Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests
Liang, J. ; Crowther, T.W. ; Picard, N. ; Wiser, S. ; Zhou, M. ; Alberti, G. ; Schulze, E.D. ; Mcguire, A.D. ; Bozzato, F. ; Pretzsch, H. ; Miguel, S. de; Paquette, A. ; Herault, B. ; Scherer-lorenzen, M. ; Barrett, C.B. ; Glick, H.B. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan ; Pfautsch, S. ; Viana, H. ; Vibrans, A.C. ; Ammer, C. ; Schall, P. ; Verbyla, D. ; Tchebakova, N. ; Fischer, M. ; Watson, J.V. ; Chen, Han Y.H. ; Lei, X. ; Schelhaas, M.J. ; Lu, Huicui ; Gianelle, D. ; Parfenova, E.I. ; Salas, C. ; Lee, E. ; Lee, B. ; Kim, H.S. ; Bruelheide, H. ; Coomes, D.A. ; Piotto, D. ; Sunderland, T. ; Schmid, B. ; Gourlet-Fleury, S. ; Sonke, B. ; Tavani, R. ; Zhu, J. ; Brandl, S. ; Vayreda, J. ; Kitahara, F. ; Searle, E.B. ; Neldner, V.J. ; Ngugi, M.R. ; Baraloto, C. ; Frizzera, L. ; Ba Azy, R. ; Oleksyn, J. ; Zawila-Niedzwiecki, T. ; Bouriaud, O. ; Bussotti, F. ; Finer, L. ; Jaroszewicz, B. ; Jucker, T. ; Valladares, F. ; Jagodzinski, A.M. ; Peri, P.L. ; Gonmadje, C. ; Marthy, W. ; Obrien, T. ; Martin, E.H. ; Marshall, A.R. ; Rovero, F. ; Bitariho, R. ; Niklaus, P.A. ; Alvarez-Loayza, P. ; Chamuya, N. ; Valencia, R. ; Mortier, F. ; Wortel, V. ; Engone-Obiang, N.L. ; Ferreira, L.V. ; Odeke, D.E. ; Vasquez, R.M. ; Lewis, S.L. ; Reich, P.B. - \ 2016
Science 354 (2016)6309. - ISSN 0036-8075 - 15 p.
The biodiversity-productivity relationship (BPR) is foundational to our understanding of the global extinction crisis and its impacts on ecosystem functioning. Understanding BPR is critical for the accurate valuation and effective conservation of biodiversity. Using ground-sourced data from 777,126 permanent plots, spanning 44 countries and most terrestrial biomes, we reveal a globally consistent positive concave-down BPR, showing that continued biodiversity loss would result in an accelerating decline in forest productivity worldwide. The value of biodiversity in maintaining commercial forest productivity alone—US$166 billion to 490 billion per year according to our estimation—is more than twice what it would cost to implement effective global conservation. This highlights the need for a worldwide reassessment of biodiversity values, forest management strategies, and conservation priorities.
Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: meta analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control
Poorter, H. ; Niklas, K.J. ; Reich, P.B. ; Oleksyn, J. ; Poot, P. ; Mommer, L. - \ 2012
New Phytologist 193 (2012)1. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 30 - 50.
