Association of dietary pattern and body weight with blood pressure in Jiangsu Province, China
Qin, Y. ; Boonstra, A. ; Pan, X. ; Zhao, J. ; Yuan, B. ; Dai, Yue ; Zhou, M. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Kok, F.J. ; Shi, Z. - \ 2014
BMC Public Health 14 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 16 p.
randomized controlled-trials - public-health - global burden - risk-factors - meat intake - mass index - hypertension - sodium - adults - metaanalysis
Background To identify risk factors, associations between dietary patterns, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension in a Chinese population. Methods Dietary intake was assessed in 2518 adults by a 3-day 24 h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Salt and oil intake was assessed by weighing records. Four dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Overweight and obesity was determined according to the Chinese cut-offs for BMI. High blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure¿=¿140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure¿=¿90 mmHg. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Results Of the subjects, 26.7% had high blood pressure. Subjects with overweight and obesity were more likely to have high blood pressure than those with normal weight (PR, 95% CI: 1.60, 1.40-1.87; 2.45, 2.11-2.85, respectively). Subjects with a ‘traditional’ dietary pattern were more likely to have high blood pressure (P for trend¿=¿0.001), whereas those with a ‘macho’ or ‘sweet tooth’ dietary pattern were less likely to have high blood pressure (P for trend¿=¿0.004 and ¿9 g/d, and blood pressure increased with salt intake (P for trend
Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes among Newly Detected Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in China: A Community Based Cohort Study
Wang, Q.Z. ; Ma, A.G. ; Han, X.X. ; Zhao, S.L. ; Cai, J. ; Ma, Y.B. ; Zhao, J. ; Wang, Y.W. ; Dong, H.F. ; Zhao, Z.L. ; Wei, L. ; Yu, T. ; Chen, P.X. ; Schouten, E.G. ; Kok, F.J. ; Kapur, A. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)12. - ISSN 1932-6203
double burden - mellitus - risk
Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes (DM) have a higher risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB); moreover, DM co-morbidity in PTB is associated with poor PTB treatment outcomes. Community based prevalence data on DM and prediabetes (pre-DM) among TB patients is lacking, particularly from the developing world. Therefore we conducted a prospective study to investigate the prevalence of DM and pre-DM and evaluated the risk factors for the presence of DM among newly detected PTB patients in rural areas of China. Methods and Findings: In a prospective community based study carried out from 2010 to 2012, a representative sample of 6382 newly detected PTB patients from 7 TB clinics in Linyi were tested for DM. A population of 6674 non-TB controls from the same community was similarly tested as well. The prevalence of DM in TB patients (6.3%) was higher than that in non-TB controls (4.7%, p <0.05). PTB patients had a higher odds of DM than non-TB controls (adjusted OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.14-8.84). The prevalence of DM increased with age and was significantly higher in TB patients in the age categories above 30 years (p <0.05). Among TB patients, those with normal weight (BMI 18.5-23.9) had the lowest prevalence of DM (5.8%). Increasing age, family history of DM, positive sputum smear, cavity on chest X-ray and higher yearly income (>= 10000 RMB yuan) were positively associated and frequent outdoor activity was negatively associated with DM in PTB patients. Conclusions: The prevalence of DM in PTB patients was higher than in non-TB controls with a 3 fold higher adjusted odds ratio of having DM. Given the increasing DM prevalence and still high burden of TB in China, this association may represent a new public health challenge concerning the prevention and treatment of both diseases.
Preload-responsive adhesion: effects of aspect ratio, tip shape and alignment
Paretkar, D. ; Kamperman, M.M.G. ; Martina, D. ; Zhao, J. ; Creton, C. ; Lindner, A. ; Jagota, A. ; McMeeking, R. ; Arzt, E. - \ 2013
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface 10 (2013)83. - ISSN 1742-5689 - 13 p.
fibrillar interfaces - switchable adhesion - contact - surfaces - microstructure - design
We tested the adhesive response of polymer surfaces structured with arrays of cylindrical fibrils having diameters of 10–20 µm and aspect ratios 1–2.4. Fibrils had two different tip shapes of end-flaps and round edges. A preload-induced mechanical buckling instability of the fibrils was used to switch between the states of adhesion and non-adhesion. Non-adhesion in fibrils with round edges was reached at preloads that caused fibril buckling, whereas fibrils with end-flaps showed adhesion loss only at very high preloads. The round edge acted as a circumferential flaw prohibiting smooth tip contact recovery leading to an adhesion loss. In situ observations showed that, after reversal of buckling, the end-flaps unfold and re-form contact under prevailing compressive stress, retaining adhesion in spite of buckling. At very high preloads, however, end-flaps are unable to re-form contact resulting in adhesion loss. Additionally, the end-flaps showed varying contact adaptability as a function of the fibril–probe alignment, which further affects the preload for adhesion loss. The combined influence of preload, tip shape and alignment on adhesion can be used to switch adhesion in bioinspired fibrillar arrays
A consideration of biomarkers to be used for evaluation of inflammation in human nutritional studies
Calder, P.C. ; Ahluwalia, N. ; Albers, R. ; Bosco, N. ; Bourdet-Sicard, R. ; Haller, D. ; Holgate, S.T. ; Jönsson, L.S. ; Latulippe, M.E. ; Marcos, A. ; Moreines, J. ; M'Rini, C. ; Müller, M.R. ; Pawelec, G. ; Neerven, R.J.J. van; Watzl, B. ; Zhao, J. - \ 2013
The British journal of nutrition 109 (2013)S1. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. S1 - S34.
