Trends in Diet and Exposure to Chemicals in Dutch Children
Boon, P.E. ; Asselt, E.D. van; Bakker, M.I. ; Kruizinga, A.G. ; Jansen, M.C.J.F. - \ 2014
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety 4 (2014)1. - ISSN 2347-5641 - p. 6 - 7.
Aim: This report presents an overview of trends in dietary patterns and exposure to selected chemicals in children aged 0.5-12 years living in the Netherlands, with the aim to get insight in possible trends in exposure over the last two decades. The compounds included are acrylamide, dioxins, nitrate, organophosphate insecticides, sulphite, sweeteners and some mycotoxins. Approach: Data from literature and the three Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys (DNFCS-1 (1987/1988), DNFCS-2 (1992) and DNFCS-3 (1997/1998)) were analysed. The reported consumption of very young children (aged 8-18months) was described based on two studies conducted in 2000/2001 and 2002. Due to the relatively short time period between these two latter studies, it was not feasible to report of a time trend for very small children. Results: For most of the chemicals a decrease in (mean/median) exposure levels is predicted relative to the most recent exposure assessments reported in the literature. For sweeteners, an increase is more likely, due to an increasing trend in the consumption of light soda’s. For some compounds, (T2/HT2 and sulphite) no conclusions could be drawn. The results are shortly discussed in relation to differences in food consumption survey methods used over time and developments of methodologies used to assess exposure levels. Also the quality of the residue data used in the exposure assessment is addressed. Conclusion: Trends in themselves provide only information on whether exposure levels are likely to increase or decrease in time. Also actual levels of exposure should be addressed and compared to the relevant toxicological reference levels. The comparison of the highest, most recent estimated exposure reported in the literature with a relevant reference dose per chemical demonstrated that for some compounds (acrylamide, DON and dioxins) the reference value was exceeded and that it remains to be seen whether a decreasing trend will result in acceptable exposure levels in children in time.
Trends in diet and exposure to chemicals in Dutch children
Boon, P.E. ; Asselt, E.D. van; Bakker, M.I. ; Kruizinga, A.G. ; Jansen, M.C.J.F. - \ 2009
Wageningen : RIKILT (Report / RIKILT 2009.002) - 47
voedselconsumptie - maaltijdpatronen - eetpatronen - kinderen - nederland - toxische stoffen - blootstelling - food consumption - meal patterns - eating patterns - children - netherlands - toxic substances - exposure
|Design characteristics of food frequency questionnaires in relation to their validity
Molag, M.L. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Ocke, M.C. ; Dagnelie, P.C. ; Brandt, P.A. van den; Jansen, M.C.J.F. ; Staveren, W.A. van; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2007
In: WEON 2007: Methodologische uitdagingen in cohortonderzoek, Maastricht, The Netehrlands, 21 - 22 June, 2007. - - p. 104 - 104.
The influence of design characteristics of food frequency questionnaires in their validity to assess energy intake
Molag, M.L. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Veer, P. van 't; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dagnelie, P. ; Ocke, M.C. ; Jansen, M.C.J.F. ; Staveren, W.A. van - \ 2006
European Journal of Epidemiology 21 (2006)suppl. 13. - ISSN 0393-2990 - p. 91 - 91.
Quantity and Variety of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Cancer Risk
Jansen, M.C.J.F. ; Bas Bueno de Mesquita, H. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Streppel, M.T. ; Kok, F.J. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2004
Nutrition and Cancer 48 (2004)2. - ISSN 0163-5581 - p. 142 - 148.
guidelines-for-americans - major chronic disease - diet diversity - colorectal-cancer - food groups - united-states - colon-cancer - elderly men - lung-cancer - mortality
The recommendation for fruit and vegetable intake includes eating a certain quantity as well as a variety. The evidence for eating a variety is limited. We examined the association with cancer in a prospective cohort study among 730 Dutch men aged 65-84 yr followed for 10 years, resulting in 138 cancer cases. The quantity of fruits and vegetables was assessed using a dietary history and the variety in intake was based on a food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables was inversely associated with total cancer risk: The adjusted relative risk (RR) was 0.56 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.31-1.00]. Eating the recommended daily 200 g of vegetables was not related to cancer incidence, whereas eating the recommended 200 g of fruit was associated with a 38% lower risk. Variety in vegetable intake was inversely associated with total cancer and non-lung epithelial cancer: The RRs (95% CI) for the highest and lowest tertiles were 0.64 (0.43-0.95) and 0.51 (0.27-0.97), respectively. Only after excluding the first two years of follow-up, variety in fruit intake was associated with reduced cancer risk. In conclusion, adherence to the guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake was associated with lower cancer risk. Besides quantity, variety in intake is also of importance
Plasma carotenoid levels in Dutch men and women, and the relation with vegetable and fruit consumption
Jansen, M.C.J.F. ; Kappel, A.L. van; Ocké, M.C. ; Veer, P. van 't; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Riboli, E. ; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B. - \ 2004
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58 (2004)10. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 1386 - 1395.
randomized controlled trial - serum carotenoids - alpha-tocopherol - dietary-intake - beta-carotene - biomarkers - retinol - antioxidants - intervention - associations
Objective: Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely associated with cancer risk in many epidemiological studies. Accurate assessment of consumption of these foods is difficult, and biomarkers of intake would overcome several drawbacks of currently used dietary assessment methods. Therefore, we investigated the relation between plasma carotenoids and usual vegetable and fruit intake. Design: Plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured and vegetable, fruit and juice consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a random sample of 591 Dutch men and women aged 20 - 59 y from the MORGEN-project, one of the contributions to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC)- study. Results: In this sample of the general Dutch population, in both genders, relative to the other carotenoids, plasma beta-cryptoxanthin was the best indicator for fruit intake, and for the sum of vegetable, fruit and juice intake, while lutein concentrations best reflected intake of vegetables, although quartiles of intake were not consistently separated. Since levels of lycopene were not associated with any of the main food groups examined, associations with total carotenoids improved when excluding lycopene, and monotonously increasing plasma levels were seen for intakes of vegetables, of fruits, and of the sum of vegetables, fruits and juices. Several vegetable types and orange/ grapefruit juice were associated with plasma levels of one of the carotenoids. Conclusion: Plasma carotenoids were only crude indicators of vegetable and fruit intake as assessed by a FFQ; beta-cryptoxanthin for fruit intake and lutein for vegetable intake. None of the plasma carotenoids could distinguish all four quartiles of vegetables, fruit and/or juice intake.