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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

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Assessing the effectiveness of sustainable land management policies for combating desertification : A data mining approach
Salvati, L. ; Kosmas, C. ; Kairis, O. ; Karavitis, C. ; Acikalin, S. ; Belgacem, A. ; Solé-Benet, A. ; Chaker, M. ; Fassouli, V. ; Gokceoglu, C. ; Gungor, H. ; Hessel, R. ; Khatteli, H. ; Kounalaki, A. ; Laouina, A. ; Ocakoglu, F. ; Ouessar, M. ; Ritsema, C. ; Sghaier, M. ; Sonmez, H. ; Taamallah, H. ; Tezcan, L. ; Vente, J. de; Kelly, C. ; Colantoni, A. ; Carlucci, M. - \ 2016
Journal of Environmental Management 183 (2016)3. - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 754 - 762.
Human pressure - Indicators - Mediterranean region - Multivariate statistics - Response assemblage

This study investigates the relationship between fine resolution, local-scale biophysical and socioeconomic contexts within which land degradation occurs, and the human responses to it. The research draws on experimental data collected under different territorial and socioeconomic conditions at 586 field sites in five Mediterranean countries (Spain, Greece, Turkey, Tunisia and Morocco). We assess the level of desertification risk under various land management practices (terracing, grazing control, prevention of wildland fires, soil erosion control measures, soil water conservation measures, sustainable farming practices, land protection measures and financial subsidies) taken as possible responses to land degradation. A data mining approach, incorporating principal component analysis, non-parametric correlations, multiple regression and canonical analysis, was developed to identify the spatial relationship between land management conditions, the socioeconomic and environmental context (described using 40 biophysical and socioeconomic indicators) and desertification risk. Our analysis identified a number of distinct relationships between the level of desertification experienced and the underlying socioeconomic context, suggesting that the effectiveness of responses to land degradation is strictly dependent on the local biophysical and socioeconomic context. Assessing the latent relationship between land management practices and the biophysical/socioeconomic attributes characterizing areas exposed to different levels of desertification risk proved to be an indirect measure of the effectiveness of field actions contrasting land degradation.

Evaluation and Selection of Indicators for Land Degradation and Desertification Monitoring: Types of Degradation, Causes, and Implications for Management
Kairis, O. ; Kosmas, C. ; Karavitis, C. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Salvati, L. ; Acikalin, S. ; Alcala, M. ; Alfama, P. ; Atlhopheng, J. ; Barrera, J. ; Belgacem, A. ; Sole-Benet, A. ; Brito, J. ; Chaker, M. ; Chanda, R. ; Coelho, C. ; Darkoh, M. ; Diamantis, I. ; Ermolaeva, O. ; Fassouli, V. ; Fei, W. ; Feng, J. ; Fernandez, F. ; Ferreira, A. ; Gokceoglu, C. ; Gonzalez, D. ; Gungor, H. ; Hessel, R. ; Juying, J. ; Khatteli, H. ; Khitrov, N. ; Kounalaki, A. ; Laouina, A. ; Lollino, P. ; Lopes, M. ; Magole, L. ; Medina, L. ; Mendoza, M. ; Morais, P. ; Mulale, K. ; Ocakoglu, F. ; Ouessar, M. ; Ovalle, C. ; Perez, C. ; Perkins, J. ; Pliakas, F. ; Polemio, M. ; Pozo, A. ; Prat, C. ; Qinke, Y. ; Ramos, A. ; Ramos, J. ; Riquelme, J. ; Romanenkov, V. ; Rui, L. ; Santaloia, F. ; Sebego, R. ; Sghaier, M. ; Silva, N. ; Sizemskaya, M. ; Soares, J. ; Sonmez, H. ; Taamallah, H. ; Tezcan, L. ; Torri, D. ; Ungaro, F. ; Valente, S. ; Vente, J. de; Zagal, E. ; Zeiliguer, A. ; Zhonging, W. ; Ziogas, A. - \ 2014
Environmental Management 54 (2014)5. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 971 - 982.
