Biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity as key drivers of ecosystem services provided by soils
Smith, Pete ; Cotrufo, M.F. ; Rumpel, C. ; Paustian, K. ; Kuikman, P.J. - \ 2015
SOIL 1 (2015)2. - ISSN 2199-3971 - p. 665 - 685.
Soils play a pivotal role in major global biogeochemical cycles (carbon, nutrient, and water), while hosting the largest diversity of organisms on land. Because of this, soils deliver fundamental ecosystem services, and management to change a soil process in support of one ecosystem service can either provide co-benefits to other services or result in trade-offs. In this critical review, we report the state-of-the-art understanding concerning the biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity in soil, and relate these to the provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural ecosystem services which they underpin. We then outline key knowledge gaps and research challenges, before providing recommendations for management activities to support the continued delivery of ecosystem services from soils.
We conclude that, although soils are complex, there are still knowledge gaps, and fundamental research is still needed to better understand the relationships between different facets of soils and the array of ecosystem services they underpin, enough is known to implement best practices now. There is a tendency among soil scientists to dwell on the complexity and knowledge gaps rather than to focus on what we do know and how this knowledge can be put to use to improve the delivery of ecosystem services. A significant challenge is to find effective ways to share knowledge with soil managers and policy makers so that best management can be implemented. A key element of this knowledge exchange must be to raise awareness of the ecosystems services underpinned by soils and thus the natural capital they provide. We know enough to start moving in the right direction while we conduct research to fill in our knowledge gaps. The lasting legacy of the International Year of Soils in 2015 should be for soil scientists to work together with policy makers and land managers to put soils at the centre of environmental policy making and land management decisions.
Increased nitrogen use efficiency of a short-rotation poplar plantation is increased under elevated CO2
Calfapietra, C. ; Angelis, P. de; Gielen, B. ; Lukac, M. ; Moscatelli, M.C. ; Avino, G. ; Lagomarsino, A. ; Polle, A. ; Ceulemans, R. ; Mugnozza, G.S. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Cotrufo, M.F. - \ 2007
Tree Physiology 27 (2007)8. - ISSN 0829-318X - p. 1153 - 1163.
leaf-litter production - atmospheric co2 - populus-tremuloides - tropospheric o-3 - trembling aspen - carbon-dioxide - paper birch - chemical-composition - enrichment popface - biomass production
We estimated nitrogen (N) use by trees of three poplar species exposed for 3 years to free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) and determined whether the CO2 treatment affected the future N availability of the plantation. Trees were harvested at the end of the first 3-year rotation and N concentration and content of woody tissues determined. Nitrogen uptake of fine roots and litter was measured throughout the first crop rotation. The results were related to previously published variations in soil N content during the same period. We estimated retranslocation from green leaves and processes determining N mobilization and immobilization, such as mineralization and nitrification, and N immobilization in litter and microbial biomass. In all species, elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) significantly increased nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE; net primary productivity per unit of annual N uptake), decreased N concentration in most plant tissues, but did not significantly change cumulative N uptake by trees over the rotation. Total soil N was depleted more in elevated [CO2] than in ambient [CO2], although not significantly for all soil layers. The effect of elevated [CO2] was usually similar for all species, although differences among species were sometimes significant. During the first 3-year rotation, productivity of the plantation remained high in the elevated [CO2] treatment. However, we observed a potential reduction in N availability in response to elevated [CO2].
|Responses to elevated [CO2] of a short rotation multispecies poplar plantation: the POPFACE/EUROFACE experiment
Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. ; Calfapietra, C. ; Ceulemans, R. ; Gielen, B. ; Cotrufo, M.F. ; DeAngelis, P. ; Godbold, D. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Kull, O. ; Lukac, M. ; Marek, M. ; Miglietta, F. ; Polle, A. ; Raines, C. ; Sabatti, M. ; Anselmi, N. ; Taylor, G. - \ 2006
In: Managed Ecosystems and CO2 / Nösberger, J., Long, S.P., Norby, R.J., Stitt, M., Hendrey, G.R., Blum, H., Heidelberg : Springer-Verlag (Ecological Studies 187) - ISBN 9783540312369 - p. 173 - 185.
