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Fate of personal care and household products in source separated sanitation
Butkovskyi, A. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Zeeman, G. ; Hernandez Leal, L. - \ 2016
Journal of Hazardous Materials 320 (2016). - ISSN 0304-3894 - p. 427 - 434.
Black water - Grey water - Micropollutants - Sorption - Triclosan - UASB sludge
Removal of twelve micropollutants, namely biocides, fragrances, ultraviolet (UV)-filters and preservatives in source separated grey and black water treatment systems was studied. All compounds were present in influent grey water in μg/l range. Seven compounds were found in influent black water. Their removal in an aerobic activated sludge system treating grey water ranged from 59% for avobenzone to >99% for hexylcinnamaldehyde. High concentrations of hydrophobic micropollutants in sludge of aerobic activated sludge system indicated the importance of sorption for their removal. Six micropollutants were found in sludge of an Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating black water, with four of them being present at significantly higher concentrations after addition of grey water sludge to the reactor. Hence, addition of grey water sludge to the UASB reactor is likely to increase micropollutant content in UASB sludge. This approach should not be followed when excess UASB sludge is designed to be reused as soil amendment.
Micropollutant removal in an algal treatment system fed with source separated wastewater streams
Wilt, H.A. de; Butkovskyi, A. ; Tuantet, K. ; Hernandez Leal, L. ; Fernandes, T. ; Langenhoff, A.A.M. ; Zeeman, G. - \ 2016
Journal of Hazardous Materials 304 (2016). - ISSN 0304-3894 - p. 84 - 92.
Micropollutant removal in an algal treatment system fed with source separated wastewater streams was studied. Batch experiments with the microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana grown on urine, anaerobically treated black water and synthetic urine were performed to assess the removal of six spiked pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, paracetamol, metoprolol, carbamazepine and trimethoprim). Additionally, incorporation of these pharmaceuticals and three estrogens (estrone, 17ß-estradiol and ethinylestradiol) into algal biomass was studied. Biodegradation and photolysis led to 60–100% removal of diclofenac, ibuprofen, paracetamol and metoprolol. Removal of carbamazepine and trimethoprim was incomplete and did not exceed 30% and 60%, respectively. Sorption to algal biomass accounted for less than 20% of the micropollutant removal. Furthermore, the presence of micropollutants did not inhibit C. sorokiniana growth at applied concentrations. Algal treatment systems allow simultaneous removal of micropollutants and recovery of nutrients from source separated wastewater. Nutrient rich algal biomass can be harvested and applied as fertilizer in agriculture, as lower input of micropollutants to soil is achieved when algal biomass is applied as fertilizer instead of urine.
Mitigation of micropollutants for black water application in agriculture via composting of anaerobic sludge
Butkovskyi, A. ; Ni, G. ; Hernandez Leal, L. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Zeeman, G. - \ 2016
Journal of Hazardous Materials 303 (2016). - ISSN 0304-3894 - p. 41 - 47.
The excess sludge from Up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor operated on source separated toilet wastewater is a potential source of nutrients and organic matter. It can be further stabilized and dried by composting and applied as a soil amendment. Presence of pathogens, heavy metals and micropollutants in the compost derived from anaerobic sludge is thus undesirable. This paper focuses on removal of micropollutants, typically present in domestic wastewater, via composting of UASB sludge with waste wood. Estrone, diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol, carbamazepine, galaxolide and triclosan were spiked to a mixture of UASB sludge and waste wood. Their concentrations were monitored during 92 days of composting at controlled temperature conditions. All studied micropollutants were removed at various rates with overall removal ranging from 99.9% for ibuprofen, diclofenac and estrone to 87.8% for carbamazepine. Accumulation of methyltriclosan as by-product of triclosan degradation was observed. The prospects and limitations of the integration of a composting process into Source Separated Sanitation concepts are discussed.
Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water
Tervahauta, T.H. ; Bryant, I.M. ; Hernandez Leal, L. ; Buisman, C.J.N. ; Zeeman, G. - \ 2014
Water 6 (2014)8. - ISSN 2073-4441 - p. 2436 - 2448.
municipal solid-wastes - grease trap sludge - co-digestion - sewage-sludge - decentralized sanitation - biogas production - uasb reactor - systems - reuse
This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP), UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD) mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased the energy recovery by 23% in the UASB reactor compared to black water treatment. The increase in the energy recovery can cover the increased heat demand of the UASB reactor and the electricity demand of the grey water bioflocculation system with a surplus of 0.7 kWh/cap/y electricity and 14 MJ/cap/y heat. However, grey water sludge introduced more heavy metals in the excess sludge of the UASB reactor and might therefore hinder its soil application.
Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in gray water
Butkovskyi, A. ; Jeremiasse, A.W. ; Hernandez Leal, L. ; Zande, T. van der; Rijnaarts, H. ; Zeeman, G. - \ 2014
Environmental Science and Technology 48 (2014)3. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 1893 - 1901.
waste-water - bisphenol-a - anodic-oxidation - organic pollutants - treatment systems - by-products - degradation - electrodes - removal - disinfection
Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in real gray water effluent was studied for the first time. Six compounds that are frequently found in personal care and household products, namely methylparaben, propylparaben, bisphenol A, triclosan, galaxolide, and 4- methylbenzilidene camphor (4-MBC), were analyzed in the effluent of the aerobic gray water treatment system in full operation. The effluent was used for lab-scale experiments with an electrochemical cell operated in batch mode. Three different anodes and five different cathodes have been tested. Among the anodes, Ru/Ir mixed metal oxide showed the best performance. Ag and Pt cathodes worked slightly better than Ti and mixed metal oxide cathodes. The compounds that contain a phenolic ring (parabens, bisphenol A, and triclosan) were completely transformed on this anode at a specific electric charge Q = 0.03 Ah/L. The compounds, which contain a benzene ring and multiple side methyl methyl groups (galaxolide, 4-MBC) required high energy input (Q = 0.6 Ah/L) for transformation. Concentrations of adsorbable organohalogens (AOX) in the gray water effluent increased significantly upon treatment for all electrode combinations tested. Oxidation of gray water on mixed metal oxide anodes could not be recommended as a post-treatment step for gray water treatment according to the results of this study. Possible solutions to overcome disadvantages revealed within this study are proposed.
Electrochemical oxidation of personal care and household products in the aerobically treated grey water
Butkovskyi, A. ; Jeremiasse, A.W. ; Hernandez Leal, L. ; Zeeman, G. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. - \ 2013
In: Proceedings of the 8th IWA Specialized Conference on Assessment and control of micropollutants and hazardous substances in water, 16-20 June 2013, Zurcih Swiss. - - p. 176 - 177.
Ecotoxicological assessment of grey water treatment systems with Daphnia magna and Chironomus riparius
Hernandez Leal, L. ; Soeter, A.M. ; Kools, S.A.E. ; Kraak, M.H.S. ; Parsons, J.R. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Zeeman, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2012
Water Research 46 (2012)4. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 1038 - 1044.
afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwater - huishoudens - waterkwaliteit - bepaling - chironomus riparius - daphnia magna - ecotoxicologie - testen - biologische behandeling - fysisch-chemische behandeling - waste water treatment - waste water - households - water quality - determination - chironomus riparius - daphnia magna - ecotoxicology - testing - biological treatment - physicochemical treatment - micropollutants - removal
In order to meet environmental quality criteria, grey water was treated in four different ways: 1) aerobic 2) anaerobic + aerobic 3) aerobic + activated carbon 4) aerobic + ozone. Since each treatment has its own specific advantages and disadvantages, the aim of this study was to compare the ecotoxicity of differently treated grey water using Chironomus riparius (96 h test) and Daphnia magna (48 h and 21d test) as test organisms. Grey water exhibited acute toxicity to both test organisms. The aerobic and combined anaerobic + aerobic treatment eliminated mortality in the acute tests, but growth of C. riparius was still affected by these two effluents. Post-treatment by ozone and activated carbon completely removed the acute toxicity from grey water. In the chronic toxicity test the combined anaerobic + aerobic treatment strongly affected D. magna population growth rate (47%), while the aerobic treatment had a small (9%) but significant effect. Hence, aerobic treatment is the best option for biological treatment of grey water, removing most of the toxic effects of grey water. If advanced treatment is required, the treatment with either ozone or GAC were shown to be very effective in complete removal of toxicity from grey water.