region ne spain - tillage erosion - soil displacement - translocation - vulnerability - sensitivity - performance - vegetation - systems - impact
Indicator-based approaches are often used to monitor land degradation and desertification from the global to the very local scale. However, there is still little agreement on which indicators may best reflect both status and trends of these phenomena. In this study, various processes of land degradation and desertification have been analyzed in 17 study sites around the world using a wide set of biophysical and socioeconomic indicators. The database described earlier in this issue by Kosmas and others (Environ Manage, 2013) for defining desertification risk was further analyzed to define the most important indicators related to the following degradation processes: water erosion in various land uses, tillage erosion, soil salinization, water stress, forest fires, and overgrazing. A correlation analysis was applied to the selected indicators in order to identify the most important variables contributing to each land degradation process. The analysis indicates that the most important indicators are: (i) rain seasonality affecting water erosion, water stress, and forest fires, (ii) slope gradient affecting water erosion, tillage erosion and water stress, and (iii) water scarcity soil salinization, water stress, and forest fires. Implementation of existing regulations or policies concerned with resources development and environmental sustainability was identified as the most important indicator of land protection.
Evaluation and Selection of Indicators for Land Degradation and Desertification Monitoring: Methodological Approach
Kosmas, C. ; Karis, O. ; Karavitis, C. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Salvati, L. ; Acikalin, S. ; Alcala, S. ; Alfama, P. ; Atlhopheng, J. ; Barrera, J. ; Belgacem, A. ; Sole-Benet, A. ; Brito, J. ; Chaker, M. ; Chanda, R. ; Coelho, C. ; Darkoh, M. ; Diamantis, I. ; Ermolaeva, O. ; Fassouli, V. ; Fei, W. ; Fernandez, F. ; Ferreira, A. ; Gokceoglu, C. ; Gonzalez, D. ; Gungor, H. ; Hessel, R. ; Juying, J. ; Khatteli, H. ; Kounalaki, A. ; Laouina, A. ; Lollino, P. ; Lopes, M. ; Magole, L. ; Medina, L. ; Mendoza, M. ; Morais, P. ; Mulale, K. ; Ocakoglu, F. ; Ouessar, M. ; Ovalle, C. ; Perez, C. ; Perkins, J. ; Pliakas, F. ; Polemio, M. ; Pozo, A. ; Prat, C. ; Qinke, Y. ; Ramos, A. ; Riquelme, J. ; Romanenkov, V. ; Rui, L. ; Santaloia, F. ; Sebego, R. ; Sghaier, M. ; Silva, N. ; Sizemskaya, M. ; Soares, J. ; Sonmez, H. ; Taamallah, H. ; Tezcan, L. ; Torri, D. ; Ungaro, F. ; Valente, S. ; Vente, J. de; Zagal, E. ; Zeiliguer, A. ; Zhonging, W. ; Ziogas, A. - \ 2014
Environmental Management 54 (2014)5. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 951 - 970.
mediterranean conditions - aggregate stability - soil properties - rock fragments - organic-matter - vegetation - tillage - biomass - erosion - greece
An approach to derive relationships for defining land degradation and desertification risk and developing appropriate tools for assessing the effectiveness of the various land management practices using indicators is presented in the present paper. In order to investigate which indicators are most effective in assessing the level of desertification risk, a total of 70 candidate indicators was selected providing information for the biophysical environment, socio-economic conditions, and land management characteristics. The indicators were defined in 1,672 field sites located in 17 study areas in the Mediterranean region, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Based on an existing geo-referenced database, classes were designated for each indicator and a sensitivity score to desertification was assigned to each class based on existing research. The obtained data were analyzed for the various processes of land degradation at farm level. The derived methodology was assessed using independent indicators, such as the measured soil erosion rate, and the organic matter content of the soil. Based on regression analyses, the collected indicator set can be reduced to a number of effective indicators ranging from 8 to 17 in the various processes of land degradation. Among the most important indicators identified as affecting land degradation and desertification risk were rain seasonality, slope gradient, plant cover, rate of land abandonment, land-use intensity, and the level of policy implementation.
Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modelling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation
Stringer, L.C. ; Fleskens, L. ; Reed, M.S. ; Vente, J. de; Zengin, M. - \ 2014
Environmental Management 54 (2014)5. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 1022 - 1042.
stakeholder participation - adaptive management - conservation - science - soil - knowledge - challenges - adoption - erosion - africa
Examples of sustainable land management (SLM) exist throughout the world. In many cases, SLM has largely evolved through local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted on the basis of scientific evidence. This means that SLM technologies are often only adopted across small areas. The DESIRE (DESertIfication mitigation and REmediation of degraded land) project combined local traditional knowledge on SLM with empirical evaluation of SLM technologies. The purpose of this was to evaluate and select options for dissemination in 16 sites across 12 countries. It involved (i) an initial workshop to evaluate stakeholder priorities (reported elsewhere), (ii) field trials/empirical modeling, and then, (iii) further stakeholder evaluation workshops. This paper focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on the scientific monitoring and modeling results from 15 study sites. It analyses workshop outcomes to evaluate how scientific results affected stakeholders’ perceptions of local SLM technologies. It also assessed the potential of this participatory approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of empirical measurements and modeling assessments of each technology. Two workshop examples are presented in depth to: (a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and (b) discuss stakeholders’ suggestions on how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled. The overall multi-stakeholder participatory approach taken is then evaluated. It is concluded that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be viewed alongside traditional beliefs and both scrutinized with equal rigor; and the knowledge of all kinds of experts must be recognised and considered in decision-making about SLM, whether it has been formally codified or not. The approach presented in this paper provided this opportunity and received positive feedback from stakeholders.
What does the future hold for semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystems? - Exploring cellular automata and agent-based trajectories of future land use change
Nainggolan, D. ; Termansen, M. ; Fleskens, L. ; Hubacek, K. ; Reed, M.S. ; Vente, J. de; Boix-Fayos, C. - \ 2012
Applied Geography 35 (2012)1-2. - ISSN 0143-6228 - p. 474 - 490.
cover change - spatially explicit - sloping land - models - typology - systems - policy - agriculture - environment - landscape
Exploring how land use and the management of agro-ecosystems may evolve in the future is important for advancing scientific understanding and for informing policy makers and land managers of ways to respond and adapt sustainably to future change. In this paper, we investigate the future land-use trajectories of a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem in south-eastern Spain using two different approaches: Markovian cellular automata and an agent-based approach. Methodologically, the paper offers a systematic method for agent parameterization to facilitate the development of an empirical agent-based scenario analysis. This approach is achieved by integrating information from cadastral and recent land-use maps, agricultural statistics, and sampled survey data. Through this integration, an effective approach is provided for up-scaling an agent typology from the sampled survey to the landscape scale. The output of the up-scaling provides a basis for modeling the aggregate effect of the responses of different types of farmers to environmental and policy changes across the study region. Empirically, the paper highlights the contrasting futures that the studied agro-ecosystem could have depending on the direction and intensity of the changes in environmental and policy conditions. The Markovian-CA land-use projection indicates further decline of rain-fed agriculture and describes the scope of the expansion of irrigated agriculture. The agent-based scenario analysis shows that the future of irrigated agriculture is highly sensitive to the expected future water scarcity. The analysis also reveals that the way that the future environmental and policy changes are conceptualized and presented to farmers and the range of different farmers in the agro-ecosystem determine the extent of the resulting aggregate effects of individual farmer reactions to future changes at the landscape scale. The empirical evidence of this research emphasizes the need for policy makers to consider multiple and interacting factors, including the design of interventions and likely farmer responses, which shape future agricultural land-use trajectories.