Net carbon storage in a popular plantation (POPFACE) after three years of free-air CO2 enrichment
Gielen, B. ; Calfapietra, C. ; Lukac, M. ; Wittig, V.E. ; Angelis, P. de; Janssens, I.A. ; Moscatelli, M.C. ; Grego, S. ; Cotrufo, M.F. ; Godbold, D. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Long, S. ; Miglietta, F. ; Polle, A. ; Bernacchi, C. ; Davey, P.A. ; Ceulemans, R. ; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. - \ 2005
Tree Physiology 25 (2005)11. - ISSN 0829-318X - p. 1399 - 1408.
temperature response functions - elevated atmospheric co2 - soil organic-matter - limited photosynthesis - dioxide enrichment - microbial biomass - turnover - forest - populus - dynamics
A high-density plantation of three genotypes of Populus was exposed to an elevated concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]; 550 µmol mol¿1) from planting through canopy closure using a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technique. The FACE treatment stimulated gross primary productivity by 22 and 11% in the second and third years, respectively. Partitioning of extra carbon (C) among C pools of different turnover rates is of critical interest; thus, we calculated net ecosystem productivity (NEP) to determine whether elevated atmospheric [CO2] will enhance net plantation C storage capacity. Free-air CO2 enrichment increased net primary productivity (NPP) of all genotypes by 21% in the second year and by 26% in the third year, mainly because of an increase in the size of C pools with relatively slow turnover rates (i.e., wood). In all genotypes in the FACE treatment, more new soil C was added to the total soil C pool compared with the control treatment. However, more old soil C loss was observed in the FACE treatment compared with the control treatment, possibly due to a priming effect from newly incorporated root litter. FACE did not significantly increase NEP, probably as a result of this priming effect.
More new carbon in the mineral soil of a poplar plantation under Free Air Carbon Erichment (POPFACE): Cause of increased priming effect?
Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Lukac, M. ; Dam, D. ; Godbold, D. ; Velthorst, E.J. ; Bondi, F.A. ; Peressotti, A. ; Cotrufo, M.F. ; Angelis, P. de; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. - \ 2004
Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18 (2004)1. - ISSN 0886-6236 - 7 p.
elevated atmospheric co2 - organic-matter - terrestrial ecosystems - turnover - forest - storage - system - decomposition - mechanisms - feedbacks
 In order to establish suitability of forest ecosystems for long-term storage of C, it is necessary to characterize the effects of predicted increased atmospheric CO2 levels on the pools and fluxes of C within these systems. Since most C held in terrestrial ecosystems is in the soil, we assessed the influence of Free Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) treatment on the total soil C content (C-total) and incorporation of litter derived C (C-new) into soil organic matter (SOM) in a fast growing poplar plantation. C-new was estimated by the C3/C4 stable isotope method. C-total contents increased under control and FACE respectively by 12 and 3%, i.e., 484 and 107 gC/m(2), while 704 and 926 gC/m(2) of new carbon was sequestered under control and FACE during the experiment. We conclude that FACE suppressed the increase of C-total and simultaneously increased C-new. We hypothesize that these opposite effects may be caused by a priming effect of the newly incorporated litter, where priming effect is defined as the stimulation of SOM decomposition caused by the addition of labile substrates.
|Long-term responses of a poplar agroforestry system to elevated CO2: tree growth, biomass productivity and carbon pools
Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. ; Calfapietra, C. ; Gielen, B. ; Angelis, P. de; Liberloo, M. ; Lukac, M. ; Godbold, D. ; Cotrufo, M.F. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Taylor, G. ; Raines, C. ; Marek, M. ; Kull, O. ; Miglietta, F. ; Polle, A. ; Ceulemans, R. - \ 2004