Grey water treatment concept integrating water and carbon recovery and removal of micropollutants
Hernandez Leal, L. ; Zeeman, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2011
Water Practice and Technology 6 (2011)2. - ISSN 1751-231X - 9 p.
A total treatment concept was developed for grey water from 32 houses in Sneek, The Netherlands. A thorough characterization of COD, nutrients, metals, micropollutants and anions was carried out. Four biological treatment systems were tested: aerobic, anaerobic, combined anaerobic¿+¿aerobic and a bioflocculation system. Micropollutants were measured in grey water and effluent from three biological treatment systems. The best performing biological treatment system, the aerobic one showed the highest COD and micropollutant removal at a low sludge yield. The bioflocculation system could concentrate 70% of the COD of grey water into a concentrated stream. Advanced treatment with ozone and activated carbon showed to be effective to remove all micropollutants below limits of quantification. A total treatment system is proposed based on the pre-treatment with a bio-flocculation system, aerobic post-treatment and ozonation as a disinfection and micropollutant removal step.
Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water via ozone and activated carbon
Hernandez Leal, L. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Zeeman, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2011
Water Research 45 (2011)9. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 2887 - 2896.
afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - verontreinigende stoffen - verwijdering - afvalwater - aërobe behandeling - ozon - actieve kool - processors - vergelijkend onderzoek - waste water treatment - water treatment - pollutants - removal - waste water - aerobic treatment - ozone - activated carbon - processors - comparative research - endocrine-disrupting chemicals - waste-water - uv filters - organic-compounds - bisphenol-a - in-vitro - pharmaceuticals - ozonation - products - vivo
Ozonation and adsorption onto activated carbon were tested for the removal micropollutants of personal care products from aerobically treated grey water. MilliQ water spiked with micropollutants (100–1600 µgL-1) was ozonated at a dosing rate of 1.22. In 45 min, this effectively removed (>99%): Four parabens, bisphenol-A, hexylcinnamic aldehyde, 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4MBC), benzophenone-3 (BP3), triclosan, galaxolide and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. After 60 min, the removal efficiency of benzalkonium chloride was 98%, tonalide and nonylphenol 95%, octocrylene 92% and 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid (PBSA) 84%. Ozonation of aerobically treated grey water at an applied ozone dose of 15 mgL-1, reduced the concentrations of octocrylene, nonylphenol, triclosan, galaxolide, tonalide and 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor to below limits of quantification, with removal efficiencies of at least 79%. Complete adsorption of all studied micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was observed in batch tests with milliQ water spiked with 100–1600 µgL-1 at a PAC dose of 1.25 gL-1 and a contact time of 5 min. Three granular activated carbon (GAC) column experiments were operated to treat aerobically treated grey water. The operation of a GAC column with aerobically treated grey water spiked with micropollutants in the range of 0.1–10 µgL-1 at a flow of 0.5 bed volumes (BV)h-1 showed micropollutant removal efficiencies higher than 72%. During the operation time of 1728 BV, no breakthrough of TOC or micropollutants was observed. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water was tested in a GAC column at a flow of 2 BVh-1. Bisphenol-A, triclosan, tonalide, BP3, galaxolide, nonylphenol and PBSA were effectively removed even after a stable TOC breakthrough of 65% had been reached. After spiking the aerobically treated effluent with micropollutants to concentrations of 10–100 µgL-1, efficient removal to below limits of quantification continued for at least 1440 BV. Both ozonation and adsorption are suitable techniques for the removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water.
Characterization and anaerobic biodegradability of grey water
Hernandez Leal, L. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Zeeman, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2011
Desalination 270 (2011)1-3. - ISSN 0011-9164 - p. 111 - 115.
greywater treatment - treatment systems - surfactants - toxicity - boron - experiences - irrigation - quality - reactor - sludge
Grey water consists of the discharges from kitchen sinks, showers, baths, washing machines and hand basins. Thorough characterization of 192 time proportional samples of grey water from 32 houses was conducted over a period of 14 months. COD concentrations were 724 ± 150 mg L- 1, of which 34% was present as suspended COD, 25% as colloidal COD and 38% as soluble COD. The maximum anaerobic biodegradability of grey water of 70 ± 5% indicates the possibility of recovering the COD as methane. However, the low hydrolysis constant makes the application of anaerobic treatment unsuitable. Surfactants accounted for 15% of the total COD. The concentrations of anionic, cationic and noninonic surfactants were 41.1 ± 12.1 mg L- 1, 1.7 ± 0.8 mg L- 1 and 11.3 ± 3.9 mg L- 1, respectively. Of the trace elements which were measured were present below limits suggested for irrigation. Only boron (0.53 ± 0.19 mg L- 1) in a few measurements exceeded the 0.75 mg L- 1 limit established for long term irrigation.