Exploring effects of rainfall intensity and duration on soil erosion at the catchment scale using OpenLISEM
Baartman, J.E.M. ; Jetten, V.G. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Vente, J. de - \ 2012
In semi-arid areas high-intensity rainfall events are often held responsible for the main part of soil erosion. Long-term landscape evolution models usually use average annual rainfall as input, making the evaluation of single events impossible. Event-based soil erosion models are better suited for this purpose, but cannot be used to simulate longer timescales and are usually applied to plots or small catchments. In this study, the openLISEM event-based erosion model was applied to the medium sized (50 km2) Prado catchment in SE Spain. Our aim was to (i) test the model’s performance for medium sized catchments; (ii) test the ability to simulate four selected typical Mediterranean rainfall events of different magnitude, and (iii) explore the relative contribution of these different storms to soil erosion using scenarios of future climate variability. Results show that due to large differences in the hydrologic response between storms of different magnitudes, each event needed to be calibrated separately. The relation between rainfall event characteristics and the calibration factors might help in determining optimal calibration values if event characteristics are known. Calibration of the model features some drawbacks for large catchments due to spatial variability in Ksat values. Scenario calculations show that, although 50% of soil erosion occurs as a result of high frequency, low intensity rainfall events, large magnitude, low frequency events potentially contribute significantly to total soil erosion. The results illustrate the need to incorporate temporal variability in rainfall magnitude-frequency distributions in landscape evolution models
Exploring effects of rainfall intensity and duration on soil erosion at the catchment scale using openLISEM - Prado catchment, SE Spain
Baartman, J.E.M. ; Jetten, V.G. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Vente, J. de - \ 2012
Hydrological Processes 26 (2012)7. - ISSN 0885-6087 - p. 1034 - 1049.
saturated hydraulic conductivity - southeast spain - land-use - semiarid catchments - landscape evolution - simulation approach - ephemeral channels - surface-roughness - hillslope runoff - drainage basins
In semi-arid areas high-intensity rainfall events are often held responsible for the main part of soil erosion. Long-term landscape evolution models usually use average annual rainfall as input, making the evaluation of single events impossible. Event-based soil erosion models are better suited for this purpose, but cannot be used to simulate longer timescales and are usually applied to plots or small catchments. In this study, the openLISEM event-based erosion model was applied to the medium sized ( 50 km2) Prado catchment in SE Spain. Our aim was to (i) test the model's performance for medium sized catchments; (ii) test the ability to simulate four selected typical Mediterranean rainfall events of different magnitude, and (iii) explore the relative contribution of these different storms to soil erosion using scenarios of future climate variability. Results show that due to large differences in the hydrologic response between storms of different magnitudes, each event needed to be calibrated separately. The relation between rainfall event characteristics and the calibration factors might help in determining optimal calibration values if event characteristics are known. Calibration of the model features some drawbacks for large catchments due to spatial variability in Ksat values. Scenario calculations show that, although 50% of soil erosion occurs as a result of high frequency, low intensity rainfall events, large magnitude, low frequency events potentially contribute significantly to total soil erosion. The results illustrate the need to incorporate temporal variability in rainfall magnitude-frequency distributions in landscape evolution models.
Cyclic GMP in the pig vitreous and retina after experimental retinal detachment
Diederen, R. ; Heij, E.C. La; Lemmens, M.A.M. ; Kijlstra, A. ; Vente, J. De; Hendrikse, F. - \ 2008
Molecular Vision 14 (2008). - ISSN 1090-0535 - p. 255 - 261.
