Soil food web assembly and vegetation development in a glacial chronosequence in Iceland
Leeuwen, J.P. van; Lair, G.J. ; Gisladottir, G. ; Sanden, T.M. ; Bloem, J. ; Hemerik, A. ; Ruiter, P.C. de - \ 2017
In: Book of Abstracts Wageningen Soil Conference 2017. - Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789463430616 - p. 124 - 124.
Effects of land use on soil microbial biomass, activity and community structure at different soil depths in the Danube floodplain
Leeuwen, J.P. van; Djukic, I. ; Bloem, J. ; Lehtinen, T. ; Hemerik, L. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Lair, G.J. - \ 2017
European Journal of Soil Biology 79 (2017). - ISSN 1164-5563 - p. 14 - 20.
Land use - Microbial activity - PLFA - Soil depth - Soil ecosystem functioning - Soil microbial biomass
Human activities such as land use and -management may strongly affect the soil's ability to provide ecosystem services, in which microbes are playing a key role. Because sampling is usually restricted to the topsoil, little is known about effects of land use on ecosystem functioning down the soil profile. The present study assessed the effects of different land use types (arable, forest, grassland) on soil microbial biomass, activity and community structure at different soil depths (A, AC, C horizons), under the same climatic and pedological conditions, in the Danube Floodplain in Austria. Microbial biomass was 4–5 times lower in the arable field than in forest and grassland in the upper horizons. Additionally, both microbial biomass and activity decreased 3–4 fold with soil depth in forest and grassland. However, up to 30% of total microbial biomass was found in the C horizon in the arable field. We found a differentiation of microbial community structure between land use types and with soil depth: i.e. strong differences in the topsoil between land uses, whereas community structure in the C horizon was similar. This study confirms that land use exerts strong effects on soil microbes in the topsoil and that microbial biomass and activity decrease with soil depth. However, considerable microbial biomass and activity are found below 30 cm depth which is usually not included in samplings. In the deeper soil horizon effects of land use disappear, with microbial community structure and functioning becoming similar in similar pedological conditions.
Soil Functions in Earth's Critical Zone : Key Results and Conclusions
Banwart, S.A. ; Bernasconi, S.M. ; Blum, W.E.H. ; Souza, D.M. de; Chabaux, F. ; Duffy, C. ; Kercheva, M. ; Krám, P. ; Lair, G.J. ; Lundin, L. ; Menon, M. ; Nikolaidis, N. ; Novak, M. ; Panagos, P. ; Ragnarsdottir, K.V. ; Robinson, D.A. ; Rousseva, S. ; Ruiter, P. de; Gaans, P. van; Weng, L. ; White, T. ; Zhang, B. - \ 2017
Advances in Agronomy 142 (2017). - ISSN 0065-2113 - p. 1 - 27.
Critical zone - Ecosystem services - Soil - Soil functions - Water
This chapter summarizes the methods, results, and conclusions of a 5-year research project (SoilTrEC: Soil Transformations in European Catchments) on experimentation, process modeling, and computational simulation of soil functions and soil threats across a network of European, Chinese, and United States Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs). The study focused on the soil functions of biomass production, carbon storage, water storage and transmission, water filtration, transformation of nutrients, and maintaining habitat and genetic diversity.The principal results demonstrate that soil functions can be quantified as biophysical flows and transformations of material and energy. The functions can be simulated with mathematical models of soil processes within the soil profile and at the critical zone interfaces with vegetation and atmosphere, surface waters and the below-ground vadose zone and groundwater. A new dynamic model for soil structure development, together with data sets from the CZOs, demonstrate both seasonal fluctuations in soil structure dynamics related to vegetation dynamics and soil carbon inputs, and long-term trends (decadal) in soil carbon storage and soil structure development.Cross-site comparison for 20 soil profiles at seven field sites with variation in soil type, lithology, land cover, land use, and climate demonstrate that sites can be classified, using model parameter values for soil aggregation processes together with climatic conditions and soil physical properties, along a trajectory of soil structure development from incipient soil formation through productive land use to overly intensive land use with soil degradation.A new modeling code, the Integrated Critical Zone model, was applied with parameter sets developed from the CZO site data to simulate the biophysical flows and transformations that quantify multiple soil functions. Process simulations coupled the new model for soil structure dynamics with existing modeling approaches for soil carbon dynamics, nutrient transformations, vegetation dynamics, hydrological flow and transport, and geochemical equilibria and mineral weathering reactions. Successful calibration, testing, and application of the model with data sets from horticulture plot manipulation experiments demonstrate the potential to apply modeling and simulation to the scoping and design of new practices and policy options to enhance soil functions and reduce soil threats worldwide.
