- J.C. Lenteren van (1)
- P. Mele van (5)
- R.L. Mongbo (1)
- H.A.C.P. Nuijten (2)
- F. Okry (3)
- P.C. Struik (2)
- O. Thas (1)
The rice seed sector in Guinea: Are we missing out crucial stakeholders?
Okry, F. ; Mele, P. van; Nuijten, H.A.C.P. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2011
In: Second Africa Rice Congress, 22–26 March 2010, Bamako, Mali. - Africa Rice - p. 4.6.1 - 4.6.8.
The low use of improved rice seed by farmers in west Africa is not well understood. This study assessed how institutional settings and stakeholder perceptions in the formal rice seed sector inhibit small-scale farmers’ access to improved seed. Data were collected in s Guinea, west Africa, in 2007 and 2008. To understand the dynamics of seed interventions in Guinea since the 1980s, key persons were interviewed and relevant literature was reviewed. The results show that, although local seed dealers play a central role in providing seed of local and improved varieties to farmers, seed interventions have mainly relied on the national extension system, NGOs and a new class of contract seed producers that abide by rules and regulations set by the formal seed system. Within a linear model of seed sector development, governmental organizations, the most influential stakeholders of the formal seed system, have been unaware of the central role of local seed dealers in the informal seed system. We argue that in the context of weak extension service due to lack of financial and human resources, farmer-to-farmer dissemination approach centered on the local seed producers and dealers is an option that could be explored to enhance small-scale farmers’ access to improved seed. The local seed producers and dealers have shown their willingness to participate in such seed development activities
|Guinea: Networks that work
Okry, F. ; dalohoun, D.N. ; Diawara, S. ; Billo Barry, M. ; Mele, P. van - \ 2011
In: African Seed Enterprises : Sowing the Seeds of Food Security / van Mele, P., Bentley, J.W., Guéi, R.G., FAO and AfricaRice - ISBN 9781845938437 - p. 89 - 108.
Organizational analysis of the seed sector of rice in Guinea: stakeholders, perception and institutional linkages
Okry, F. ; Mele, P. van; Nuijten, H.A.C.P. ; Struik, P.C. ; Mongbo, R.L. - \ 2011
Experimental Agriculture 47 (2011)1. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 137 - 157.
This paper analyses the organization of the rice seed sector in Guinea with the overall objectives to assess how organizational settings affect seed supply to small-scale farmers and to suggest institutional changes that would favour seed service and uptake of varieties. Data were collected in Guinea, West Africa, using focus group discussions with extension workers, farmers, representatives of farmers’ associations, agro-input dealers, researchers and non-governmental organization (NGO) staff, and surveys of 91 rice farming households and 41 local seed dealers. Findings suggest that the current institutional settings and perceptions of stakeholders from the formal seed sector inhibit smallholder farmers’ access to seed. Seed interventions in the past two decades have mainly relied on the national extension system, the research institute, NGOs, farmers’ associations and contract seed producers to ensure seed delivery. Although local seed dealers play a central role in providing seed to farmers, governmental organizations operating in a linear model of formal seed sector development have so far ignored their role. We discuss the need to find common ground and alternative models of seed sector development. In particular we suggest the involvement of local seed dealers in seed development activities to better link the formal and the informal seed systems and improve smallholder farmers’ access to seed from the formal sector.
Survey of current crop management practices in a mixed-ricefield landscape, Mekong Delta, Vietnam - potential of habitat manipulation for improved control of citrus leafminer and citrus red mite
Mele, P. van; Lenteren, J.C. van - \ 2002
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 88 (2002)1. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 35 - 48.
pest-management - diversity - orchards - coconut - plants
In the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (CLM) and the citrus red mite Panonychus citri are major pests in both sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Tieu mandarin (C. reticulata). Survey data indicate that these pest problems might be aggravated after farmers have completely destroyed the weed flora in their orchard. As citrus farmers only perceive the larger predators such as the weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina and spiders, and have no idea about the existence of predatory mites or parasitoids, they do not know about potential positive attributes of weeds in pest management which sustain populations of natural enemies and their alternative food. IPM training programmes could use the weaver ant as an introduction to educating farmers about predatory mites and parasitoids, and should likewise emphasise the importance of beneficial asteraceous weeds such as Ageratum conyzoides. Non-crop trees such as Spondias dulcis, Mangifera indica, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ceiba pentandra are commonly known to offer good refuge for the weaver ant. These trees should be further studied for their temporal contribution as food resource for other natural enemies of CLM and mites. Small adjustments of current weed management techniques are suggested to improve availability of pollen and nectar for beneficials at crucial moments in the cropping season, with due respect to implications at the landscape level.
Influence of pesticide information sources on citrus farmer's knowledge, perception and practices in pest management, Mekong Delta, Vietnam
Mele, P. van; Hai, T.V. ; Thas, O. ; Huis, A. van - \ 2002
International Journal of Pest Management 48 (2002)2. - ISSN 0967-0874 - p. 169 - 177.
resource-poor farmers - africa
In 1998-99, about 150 citrus farmers and 120 pesticide sellers were interviewed in Can Tho and Dong Thap province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Media, pesticide sellers and extension staff had different influences on farmers' pest perception and management practices depending on the region and intensity of the cropping system. Pesticide sellers were notified by about 95% of the farmers about their major pest problems, and the type of pesticides sold in their shop was primarily based on farmers' demand (87%) and then on company promotion (56%). Those farmers relying on pesticide sellers used more of the banned insecticide methyl parathion. Probably for fear of being accused of illegal practices, none of the pesticide sellers mentioned that they recommended this product or that farmers asked for it. In the intensive Tieu mandarin cropping system, media and extension activities increased farmers' knowledge of difficult-to-observe pests such as the citrus red mite Panonychus citri and thrips, Thrips sp. and Scirtothrips sp. Since extension was weak in sweet orange, those farmers exposed to media only reported the damage symptom of mites, not knowing the causal agent. Media alone seemingly did not suffice to acquaint farmers with these small organisms. Farmers getting advice from the media advertisements applied more different pesticide products and sprayed insecticides more frequently, whereas the extension has stimulated the use of acaricides and increased the number of both insecticide and fungicide sprays. The traditional practice of biological control with the ant Oecophylla smaragdina might be endangered with growing media influence and when extension activities remain confined to chemical pest control. Constraints and potentials of different information sources are discussed in relation to developing IPM programmes for citrus