c-reactive protein - necrosis-factor-alpha - low-grade inflammation - coronary-artery-disease - blood mononuclear-cells - ischemic-heart-disease - plasma il-6 levels - obstructive pulmonary-disease - endoplasmic-reticulum stress - systemic-lupus-erythematosus
To monitor inflammation in a meaningful way, the markers used must be valid: they must reflect the inflammatory process under study and they must be predictive of future health status. In 2009, the Nutrition and Immunity Task Force of the International Life Sciences Institute, European Branch, organized an expert group to attempt to identify robust and predictive markers, or patterns or clusters of markers, which can be used to assess inflammation in human nutrition studies in the general population. Inflammation is a normal process and there are a number of cells and mediators involved. These markers are involved in, or are produced as a result of, the inflammatory process irrespective of its trigger and its location and are common to all inflammatory situations. Currently, there is no consensus as to which markers of inflammation best represent low-grade inflammation or differentiate between acute and chronic inflammation or between the various phases of inflammatory responses. There are a number of modifying factors that affect the concentration of an inflammatory marker at a given time, including age, diet and body fatness, among others. Measuring the concentration of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream under basal conditions is probably less informative compared with data related to the concentration change in response to a challenge. A number of inflammatory challenges have been described. However, many of these challenges are poorly standardised. Patterns and clusters may be important as robust biomarkers of inflammation. Therefore, it is likely that a combination of multiple inflammatory markers and integrated readouts based upon kinetic analysis following defined challenges will be the most informative biomarker of inflammation.
Anemia in relation to body mass index and waist circumference among chinese women
Qin, Y. ; Boonstra, A. ; Pan, X. ; Dai, Y.C. ; Zhao, J. ; Zimmerman, M.B. ; Kok, F.J. - \ 2013
Nutrition Journal 12 (2013). - ISSN 1475-2891 - 3 p.
iron-deficiency - chronic disease - obesity - population - overweight - zinc
Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship of anemia and body mass index among adult women in Jiangsu Province, China. Data were collected in a sub-national cross-sectional survey, and 1,537 women aged 20 years and above were included in the analyses. Subjects were classified by body mass index (BMI) categories as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese according to the Chinese standard. Central obesity was defined as a waist circumference >= 80 cm. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <12 g/dl. Prevalence ratios (PRs) of the relationship between anemia and BMI or waist circumference were calculated using Poisson regression. Findings: Overall, 31.1% of the Chinese women were anemic. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity was 34.2%, 5.8% and 36.2%, respectively. The obese group had the highest concentrations of hemoglobin compared with other BMI groups. After adjustment for confounders, overweight and obese women had a lower PR for anemia (PR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.62-0.89; PR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.43-0.79). Central obesity was inversely associated with anemia. Conclusion: In this Chinese population, women with overweight/obesity or central obesity were less likely to be anemic as compared to normal weight women. No measures are required currently to target anemia specifically for overweight and obese people in China.
|Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China
Qin, Yu ; Boonstra, A. ; Zhao, J. ; Wu, M. ; Hu, X. ; Kok, F.J. - \ 2009
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 18 (2009)1. - ISSN 0964-7058 - p. 15 - 21.
controlled-trial - supplements - population - indicators - overweight - nutrition - thailand - obesity - iron
OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged 6-9 years were included by cluster sampling from three counties with low soil zinc concentrations. Anthropometric measures were assessed and stunting was defined as a z-score of height-for-age (HAZ) below -2 according to the WHO new Growth Standards in 2006. For the second data collection round, the county with the highest prevalence of stunting was selected. From this county, 297 children aged 6-9 years were recruited by cluster sampling. Anthropometric measures, serum and hair zinc, and haemoglobin were measured at this stage. RESULTS: The total prevalence of stunting (HAZ <-2) and mild stunting (-2
|Dietary intake of zinc in the population of Jiangsu Province, China.
