in areas around poultry farms. In addition, these methods could be used as a tool to test if the environment or free-range area is virus-free again, at the end of an AIV epidemic.

    SCIENCE TALKS CORONA: Developing a vaccine
    Poel, W.H.M. van der - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research
    Most likely it will take over a year to develop a vaccine, says virologist Wim van der Poel. In this video, Wim shares his views on the current developments of creating a vaccine.
    Corona nu ook bij nertsen: moeten we ons zorgen maken?
    Poel, Wim van der - \ 2020
    Virussen vóór zijn
    Poel, W.H.M. van der - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research
    Door globalisering en verstedelijking kunnen ziekten die van dieren op mensen overgaan, zich sneller verspreiden. Vroege detectie kan levens redden. Daarom sporen Wageningse virologen samen met dierenartsen zo snel mogelijk potentiële ziekteverwekkers op bij wilde dieren en vee. De onderzoekers ontrafelen de genetische opmaak van virussen om de risico’s te bepalen en vaccins te kunnen ontwikkelen. Met vakgenoten wereldwijd wisselen ze expertise uit om nieuwe bedreigingen voor te zijn.
    Do animals get coronavirus
    Poel, Wim van der - \ 2020
    Corona niet overdraagbaar op en door dieren
    Poel, Wim van der - \ 2020
    Comparison of hepatitis E virus sequences from humans and swine, the Netherlands, 2008-2015.
    Hogema, Boris ; Honing-Hakze, R.W. van der; Molier, M. ; Zaaijer, Hans L. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der - \ 2020
    In: WIAS Annual Conference 2020. - WIAS - p. 27 - 27.
    Until the beginning of this century, in the developed world, hepatitis E virus (HEV) was seen as a travellers disease and autochthonous HEV infection was rarely observed. Now a days HEV infections become common and recent studies showed that zoonotic hepatitis E virus genotype 3 infections occur frequently in industrialized countries. Pigs have been shown to be a major reservoir of hepatitis E genotype 3 virus, only the transmission route(s) from pigs to humans are ill-defined. Consumption of undercooked meat products is the likely transmission route however the virus could also spread via surface water or crops. Partly orf 1 and orf 2 sequences of HEV isolates were obtained from individual pigs and from blood donors and hepatitis patients. 372 human samples and at least 10 HEV positive caecum swine samples per year were collected in the Netherlands in 2000 and between 2008 and 2015 and sequenced. All generated HEV sequences from human and pig samples were aligned with a proposed reference set from the literature. In to-tal, 91 HEV ORF1 sequences and 300 HEV ORF2 sequences from pigs, patients and blood donors were included in the analysis. Sequence comparison showed that all sequences were genotype 3 except for six patients (with travel history). HEV gt3c was the most common subgenotype. Whereas the proportion of gt3c significantly increased between 2000 and 2008 it remained constant between 2008 and 2015. Of the circulating HEV subgenotypes, there was no difference observed between the human and the pig isolates. This is compatible with the assumption that HEVs from swine are the major source of HEV infections in humans. Hepatitis E viruses in humans are very likely to originate from pigs, but it is unclear why HEV gt3c has become the predominant subtype in the Netherlands
    'Rapid spread of corona virus is worrying'
    Poel, Wim van der - \ 2020
    Rem op Q-koorts en Lyme
    Poel, Wim van der - \ 2019
    Strijd tegen zoönosen
    Poel, Wim van der - \ 2019
    Salt inactivation of classical swine fever virus and African swine fever virus in porcine intestines confirms the existing in vitro casings model
    Jelsma, Tinka ; Wijnker, Joris J. ; Smid, Bregtje ; Verheij, Eline ; Poel, Wim H.M. van der; Wisselink, Henk J. - \ 2019
    Veterinary Microbiology 238 (2019). - ISSN 0378-1135
    3D collagen matrix model - African swine fever - Classical swine fever - D-values - Intestine - Virus inactivation

    Natural casings, to be used as sausage containers, are being traded worldwide and may be contaminated with contagious viruses. Standard processing of such natural casings is by salt treatment with a duration of 30 days before shipment. Since information is lacking about the efficacy of these virus inactivation procedures, an in vitro 3D collagen matrix model, mimicking natural casings, was developed previously to determine the efficacy of salt to inactivate specific viruses. To validate this model, a comparison in vivo experiment was performed using intestines of pigs experimentally infected with African swine fever virus (ASFV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Decimal reduction (D) values, were determined at 4 °C, 12 °C, 20 °C and 25 °C. The standard salt processing procedure showed an efficient inactivation of ASFV and CSFV over time in a temperature dependent way. Dintestine values of both viruses, treated with the standard salt treatment, were in line with the Dcollagen values. It was concluded that these results underline the suitability of the 3D collagen matrix model to determine virus inactivation and to replace animal experiments. Furthermore, an increase in storage time for standard salt processed casings derived from CSFV endemic regions is highly recommended for an efficient inactivation of CSFV.

    Preparing for Virus X
    Kortekaas, J.A. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Jong, M.C.M. de - \ 2019
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