soluble guanylate-cyclase - pigment epithelial-cells - oxygen supplementation - subretinal fluid - cgmp - localization - particulate - surgery - pathways - neurons
Purpose: Earlier studies have revealed a decreased level of cGMP in vitreous fluid obtained from patients with a retinal detachment. To further investigate this phenomenon, we developed an experimental retinal detachment model in pigs. Methods: Experimental unilateral retinal detachments were induced in pig eyes by subretinal injection of 0.25% sodium hyaluronate. Fourteen days later the vitreous and retinas were analyzed for cGMP expression. Following enucleation, the retinas were incubated in the presence of a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor (IBMX), and the particulate guanylyl cyclase stimulator atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or the soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator sodium nitroprusside (SNP). cGMP was visualized in retinal wholemounts by immunochemistry combined with a computer based stereology system. cGMP levels in vitreous were determined by ELISA. Results: The mean vitreous cGMP level in pig eyes with a retinal detachment (1.45 pmol/ml) was significantly lower compared to the mean level of cGMP in healthy pig eyes (4.61 pmol/ml; p= 0.028 was considered significant). In the inner retina, ANP as well as SNP induced cGMP immunoreactivity in both detached and healthy retinas. After incubation with ANP, cGMP could also be detected in the outer nuclear layer of the detached retina, whereas this was not the case in the normal retina. Conclusions: Experimental retinal detachment in the pig eye leads to a decrease of cGMP levels in vitreous similar to that observed in clinical studies. This model may be helpful to analyze the mechanisms involved in cGMP dynamics following retinal detachment.
Selective blockade of Phosphodiesterases Type 2, 5 and 9 results in cGMP accumulation in Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells
Diederen, R. ; Heij, E.C. La; Markerink-van Ittersum, M. ; Kijlstra, A. ; Hendrikse, F. ; Vente, J. de - \ 2007
British Journal of Ophthalmology 91 (2007)3. - ISSN 0007-1161 - p. 379 - 384.
nucleotide phosphodiesterases - subretinal fluid - cgmp phosphodiesterase - rat-brain - sildenafil - cloning - pde10a - camp - amp
Aim: To investigate which phosphodiesterase (PDE) is involved in regulating cyclic 3'5' guanosine monophosphate breakdown in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Methods: cGMP content in the cultured RPE cells (D407 cell line) was evaluated by immunocytochemistry in the presence of non-selective or isoform-selective PDE inhibitors in combination with the particulate guanylyl cyclase stimulator atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or the soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator sodium nitroprusside (SNP). mRNA expression of PDE2, PDE5 and PDE9 was studied in cultured human RPE cells and rat RPE cell layers using non-radioactive in situ hybridisation. Results: In the absence of PDE inhibitors, cGMP levels in cultured RPE cells are very low. cGMP accumulation was readily detected in cultured human RPE cells after incubation with Bay60–7550 as a selective PDE2 inhibitor, sildenafil as a selective PDE5 inhibitor or Sch51866 as a selective PDE9 inhibitor. In the presence of PDE inhibition, cGMP content increased markedly after stimulation of the particulate guanylyl cyclase. mRNA of PDE2,PDE5 and PDE9 was detected in all cultured human RPE cells and also in rat RPE cell layers
Dissociable effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors on object recognition memory: acquisition versus consolidation
Prickaerts, L. ; Sik, A. ; Staay, F.J. van der; Vente, J. de; Blokland, A. - \ 2005
Psychopharmacology 177 (2005)4. - ISSN 0033-3158 - p. 381 - 390.
transformation product dichlorvos - cyclic-gmp - aged rats - cholinesterase-inhibitors - spatial navigation - nucleus basalis - nitric-oxide - young-adult - metrifonate - physostigmine
Rationale Phosphodiesterase enzyme type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have cognition-enhancing properties. However, it is not known whether these drug classes affect the same memory processes. Objective We investigated the memory-enhancing effects of the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil and AChE inhibitors metrifonate and donepezil in the object recognition task to find out whether acquisition or consolidation processes were affected by these drugs. Methods The object recognition task measures whether rats remembered an object they have explored in a previous learning trial. All drugs were given orally 30 min before or immediately after learning to study acquisition and consolidation, respectively. Results Sildenafil given immediately after the first trial improved the memory performance after 24 h and resulted in an inverted U-shaped dose¿effect curve with the peak dose at 3 mg/kg. When given before the first trial, sildenafil also improved the memory performance. However, the dose needed for the best performance under this condition was 10 mg/kg, suggesting that the dose¿effect curve shifted to the right. This can be explained by the metabolic clearance of the high dose of sildenafil. Donepezil had no memory improving effect when given after the first trial. However, when given before the first trial, a gradually increasing dose¿effect curve was found which had its maximum effect at the highest dose tested (1 mg/kg). Likewise, only when metrifonate (30 mg/kg) was given before the first trial did rats show an improved memory performance. Conclusion Our data strongly suggest that PDE5 inhibitors improve processes of consolidation of object information, whereas AChE inhibitors improve processes of acquisition of object information.
Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition improves early memory consolidation of object information
Prickaerts, J. ; Sik, A. ; Staveren, W.C.G. ; Koopmans, G. ; Steinbusch, H.W.M. ; Staay, F.J. van der; Vente, J. de; Blokland, A. - \ 2004
Neurochemistry International 45 (2004)6. - ISSN 0197-0186 - p. 915 - 928.
nitric-oxide synthase - long-term potentiation - dependent protein-kinase - cultured hippocampal-neurons - soluble guanylyl cyclase - cerebral-blood-flow - c-fos expression - 14-unit t-maze - late-phase ltp - cyclic-gmp
The nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling pathway is assumed to play an important role in processes underlying learning and memory. We used phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors to study the role of cGMP in object- and spatial memory. Our results and those reported in other studies indicate that elevated hippocampal cGMP levels are required to improve the memory performance of rodents in object recognition and passive avoidance learning, but not in spatial learning. The timing of treatment modulates the effects on memory and strongly supports a role for cGMP in early stages of memory formation. Alternative explanations for the improved memory performance of PDE5 inhibitors are also discussed. Immunocytochemical studies showed that in vitro slice incubations with PDE5 inhibitors increase NO-stimulated cGMP levels mainly in hippocampal varicose fibers. Reviewing the available data on the localization of the different components of the NO-cGMP signaling pathway, indicates a complex interaction between NO and cGMP, which may be independent of each other. It is discussed that further studies are needed, immunocytochemical and behavioral, to better understand the cGMP-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying memory formation.
Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 2 increases neuronal cGMP, synaptic plasticity and memory performance
Boess, F.G. ; Hendrix, M. ; Staay, F.J. van der; Erb, C. ; Schreiber, R. ; Staveren, W.C.G. ; Vente, J. de; Prikaerts, J. ; Blokland, A. ; Koenig, G. - \ 2004
Neuropharmacology 47 (2004)7. - ISSN 0028-3908 - p. 1081 - 1092.
long-term potentiation - dependent protein-kinase - soluble guanylyl cyclase - cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase - messenger nitric-oxide - rat-brain - retrograde messenger - adenosine-deaminase - serotonin receptor - nmda receptors
An essential element of the signalling cascade leading to synaptic plasticity is the intracellular second messenger molecule guanosine 3¿,5¿-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Using the novel, potent, and selective inhibitor Bay 60-7550, we show that the enzyme 3¿,5¿-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type 2 (PDE2) is responsible for the degradation of newly synthesized cGMP in cultured neurons and hippocampal slices. Inhibition of PDE2 enhanced long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission without altering basal synaptic transmission. Inhibition of PDE2 also improved the performance of rats in social and object recognition memory tasks, and reversed MK801-induced deficits in spontaneous alternation in mice in a T-maze. Our data provide strong evidence that inhibition of PDE2 can improve memory functions by enhancing neuronal plasticity
Land cover monitoring; an approach towards pan European land cover classification and change detection
Boer, M.E. de; Vente, J. de; Mücher, C.A. ; Nijenhuis, W.A.S. ; Thunnissen, H.A.M. - \ 2000
Delft : BCRS (NRSP-2 Report 00-18) - 110
remote sensing - landevaluatie - grondbedekking - verandering - detectie - landclassificatie - terreinclassificatie - europa - remote sensing - land evaluation - ground cover - change - detection - land classification - terrain classification - europe
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