Sediment provenance, soil development, and carbon content in fluvial and manmade terraces at Koiliaris River Critical Zone Observatory
Moraetis, Daniel ; Paranychianakis, Nikolaos V. ; Nikolaidis, N.P. ; Banwart, S.A. ; Rousseva, S. ; Kercheva, M. ; Nenov, Martin ; Shishkov, T. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Bloem, J. ; Blum, W.E.H. ; Lair, G.J. ; Gaans, Pauline van; Verheul, M. - \ 2015
Journal of Soils and Sediments 15 (2015)2. - ISSN 1439-0108 - p. 347 - 364.
The purpose of this study was the investigation of sediment provenance and soil formation processes within a Mediterranean watershed (Koiliaris CZO in Greece) with particular emphasis on natural and manmade terraces. Material and methods Five sites (K1–K5) were excavated and analyzed for their pedology (profile description), geochemistry [including rare earth elements (REEs) and other trace elements], texture, and mineralogy along with chronological analysis (optical luminescence dating). The selected sites have the common characteristic of being flat terraces while the sites differed with regard to bedrock lithology, elevation, and land use. Results and discussion Three characteristic processes of soil genesis were identified: (1) sediments transportation from outcrops of metamorphic rocks and sedimentation at the fluvial sites (K1–K2), (2) in situ soil development in manmade terraces (K3, K4), and (3) strong eolian input and/or material transported by gravity from upslope at the mountainous site (K5). REE patterns verified the soil genesis processes while they revealed also soil development processes such as (a) calcite deposition (K1), (b) clay illuviation and strong weathering (K4), and (c) possibly fast oxidation/precipitation processes (K3). Carbon sequestration throughout the soil profile was high at manmade terraces at higher elevation compared to fluvial environments due to both climatic effects and possibly intensive anthropogenic impact. Conclusions Soils at Koiliaris CZO were rather young soils with limited evolution. The different soil age, land use, and climatic effect induced various soil genesis and soil development processes. The manmade terraces at higher elevation have much higher carbon sequestration compared to the anthropogenic impacted fluvial areas.
Adsorption of phosphate and organic matter on metal (hydr)oxides in arable and forest soil: a mechanistic modelling study
Regelink, I.C. ; Weng, L. ; Lair, G.J. ; Comans, R.N.J. - \ 2015
European Journal of Soil Science 66 (2015)5. - ISSN 1351-0754 - p. 867 - 875.
Phosphate (PO4) and organic matter (OM) compete for adsorption to metal (hydr)oxides. Our objective was to quantify the effect of OM on PO4 solubility in forest and arable soil by desorption experiments and surface complexation (SC) modelling. We sampled different types of soil along an age gradient (˜50–2500 years) and from different depths (0–80 cm). The soil types are calcareous and cover a range of soil organic carbon (SOC) contents (5.6–43.5 g kg-1), PO4 contents (0.2–5.9 mmol kg-1) and water-soluble PO4 concentrations (0.03–13.4 µm). Assuming that PO4 concentrations are controlled by desorption, PO4 concentrations were expected to correlate with the PO4 loading on metal-(hydr)oxide surfaces. However, we show that the PO4 loading alone is a poor predictor of PO4 solubility because its solubility increases with increasing SOC content. These data were explained by SC modelling, which shows a decrease in the apparent adsorption affinity of PO4 with increasing OM loading on to the metal (hydr)oxides. As a consequence, if the competition with OM is disregarded in SC modelling, it results in underestimation of the PO4 concentration by several orders of magnitude. For forest soil, predicted OM loadings increase slightly with increasing soil age. For arable soil, however, OM loadings were much smaller, which we explain by the replacement of PO4 with OM. Overall, adsorption interactions strongly affect PO4 solubility and levels of OM and PO4 stabilization in soil.
