Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Are forest disturbances amplifying or canceling out climate change-induced productivity changes in European forests?
Reyer, Christopher Paul Oliver ; Bathgate, Stephan ; Blennow, K. ; Borges, J.G. ; Bugmann, Harald ; Delzon, Sylvain ; Faias, Sonia P. ; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi ; Gardiner, Barry ; Gonzalez-Olabarria, J.R. ; Gracia, Carlos ; Guerra Hernandez, Jordi ; Kellomaki, Seppo ; Kramer, K. ; Lexer, M.J. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Maaten, Ernest van der; Maroschek, M. ; Muys, Bart ; Nicoll, B. ; Palahi, M. ; Palma, J.H.N. ; Paulo, Joana A. ; Peltola, H. ; Pukkala, T. ; Rammer, W. ; Ray, D. ; Sabaté, S. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Seidl, R. ; Temperli, Christian ; Tomé, Margarida ; Yousefpour, R. ; Zimmerman, N.E. ; Hanewinkel, Marc - \ 2017
Environmental Research Letters 12 (2017)3. - ISSN 1748-9326
Recent studies projecting future climate change impacts on forests mainly consider either the effects of climate change on productivity or on disturbances. However, productivity and disturbances are intrinsically linked because 1) disturbances directly affect forest productivity (e.g. via a reduction in leaf area, growing stock or resource-use efficiency), and 2) disturbance susceptibility is often coupled to a certain development phase of the forest with productivity determining the time a forest is in this specific phase of susceptibility. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of forest productivity changes in different forest regions in Europe under climate change, and partition these changes into effects induced by climate change alone and by climate change and disturbances. We present projections of climate change impacts on forest productivity from state-of-the-art forest models that dynamically simulate forest productivity and the effects of the main European disturbance agents (fire, storm, insects), driven by the same climate scenario in seven forest case studies along a large climatic gradient throughout Europe. Our study shows that, in most cases, including disturbances in the simulations exaggerate ongoing productivity declines or cancel out productivity gains in response to climate change. In fewer cases, disturbances also increase productivity or buffer climate-change induced productivity losses, e.g. because low severity fires can alleviate resource competition and increase fertilization. Even though our results cannot simply be extrapolated to other types of forests and disturbances, we argue that it is necessary to interpret climate change-induced productivity and disturbance changes jointly to capture the full range of climate change impacts on forests and to plan adaptation measures.
Increasing carbon sinks in European forests: effect of afforestation and changes in mean growing stock volume
Vilén, T. ; Cienciala, E. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Verkerk, P.J. ; Lindner, M. ; Peltola, H. - \ 2016
Forestry 89 (2016)1. - ISSN 0015-752X - p. 82 - 90.
In Europe, both forest area and growing stock have increased since the 1950s, and European forests have acted as a carbon sink during the last six decades. However, the contribution of different factors affecting the sink is not yet clear. In this study, historical inventory data were combined with land-use modelling data to reconstruct the development of forest area and age-structure between 1950 and 2010 without afforestation in two case study countries, Finland and the Czech Republic. These reconstructions were then used in a scenario analysis to assess the effects of afforestation, development of mean growing stock volume and age structure of forests on the forest biomass carbon stock. The results show that afforestation has affected the development of the mean age of forests, but has not changed its trend. There have been large increases in the mean volume of growing stock over the study period in both countries; the increase has occurred both in younger and older age-classes, and in both coniferous and broadleaved species. As not many countries have sufficiently detailed inventory data available for such analysis, the presented case studies are valuable in demonstrating that these changes occurred under very different circumstances. In both countries, the increase in the mean volume of growing stock has been the dominant factor explaining the increase in the forest biomass carbon stock compared with the effect of afforestation.
Introducing tree interactions in wind damage simulations
Schelhaas, M.J. ; Kramer, K. ; Peltola, H. ; Werf, D.C. van der; Wijdeven, S.M.J. - \ 2007
Ecological Modelling 207 (2007)2-4. - ISSN 0304-3800 - p. 197 - 209.
pinus-pinaster ait. - forest stands - scots pine - mechanical stability - tunnel measurements - drag relationships - field-measurements - individual-tree - norway spruce - models
Wind throw is an important risk factor in forest management in North-western Europe. In recent years, mechanistic models have been developed to estimate critical wind speeds needed to break or uproot the average tree of a forest stand. Based on these models, we developed a wind damage module for the individual tree model ForGEM (Forest Genetics, Ecology and Management). For a given wind speed this module assesses the forces on each individual tree, based on the tree dimensions, and support and sheltering provided by other trees. Due to this individual approach, irregular stands can also be assessed. The module is demonstrated on Douglas fir stands (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) of different densities in the Netherlands. Patterns of damage are explained, both in freshly exposed stands as well as in sheltered stands. Wind speeds needed to cause damage approximated those of known wind throw events. The wind damage module proved to be very sensitive to simulated tree heights and diameters. Furthermore, the newly introduced support mechanism played an important role in the stability of trees and stands. Lower individual tree stability in dense stands was clearly compensated for by the support of other trees.