Yu, Q. ; Boonstra, A. ; Shi, Z. ; Pan, X. ; Yuan, B. ; Dai, Yue ; Zhao, J. ; Zimmermann, M.B. ; Kok, F.J. ; Zhou, M. - \ 2009
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 18 (2009)2. - ISSN 0964-7058 - p. 193 - 199.
preschool-children - iron intake - adults - association - people - absorption - calcium - phytate - anemia
Objectives: To evaluate dietary zinc and other divalent minerals intake among the population of Jiangsu Province. Methods: 3,867 subjects aged 4-89 years were representatively sampled in two urban and six rural areas of Jiangsu Province. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls on three consecutive days. Insufficient zinc intake was calculated based on the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes. Results: Overall, the percentage of subjects with insufficient intake of zinc was 22.9%, with a declining trend with age. Except for the group >=50 years, mean zinc intake of all other groups were below the age- and sex- specific Recommended Nutrition Intakes (RNI). Approximately 2/3rds of the subjects =50 years (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.66-0.8; OR:0.55, 95%CI: 0.47-0.64). Mean intake of iron, copper, magnesium and selenium met the Chinese DRIs respectively, except for selenium in females. The prevalence of insufficient intake of copper, magnesium and selenium was 37.2%, 22.8% and 29.3%, respectively, while the overall prevalence of insufficient iron intake was only 3.4%. Conclusion: Dietary zinc intake of the Jiangsu Province population does not generally meet the Chinese RNI. Children and adolescents in particular have a higher risk of insufficient zinc intake
Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high and low risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: a population-based case-control study
Wu, M. ; Liu, A. ; Kampman, E. ; Zhang, Zuo-Feng ; Veer, P. van 't; Wu, P. ; Wang, P. ; Kok, F.J. ; Zhao, J. - \ 2009
International Journal of Cancer 124 (2009)8. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. 1907 - 1913.
alcohol-drinking - tobacco smoking - squamous-cell - consumption - carcinoma - men - polyphenols - apoptosis - induction - health
Epidemiological studies suggested drinking green tea is inversely associated with esophageal cancer but results remain inconclusive. Moreover, inconsistent observations found high temperature drinks are associated with esophageal cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a high-risk area (Dafeng) and a low-risk area (Ganyu) of esophageal cancer in Jiangsu province China from 2003 to 2007. It aimed to explore green tea drinking and tea temperature with the risk of esophageal cancer, and to compare the difference between different risk regions. Using identical protocols, 1,520 cases and 3,879 healthy controls were recruited as study subjects in 2 regions. Detailed information was collected to assess green tea drinking habits. Unconditional logistic regression was used to obtain OR and 95% CI. Results showed that ever drinking green tea elevated OR in both counties (Dafeng OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.9-1.5; Ganyu: OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4-2.4). Drinking tea at high temperature was found to increase cancer risk in both areas (Dafeng: OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9; Ganyu OR = 3.1 95% CI = 2.2-4.3). However, after further adjustment for tea temperature, ever drinking tea was not related to cancer in either county (Dafeng: OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.7-1.3; Ganyu: OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.9-1.7). For dose-response relationships, we observed positive relationship with monthly consumption of tea (p for trend = 0.067) and tea concentration (p for trend = 0.006) after further adjustment for tea temperature. In conclusion, green tea drinking was not inversely associated with esophageal cancer in this study. However, drinking tea at high temperatures significantly increased esophageal cancer risk. There was no obvious difference of green tea drinking between low- and high-risk areas.
Mapping QTLs for mineral accumulation and shoot dry biomass under different Zn nutritional conditions in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis )
Wu, J. ; Yuan, Y.X. ; Zhang, X.W. ; Zhao, J. ; Song, X. ; Li, Y. ; Li, X. ; Sun, R. ; Koornneef, M. ; Aarts, M.G.M. ; Wang, X.W. - \ 2008
Plant and Soil 310 (2008)1-2. - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 25 - 40.
quantitative trait loci - genetic-linkage map - length-polymorphism loci - arabidopsis-thaliana - natural variation - amplified polymorphism - comparative genomics - syn campestris - thlaspi-caerulescens - zinc accumulation
Abstract Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetables in China. Genetic dissection of leaf mineral accumulation and tolerance to Zn stress is important for the improvement of the nutritional quality of Chinese cabbage by breeding. A mapping population with 183 doubled haploid (DH) lines was used to study the genetics of mineral accumulation and the growth response to Zn. The genetic map was constructed based on 203 AFLPs, 58 SSRs, 22 SRAPs and four ESTPs. The concentration of 11 minerals was determined in leaves for 142 DH lines grown in an open field. In addition shoot dry biomass (SDB) under normal, deficient and excessive Zn nutritional conditions were investigated in hydroponics experiments. Ten QTLs, each explaining 11.1¿17.1% of the Na, Mg, P, Al, Fe, Mn, Zn and Sr concentration variance, were identified by multiple-QTL model (MQM) mapping. One common QTL was found affecting SDB under normal, deficient and excessive Zn nutritional conditions. An additional QTL was detected for SDB under Zn excess stress only. These results offer insights into the genetic basis of leaf mineral accumulation and plant growth under Zn stress conditions in Chinese cabbage
|Implications of reactor type and conditions on first-order hydrolysis rate assessment of maize silage
Pabon Pereira, C.P. ; Zhao, J. ; Ekmekci, B. ; Zeeman, G. ; Lier, J.B. van - \ 2008