- K. Herbers (1)
- A.J.M. Jansman (1)
- R. Kleemann (1)
- Robert Kleemann (1)
- E.F. Knol (1)
- E.F. Knol (1)
- T. Kooistra (1)
- W. Liang (1)
- Louis M. Havekes (1)
- Anita M. Hoek van den (1)
- Petra Mulder (1)
- H.A. Mulder (1)
- D. Rein (1)
- E.G.W.M. Schijlen (1)
- U. Sonnewald (1)
- E. Strandberg (1)
- Karin Toet (1)
- L. Verschuren (3)
- L.M.G. Verschuren (1)
- P.Y. Wielinga (1)
- O. Zemb (1)
Feed efficiency and the faecal microbiome at slaughter weight in pigs
Verschuren, L.M.G. ; Calus, M.P.L. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Bergsma, R. ; Knol, E.F. ; Gilbert, H. ; Zemb, O. - \ 2017
- 1 p.
Feed efficiency (FE) is an important trait in the pig industry, as feed costs are responsible for the major part of production costs. Availability in the market and cost of feed ingredients dictate changes in feed composition. As a result, fibre level and composition can vary between pig diets. Microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract play an important role in fibre digestion, because they produce enzymes that break down fibre structures and deliver volatile fatty acids to the pig. These volatile fatty acids can be used as metabolic energy source. As such, microbial fermentation could influence FE in pigs. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between FE and faecal microbiome in commercial grower-finisher pigs. Three-way crossbreed grower-finisher pigs (154) were either fed a diet based on corn/soybean meal (CS) or a diet based on wheat/barley (WB). Faecal samples were collected on the day before slaughter (mean bodyweight 122 kg) and sequenced for the V3V4 16S ribosomal DNA regions. Sequences were clustered according to operational taxonomic units (OTU) for each individual, forming a table of OTU abundancy. A partial least square regression was applied to the dataset, together with a discriminant analysis using principal components of FE extreme groups (10 high and 10 low FE animals for each diet x sex-combination). Pigs on different diets and males vs. females had a very distinct microbiome, needing only two OTUs for diet (P=0.018) and 18 OTUs for sex (P=0.002) to separate the groups. Faecal microbiome was not related to FE groups fed the CS diet, but there were sex specific OTUs related to FE in the male and female pigs in the groups fed the WB diet. In conclusion, our results show a diet and sex dependent relationship between the faecal microbial composition and FE in grower-finisher pigs at slaughter weight. This study is part of the Feed-a-Gene Project, funded from the European Union’s H2020 Programme under grant agreement no 633531.
Macrovesicular steatosis is associated with development of lobular inflammation and fibrosis in diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)
Mulder, Petra ; Liang, W. ; Wielinga, P.Y. ; Verschuren, L. ; Toet, Karin ; Havekes, Louis M. ; Hoek, Anita M. van den; Kleemann, Robert - \ 2015
Inflammation and Cell Signaling 2 (2015)3. - ISSN 2330-7803 - 10 p.
Macrovesicular steatosis - lobular inflammation - fibrosis - steatohepatitis
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by liver steatosis and lobular inflammation. It is unclear how the development of liver steatosis and the formation of inflammatory cell aggregates are related to each other. The present study investigated the longitudinal development of two forms of steatosis, micro- and macrovesicular steatosis, as well as lobular inflammation. ApoE*3Leiden.CETP (E3L.CETP) transgenic mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 1% w/w cholesterol (HFC) for 12 weeks to induce NASH. Livers were harvested in intervals of 4 weeks and analyzed by histological and biochemical techniques, as well as transcriptome and subsequent pathway analysis. Major findings were validated in independent NASH studies using other rodent models, i.e. HFD-treated C57BL/6J and LDLr‑/-.Leiden mice.
In E3L.CETP mice, microvesicular steatosis was rapidly induced and reached plateau levels after already 4 weeks of HFC treatment. By contrast, macrovesicular steatosis developed more gradually and progressed over time. Lobular inflammation increased after 4 weeks with a significant further progression towards the end of the study (12 weeks). Macrovesicular, but not microvesicular, steatosis was positively correlated with the number of inflammatory aggregates. This correlation was confirmed in a milder (C57BL/6J) and a more severe (LDLr‑/-.Leiden) NASH model. Furthermore, collagen staining showed onset of perihepatocellular fibrosis in E3L.CETP mice after 12 weeks of HFC treatment and transcriptome analysis substantiated the activation of pro-fibrotic pathways and genes. Macrovesicular steatosis correlated positively with liver fibrosis in LDLr-/-.Leiden mice with pronounced fibrosis. Collectively, this study shows that macrovesicular steatosis is associated with lobular inflammation and liver fibrosis in rodent models and highlights the importance of this form of steatosis in the pathogenesis of NASH.
Phenotypic and genetic applications for total nutritional efficiency in pigs
Mulder, H.A. ; Bergsma, R. ; Verschuren, L. ; Knol, E.F. ; Strandberg, E. - \ 2013
In: Book of Abstracts of the 64th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science, 26-30 August 2013, Nantes, France. - Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086867820 - p. 204 - 204.
Transgenic flavonoid tomato intake reduces C-reactive protein in human C-reactive protein transgenic mice more than wild-type tomato
Rein, D. ; Schijlen, E.G.W.M. ; Kooistra, T. ; Herbers, K. ; Verschuren, L. ; Hall, R.D. ; Sonnewald, U. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Kleemann, R. - \ 2006
The Journal of Nutrition 136 (2006)9. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 2331 - 2337.
factor-kappa-b - activated receptor-alpha - necrosis-factor-alpha - gene-expression - vegetable consumption - up-regulation - fatty-acids - in-vitro - cholesterol - fruit
The increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease. The molecular basis of this health effect is not fully understood, yet dietary flavonoids are thought to play an important role. Genetic engineering has enabled us to overexpress specific flavonoids (flavones and flavonols) in tomato fruit. Human C-reactive protein transgenic (CRPtg) mice express markers of cardiovascular risk that allow us to study of the putative health effects of wild-type tomato (wtTom) and flavonoid-enriched tomato (flTom). In this study, we analyzed whether consumption of wtTom, at a dose achievable with a human diet, has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk markers and whether flTom may enhance such effects. CRPtg mice were fed a diet containing 4 g/kg wtTom, flTom peel, vehicle, or 1 g/kg fenofibrate, which reportedly reduces cardiovascular risk, for 7 wk. Markers of general health (bodyweight, food intake, and plasma alanine aminotransferase activities) and of cardiovascular risk (plasma CRP, fibrinogen, E-selectin, and cholesterol levels) were analyzed. All groups had comparable food intakes and body-weight gains. Plasma alanine aminotransferase activities increased significantly in vehicle and fenofibrate-treated mice. Compared with baseline, wtTom and flTom significantly reduced basal human CRP concentrations by 43 and 56%, respectively. The CRP-lowering effect of flTom significantly exceeded that of wtTom. The effects of flTom on CRP were reversed within a 2-wk washout period. WtTom and flTom did not affect fibrinogen, but comparably repressed E-selectin expression and upregulated HDL cholesterol. Tomato peel consumption improved cardiovascular risk factors in CRPtg mice, a beneficial effect that was further enhanced by enrichment of the flavonoid content