Soil precompression stress: II a comparison of different compaction tests and stress-displacement behaviour of the soil during wheeling
Keller, T. ; Arvidsson, J. ; Dawidowski, J.B. ; Koolen, A.J. - \ 2004
Soil & Tillage Research 77 (2004)1. - ISSN 0167-1987 - p. 97 - 108.
physical-properties - compression - pressure - strength
Precompression stress is often used as a criterion for soil susceptibility to compaction. The objective of this study was to compare precompression stresses derived from different compression test methods and relate these values to measured stress and displacement during wheeling in the field. Precompression stress was measured at three depths at two sites on a Eutric Cambisol in Sweden using in situ plate sinkage test, and by compressing soil cores in the laboratory with sequential loading (oedometer) and at constant displacement speed, respectively. At the same sites, wheeling experiments were carried out where vertical soil displacement and vertical soil stress were measured simultaneously at three depths. No clear relationship between precompression stress and compression method was found. Precompression stress values derived from the oedometer and the in situ plate sinkage test did generally not differ from each other. Precompression stress derived from the constant speed test was either higher (site A, silty clay loam) or lower (site B, silty clay) compared to the other methods. Precompression stress did not work as a threshold value between reversible and irreversible deformation when precompression stress values derived from the different methods were compared with stress and displacement measured in the field during the wheeling experiment. Even when the observed stress was lower than the precompression stress, a residual displacement was observed. The study demonstrates that the precompression stress is not a sharp value but depends on the compression test method and its analysis, and that compression tests might not represent the soil behaviour in the field sufficiently. There is an urgent need to study soil behaviour in the field and link these experiments to soil mechanical (laboratory) tests.
Introduction to the special issue on experiences with the impact and prevention of subsoil compaction in the European Union
Akker, J.J.H. van den; Arvidsson, J. ; Horn, R. - \ 2003
Soil & Tillage Research 73 (2003)39479. - ISSN 0167-1987 - p. 1 - 8.
sugar-beet harvesters - southern sweden - crop yield - soil - displacement - vehicles
The papers in this special issue present results of the European Union (EU) concerted action ¿Experiences with the impact of subsoil compaction on soil crop growth and environment and ways to prevent subsoil compaction¿. The results and conclusions of earlier research on subsoil compaction are memorized and it is emphasized that the conclusions are still sound: high axle load traffic on soils of high moisture content causes deep and persistent subsoil compaction. The concerted action on subsoil compaction in the EU and an almost identical concerted action on subsoil compaction in central and eastern Europe are briefly introduced. This special issue presents a selection of papers of the concluding workshop of the concerted action on subsoil compaction in the EU. It includes three papers on modeling the impact of subsoil compaction on crop growth, water availability to plants and environmental aspects; three papers on modeling of subsoil compaction by heavy machinery; four papers on measurement of soil mechanical and physical properties in relation to subsoil compaction and four papers on methods to determine the risk of subsoil compaction and to identify prevention strategies. The trends in agriculture in relation to subsoil compaction are discussed. A positive trend is that policy makers in the EU and worldwide recognize soil as a vital and largely non-renewable resource increasingly under pressure. A negative trend is that wheel loads in agriculture are still increasing causing severe damage to subsoils. The conclusion is that European subsoils are more threatened than ever in history. Manufactures, agricultural engineers and soil scientists should collaborate and research should be initiated to solve this problem and find solutions. Subsoil compaction should be made recognized by all people involved from farmer to policy maker. Therefore an assessment of the existence and seriousness of subsoil compaction throughout Europe should be initiated.
Subsoil compaction caused by heavy sugarbeet harvesters in southern Sweden; III. risk assessment using a soil water model
Arvidsson, J. ; Sjöberg, E. ; Akker, J.J.H. van den - \ 2003
Soil & Tillage Research (2003)1-2. - ISSN 0167-1987 - p. 77 - 87.
Due to its persistence, subsoil compaction should be avoided, which can be done by setting stress limits depending on the strength of the soil. Such limits must take into account soil moisture status at the time of traffic. The objective of the work presented here was to measure soil water changes during the growing period, use the data to calibrate a soil water model and simulate the soil susceptibility to compaction using meteorological data for a 25-year period. Measurements of soil water content were made in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) from sowing until harvest in 1997 on two sites classified as Eutric Cambisols in southern Sweden. Sampling was carried out at 2-week intervals in 0.1 m layers down to 1 m depth, together with measurements of root growth and crop development. Precompression stress of the soil at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 m depth was determined from uniaxial compression tests at water tensions of 6, 30, 60 and 150 kPa and adjusted as a logarithmic function of the soil water tension. Soil water content was simulated by the SOIL model for the years 1963¿1988. Risk calculations were made for a wheel load of 8 t and a ground pressure of 220 kPa, corresponding to a fully loaded six-row sugarbeet harvester. Subsoil compaction was expected to occur when the major principal stress was higher than the precompression stress. The subsoil water content was very low in late summer, but increased during the autumn. At the end of August, there was practically no plant available water down to 1 m depth. There was in general good agreement between measured and simulated values of soil water content for the subsoil, but not for the topsoil. In the 25-year simulations, the compaction risk at 50 cm depth was estimated to increase from around 25% to nearly 100% between September and late November, which is the period when the sugarbeet are harvested. The types of simulation presented here may be a very useful tool for practical agriculture as well as for society, in giving recommendations as to how subsoil compaction should be avoided.
A subsoil compaction database: its development, structure and content
Trautner, A. ; Akker, J.J.H. van den; Fleige, H. ; Arvidsson, J. ; Horn, R. - \ 2003
Soil & Tillage Research (2003)1-2. - ISSN 0167-1987 - p. 9 - 13.
A database which holds results of field and laboratory experiments on the impact of subsoil compaction on physical and mechanical soil parameters and on crop yields and environmental impact is being developed within the EU-sponsored concerted action (CA) project "Experiences with the impact of subsoil compaction on soil, crop growth and environment and ways to prevent subsoil compaction". The database accumulates and can provide all available data from the participants of the European Union countriesand is compatible with the European Soil Database and other related databases. More than 600 sets of data (Excel workbooks) from participants from the European Union, plus Poland, Switzerland and Norway are included in the database. Through a similar EUsponsored CA, Eastern European countries are expected to deliver 260 sets of data thus bringing the total number of Excel workbooks to approximately 860. In total, the database will contain approximately 13,500 data spreadsheets. The objective of the database is to collect data on subsoil compaction, to store it in a structured format and to make it available for analysis and use. Thereby it will enable elucidation of the impact of subsoil compaction on soil properties, crop yields and environment and evaluate the vulnerability of soils to compaction.