Occurrence of xenobiotics in gray water and removal in three biological treatment systems
Hernandez Leal, L. ; Vieno, N. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Zeeman, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2010
Environmental Science and Technology 44 (2010)17. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 6835 - 6842.
personal-care products - tandem mass-spectrometry - solid-phase extraction - waste-water - uv filters - aquatic environment - polycyclic musks - in-vitro - estrogenic activity - treatment plants
Eighteen selected xenobiotics related to personal care and household chemicals (UV-filters, fragrances, preservatives, biocides, surfactants) were measured in gray water from 32 houses and in effluents of three different biological treatment systems (aerobic, anaerobic, and combined anaerobic + aerobic). All selected xenobiotics were detected in gray water samples in the low µg L-1 range. Generally, lower concentrations were measured after biological treatment and removal efficiencies were higher under aerobic conditions than under anaerobic conditions. However, most of the xenobiotics were still detected in biologically treated gray water. The most persistent compounds were the fragrance tonalide and the UV-filters 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. Estimated estrogenic potential of the effluent ranged between 0.07 and 0.72 ng L-1 of 17ß-estradiol equivalents. Depending on the application of the effluent and its environmental risk, physical-chemical processes might be required to increase the removal efficiency of these compounds from gray water
Bioflocculation of grey water for improved energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts
Hernandez Leal, L. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Zeeman, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2010
Bioresource Technology 101 (2010)23. - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 9065 - 9070.
reactor - fate
Bioflocculation of grey water was tested with a lab-scale membrane bioreactor in order to concentrate the COD. Three concentration factors were tested based on the ratio of sludge retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT): 3, 8 and 12. COD concentration factor was up to 7.1, achieving a final concentration of 7.2 g COD L(-1). Large fractions of suspended COD were recovered in the concentrate (57%, 81% and 82% at SRT/HRT ratios of 3, 8 and 12, respectively) indicating a strong bioflocculation of grey water. A maximum of 11% of COD mineralization of grey water was measured at the longest SRT tested (1 d). The integration of bioflocculation of grey water in decentralized sanitation concepts may increase the overall production of methane by 73%, based on the biogas produced by black water only. Therefore, bioflocculation is a promising grey water pre-treatment step for energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts
Removal of micropollutants from grey water : combining biological and physical/chemical processes
Hernandez Leal, L. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman, co-promotor(en): Grietje Zeeman; Hardy Temmink. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857013 - 181
afvalwaterbehandeling - verontreinigende stoffen - biodegradatie - anaërobe afbraak - biochemisch zuurstofverbruik - chemisch zuurstofverbruik - uitvlokking - desinfectie - nieuwe sanitatie - waste water treatment - pollutants - biodegradation - anaerobic digestion - biochemical oxygen demand - chemical oxygen demand - flocculation - disinfection - new sanitation
Grey water consists of the discharges from kitchen sinks, showers, baths, washing machines and hand basins. The amount of grey water produced per person in The Netherlands is about 90 Ld-1, accounting for up to 75 % of the wastewater volume produced by households, and over 90 % if vacuum toilets are installed. Grey water is relatively low in pollution and therefore, after appropriate treatment, has great potential for reuse in non-potable applications such as infiltration, irrigation, toilet flushing, laundry water, etc. The goal of this thesis was to develop a treatment concept for grey water to exploit its reuse potential. A special focus of this thesis was set on the study of organic micropollutants from personal care and household chemicals. Grey water (from 32 houses in Sneek, The Netherlands) contains, on average, 724-150 mgL-1 of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 27-12 mgL-1 of total nitrogen, 7.2-4.2 mgL-1 of phosphorus and 41-12 mgL-1 of anionic surfactants. The high biodegradability of grey water (70-5 %) indicated the possibility of recovering COD as methane. Biological treatment of grey water was conducted in three systems, aerobic, anaerobic and combined anaerobic + aerobic, at a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12-13 hours at 32 °C. Aerobic