A holistic sustainability assessment tool for bioenergy using the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) sustainability indicators
Hayashi, T. ; Ierland, E.C. van; Zhu, X. - \ 2014
Biomass and Bioenergy 66 (2014). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 70 - 80.
weak sustainability - food-prices - biofuels
In 2011 the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) released a set of indicators for sustainable bioenergy. However, two important issues still remain unresolved. One of them is the definition of “sustainability”, and the other is the lack of a holistic assessment tool for drawing conclusions from the indicators. The aim of this paper is to provide clarification on the concept of sustainability in the context of the GBEP indicators, and to develop a holistic assessment tool for assessing the sustainability of bioenergy programmes. The GBEP indicators are diverse in terms of “what to measure”, and some of them are not sufficiently directly related to the concept of sustainability. This makes the indicators ambiguous regarding to sustainability assessment. This study identifies whether the GBEP indicators are concerned with strong or weak sustainability, and develops a tool based on Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) which can be used for assessing sustainability of bioenergy programmes using the GBEP indicators. The tool is demonstrated in an example for assessing the sustainability of biofuel production in a case study of Kyoto. We found that the biodiesel production in Kyoto performs well on the environmental pillar, but badly on the economic pillar, and based on the weights applied in this study the overall sustainability is better than diesel fuel. The holistic assessment tool provides practical information to policymakers on both ex-ante and ex-post policy evaluations.
Genetic linkage maps of Japanese and European pears aligned to the apple consensus map
Yamamoto, T. ; Kimura, T. ; Saito, T. ; Kotobuki, K. ; Matsuta, N. ; Liebhard, R. ; Gessler, C. ; Weg, W.E. van de; Hayashi, T. - \ 2004
Acta Horticulturae 663 (2004). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 51 - 56.
Genetic linkage maps of the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar `Housui¿ and the European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar `Bartlett¿ were constructed based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers (AFLPs), Simple Sequence Repeat markers (SSRs) (from pear, apple and Prunus), isozymes, and phenotypic traits by using their F1 progenies. The map of the female parent `Bartlett¿ consisted of 256 loci including 178 AFLPs, 76 SSRs (32 pear, 39 apple, 5 Prunus SSRs), 1 isozyme and a self-incompatibility locus on 19 linkage groups over a total length of 1020 cM. The map of `Housui¿ contained 180 loci including 110 AFLPs, 64 SSRs (29 pear, 29 apple, 6 Prunus SSRs), 2 phenotypic traits and 4 other markers on 20 linkage groups encompassing a genetic distance of 995 cM. These 2 pear maps were aligned using 37 co-dominant markers that showed segregating alleles in both parents. Out of 80 tested SSR markers developed from apple, more than four-fifth could produce discrete amplified fragments in pear. Thirty-eight apple SSR markers showed 39 segregating loci in the linkage map of `Bartlett¿, while 27 markers produced 29 loci in `Housui¿. All pear linkage groups could be successfully aligned to the apple consensus map by at least 1 apple SSRs, suggesting that positions and linkages of SSR loci were well conserved between pear and apple. The self-incompatibility locus (S locus) was mapped to linkage group 17 in Japanese and European pears as well as apple. Our results are the first major effort in comparative mapping of pear and apple