relative growth-rate - shade-avoidance responses - rain-forest evergreens - slow-growing grass - elevated co2 - plant-growth - leaf mass - photosynthetic acclimation - morphological responses - phenotypic plasticity
We quantified the biomass allocation patterns to leaves, stems and roots in vegetative plants, and how this is influenced by the growth environment, plant size, evolutionary history and competition. Dose–response curves of allocation were constructed by means of a meta-analysis from a wide array of experimental data. They show that the fraction of whole-plant mass represented by leaves (LMF) increases most strongly with nutrients and decreases most strongly with light. Correction for size-induced allocation patterns diminishes the LMF-response to light, but makes the effect of temperature on LMF more apparent. There is a clear phylogenetic effect on allocation, as eudicots invest relatively more than monocots in leaves, as do gymnosperms compared with woody angiosperms. Plants grown at high densities show a clear increase in the stem fraction. However, in most comparisons across species groups or environmental factors, the variation in LMF is smaller than the variation in one of the other components of the growth analysis equation: the leaf area : leaf mass ratio (SLA). In competitive situations, the stem mass fraction increases to a smaller extent than the specific stem length (stem length : stem mass). Thus, we conclude that plants generally are less able to adjust allocation than to alter organ morphology
TRY - a global database of plant traits
Kattge, J. ; Diaz, S. ; Lavorel, S. ; Prentices, I.C. ; Leadley, P. ; Bönisch, G. ; Garnier, E. ; Westobys, M. ; Reich, P.B. ; Wrights, I.J. ; Cornelissen, C. ; Violle, C. ; Harisson, S.P. ; Bodegom, P.M. van; Reichstein, M. ; Enquist, B.J. ; Soudzilovskaia, N.A. ; Ackerly, D.D. ; Anand, M. ; Atkin, O. ; Bahn, M. ; Baker, T.R. ; Baldochi, D. ; Bekker, R. ; Blanco, C.C. ; Blonders, B. ; Bond, W.J. ; Bradstock, R. ; Bunker, D.E. ; Casanoves, F. ; Cavender-Bares, J. ; Chambers, J.Q. ; Chapin III, F.S. ; Chave, J. ; Coomes, D. ; Cornwell, W.K. ; Craine, J.M. ; Dobrin, B.H. ; Duarte, L. ; Durka, W. ; Elser, J. ; Esser, G. ; Estiarte, M. ; Fagan, W.F. ; Fang, J. ; Fernadez-Mendez, F. ; Fidelis, A. ; Finegan, B. ; Flores, O. ; Ford, H. ; Frank, D. ; Freschet, T. ; Fyllas, N.M. ; Gallagher, R.V. ; Green, W.A. ; Gutierrez, A.G. ; Hickler, T. ; Higgins, S.I. ; Hodgson, J.G. ; Jalili, A. ; Jansen, S. ; Joly, C.A. ; Kerkhoff, A.J. ; Kirkup, D. ; Kitajima, K. ; Kleyer, M. ; Klotz, S. ; Knops, J.M.H. ; Kramer, K. ; Kühn, I. ; Kurokawa, H. ; Laughlin, D. ; Lee, T.D. ; Leishman, M. ; Lens, F. ; Lewis, S.L. ; Lloyd, J. ; Llusia, J. ; Louault, F. ; Ma, S. ; Mahecha, M.D. ; Manning, P. ; Massad, T. ; Medlyn, B.E. ; Messier, J. ; Moles, A.T. ; Müller, S.C. ; Nadrowski, K. ; Naeem, S. ; Niinemets, Ü. ; Nöllert, S. ; Nüske, A. ; Ogaya, R. ; Oleksyn, J. ; Onipchenko, V.G. ; Onoda, Y. ; Ordonez Barragan, J.C. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2011
Global Change Biology 17 (2011)9. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 2905 - 2935.
relative growth-rate - tropical rain-forest - hawaiian metrosideros-polymorpha - litter decomposition rates - leaf economics spectrum - old-field succession - sub-arctic flora - functional traits - wide-range - terrestrial biosphere
Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.
The worldwide leaf economics spectrum
Wright, I.J. ; Reich, P.B. ; Westoby, M. ; Ackerly, D.D. ; Baruch, Z. ; Bongers, F.J.J.M. ; Cavender-Bares, J. ; Chapin, T. ; Cornelissen, J.H.C. ; Diemer, M. ; Flexas, J. ; Garnier, E. ; Groom, P.K. ; Gulias, J. ; Hikosaka, K. ; Lamont, B.B. ; Lee, T. ; Lee, W. ; Lusk, C. ; Midgley, J.J. ; Navas, M.L. ; Niinements, Ü. ; Oleksyn, J. ; Osada, N. ; Poorter, H. ; Poot, P. ; Prior, L. ; Pyankov, V.I. ; Roumet, C. ; Thomas, S.C. ; Tjoelker, M.G. ; Veneklaas, E.J. ; Villar, R. - \ 2004
Nature 428 (2004)6985. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 821 - 827.
photosynthesis-nitrogen relations - life-span - functional-groups - use efficiency - high-rainfall - dry mass - area - tree - nutrient - leaves
Bringing together leaf trait data spanning 2,548 species and 175 sites we describe, for the first time at global scale, a universal spectrum of leaf economics consisting of key chemical, structural and physiological properties. The spectrum runs from quick to slow return on investments of nutrients and dry mass in leaves, and operates largely independently of growth form, plant functional type or biome. Categories along the spectrum would, in general, describe leaf economic variation at the global scale better than plant functional types, because functional types overlap substantially in their leaf traits. Overall, modulation of leaf traits and trait relationships by climate is surprisingly modest, although some striking and significant patterns can be seen. Reliable quantification of the leaf economics spectrum and its interaction with climate will prove valuable for modelling nutrient fluxes and vegetation boundaries under changing land-use and climate.