treatment in a sequencing batch reactor resulted in COD removal of 90 %, which was significantly higher than 51 % removal by anaerobic treatment in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Grey water treatment in a combined anaerobic + aerobic system resulted in a COD removal efficiency of 89 %. The application of a UASB reactor for the pre-treatment of grey water yielded a small amount of energy. Therefore, the aerobic system was preferred for grey water treatment. Bioflocculation of grey water in a high loaded membrane bioreactor was tested as alternative to aerobic treatment. The concentrated grey water of this process can potentially increase the methane yield by 73 % within ‘new sanitation' concepts. Eighteen compounds of personal care products and household chemicals (UV- filters, fragrances, preservatives, biocides, surfactants) were measured in grey water at low gL-1 levels. During biological treatment most of these compounds were partially removed. In general, the treatment in the aerobic system lead to the highest removal efficiencies of these compounds, where biodegradation and adsorption to sludge were the most likely removal mechanisms. However, the UV-filters PBSA and EHMC and the fragrance tonalide were poorly removed in the tested biological systems. Although reuse standards for these compounds do not exist, the post-reatment of aerobically treated effluent was recommended prior to reuse. Adsorption on activated carbon and ozonation were proven effective as post-treatment options for grey water.
Comparison of Three Systems for Biological Greywater Treatment
Hernandez Leal, L. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Zeeman, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2010
Water 2 (2010)2. - ISSN 2073-4441 - p. 155 - 169.
Greywater consists of household wastewater excluding toilet discharges. Three systems were compared for the biological treatment of greywater at a similar hydraulic retention time of approximately 12–13 hours. These systems were aerobic treatment in a sequencing batch reactor, anaerobic treatment in an up-flow anaerobic blanket reactor and combined anaerobic-aerobic treatment (up-flow anaerobic blanket reactor + sequencing batch reactor). Aerobic conditions resulted in a COD removal of 90%, which was significantly higher than 51% removal by anaerobic treatment. The low removal in the anaerobic reactor may have been caused by high concentration of anionic surfactants in the influent (43.5 mg/L) and a poor removal of the colloidal fraction of the COD in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. Combined aerobic-anaerobic treatment accomplished a COD removal of 89%, similar to the aerobic treatment alone. Greywater methanization was 32% for the anaerobic system and 25% for the anaerobic-aerobic system, yielding a small amount of energy. Therefore, anaerobic pre-treatment is not feasible and an aerobic system is preferred for the treatment of greywater
|Characterisation and biological treatment of greywater
Hernandez Leal, L. ; Zeeman, G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2007
Characterisation and biological treatment of greywater
Hernandez Leal, L. ; Zeeman, G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2007
Water Science and Technology 56 (2007)5. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 193 - 200.
Fertilisers may contain pollutants that are applied to the field together with the nutrients. Comparing fertilisers is difficult because of their different concentrations of nutrients and pollutants. In this study an already existing model was taken. It was further developed to compare nutrient fluxes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, humus) and pollutants (heavy metals and pharmaceuticals) of pig and cattle slurry as well as human urine. The data used is taken from literature and, in the case of pharmaceuticals in urine, daily excretion rates were calculated. An amount of 19 m3 ha-1 a-1 undiluted urine can be applied, limiting factor is sulphur. Without taking over-fertilisation into account, an addition of mineral fertiliser is required to any organic fertiliser application. In general, heavy metal, antibiotic, and hormone fluxes are higher by using animal manure then urine as fertiliser. However, additional loads of other pharmaceuticals consumed by humans have to be considered. Overall, the model is a suitable tool worthwhile to be extended in aspects of hygiene, environmental impacts as for example, degradation processes as well as ecotoxicology.
|Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water recovery from source separated, domestic waste(water)
Zeeman, G. ; Kujawa, K. ; Mes, T.Z.D. de; Hernandez Leal, L. ; Graaff, M.S. de; Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H. ; Mels, A.R. ; Meulman, B. ; Temmink, H. ; Buisman, C.J.N. ; Lier, J.B. van; Lettinga, G. - \ 2007