European Mitigation and Adaptation Potentials: Conclusions and Recommendations
Kellomäki, S. ; Peltola, H. ; Bauwens, B.M.S.D.L. ; Dekker, M. ; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Badeck, F. ; Gracia, C. ; Sánchez, A. ; Pla, E. ; Sabaté, S. ; Lindner, M. ; Pussinen, A. - \ 2005
In: Management of European forests under changing climatic conditions / Kellomäki, S., Leinonen, S., Joensuu : University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry - ISBN 9789524586528 - p. 401 - 427.
Evaluation of six process-based forest growth models using eddy-covariance measurements of CO2 and H2O fluxes at six forest sites in Europe
Kramer, K. ; Leinonen, I. ; Bartelink, H.H. ; Berbigier, P. ; Borghetti, M. ; Bernhofer, C. ; Cienciala, E. ; Dolman, H. ; Froer, O. ; Gracia, C.A. ; Granier, A. ; Grunwold, T. ; Hari, P. ; Jans, W.W.P. ; Kellomaki, S. ; Loustau, D. ; Magnani, F. ; Markkanen, T. ; Matteucci, G. ; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Moors, E.J. ; Nissinen, A. ; Peltola, H. ; Sabate, S. ; Sanchez, A. ; Sontag, M. ; Valentini, R. ; Vesala, T. - \ 2002
Global Change Biology 8 (2002)3. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 213 - 230.
mean squared error - ecosystem respiration - simulation-model - gas-exchange - net carbon - scots pine - water - atmosphere - productivity - constraints
Reliable models are required to assess the impacts of climate change on forest ecosystems. Precise and independent data are essential to assess this accuracy. The flux measurements collected by the EUROFLUX project over a wide range of forest types and climatic regions in Europe allow a critical testing of the process-based models which were developed in the LTEEF project. The ECOCRAFT project complements this with a wealth of independent plant physiological measurements. Thus, it was aimed in this study to test six process-based forest growth models against the flux measurements of six European forest types, taking advantage of a large database with plant physiological parameters. The reliability of both the flux data and parameter values itself was not under discussion in this study. The data provided by the researchers of the EUROFLUX sites, possibly with local corrections, were used with a minor gap-filling procedure to avoid the loss of many days with observations. The model performance is discussed based on their accuracy, generality and realism. Accuracy was evaluated based on the goodness-of-fit with observed values of daily net ecosystem exchange, gross primary production and ecosystem respiration (gC m2 d1), and transpiration (kg H2O m2 d1). Moreover, accuracy was also evaluated based on systematic and unsystematic errors. Generality was characterized by the applicability of the models to different European forest ecosystems. Reality was evaluated by comparing the modelled and observed responses of gross primary production, ecosystem respiration to radiation and temperature. The results indicated that: Accuracy. All models showed similar high correlation with the measured carbon flux data, and also low systematic and unsystematic prediction errors at one or more sites of flux measurements. The results were similar in the case of several models when the water fluxes were considered. Most models fulfilled the criteria of sufficient accuracy for the ability to predict the carbon and water exchange between forests and the atmosphere. Generality. Three models of six could be applied for both deciduous and coniferous forests. Furthermore, four models were applied both for boreal and temperate conditions. However, no severe water-limited conditions were encountered, and no year-to-year variability could be tested. Realism. Most models fulfil the criterion of realism that the relationships between the modelled phenomena (carbon and water exchange) and environment are described causally. Again several of the models were able to reproduce the responses of measurable variables such as gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration and transpiration to environmental driving factors such as radiation and temperature. Stomatal conductance appears to be the most critical process causing differences in predicted fluxes of carbon and water between those models that accurately describe the annual totals of GPP, ecosystem respiration and transpiration. As a conclusion, several process-based models are available that produce accurate estimates of carbon and water fluxes at several forest sites of Europe. This considerable accuracy fulfils one requirement of models to be able to predict the impacts of climate change on the carbon balance of European forests. However, the generality of the models should be further evaluated by expanding the range of testing over both time and space. In addition, differences in behaviour between models at the process level indicate requirement of further model testing, with special emphasis on modelling stomatal conductance realistically
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