Linkages between aggregate formation, porosity and soil chemical properties
Regelink, I.C. ; Stoof, C.R. ; Rousseva, S. ; Weng, L. ; Lair, G.J. ; Kram, P. ; Nikolaidis, N.P. ; Kercheva, M. ; Banwart, S. ; Comans, R.N.J. - \ 2015
Geoderma 247-248 (2015). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 24 - 37.
water-retention capacity - field-flow fractionation - natural organic-matter - iron-oxides - phosphate adsorption - mineral surfaces - tropical soils - size classes - humic-acid - stability
Linkages between soil structure and physical–chemical soil properties are still poorly understood due to the wide size-range at which aggregation occurs and the variety of aggregation factors involved. To improve understanding of these processes, we collected data on aggregate fractions, soil porosity, texture and chemical soil properties of 127 soil samples from three European Critical Zone Observatories. First, we assessed mechanistic linkages between porosity and aggregates. There was no correlation between the fractions of dry-sieved aggregates (N1 mm, DSA) and water-stable aggregates (N0.25 µm, WSA). Soil microporosity and micro + mesoporosity increased with increasing abundance of aggregates, though this correlation was only significant for the WSA fraction. The fraction of DSA did not affect the overall porosity of the soil, but affected the ratio between micro- and mesopores (¿30 kPa/¿0.25 kPa), suggesting that micropores are dominantly located within DSA whereas mesopores are located in betweenDSA and loose particles. Second,we studied the relations between the physical and chemical soil properties and soil structure. Soil texture had only a minor effect on the fractions ofWSA and DSAwhereas Fe-(hydr)oxide content was correlated positively with bothWSA fraction and porosity. This may be attributed to Fe-(hydr)oxides providing adsorption sites for organic substances on larger minerals, thereby enabling poorly reactive mineral particles to be taken up in the network of organic substances. The fraction ofWSA increased with an increase in the soil organic carbon (SOC) and Fe-(hydr)oxides content and with a decrease in pH. This pH-effect can be explained by the enhanced coagulation of organically-coated particles at a lower pH. Overall, this study indicates that mechanistic linkages exist between soil chemical properties, aggregate formation and soil porosity.
Aggregation and organic matter in subarctic Andosols under different grassland management
Lehtinen, T. ; Gisladottir, G. ; Lair, G.J. ; Leeuwen, J.P. van; Blum, W.E.H. ; Bloem, J. ; Steffens, M. ; Ragnarsdottir, K.V. - \ 2015
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B-Soil and Plant Science 65 (2015)3. - ISSN 0906-4710 - p. 246 - 263.
c-13 nmr-spectroscopy - soil microbial biomass - mediterranean conditions - structural stability - cultivated soils - farming systems - volcanic soils - carbon stocks - land-use - tillage
Quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) affect physical, chemical, and biological soil properties, and are pivotal to productive and healthy grasslands. Thus, we analyzed the distribution of soil aggregates and assessed quality, quantity, and distribution of SOM in two unimproved and improved (two organic and two conventional) grasslands in subarctic Iceland, in Haplic and Histic Andosols. We also evaluated principal physicochemical and biological soil properties, which influence soil aggregation and SOM dynamics. Macroaggregates (>250 µm) in topsoils were most prominent in unimproved (62–77%) and organically (58–69%) managed sites, whereas 20–250 µm aggregates were the most prominent in conventionally managed sites (51–53%). Macroaggregate stability in topsoils, measured as mean weight diameter, was approximately twice as high in organically managed (12–20 mm) compared with the conventionally managed (5–8 mm) sites, possibly due to higher organic inputs (e.g., manure, compost, and cattle urine). In unimproved grasslands and one organic site, macroaggregates contributed between 40% and 70% of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen to bulk soil, whereas in high SOM concentration sites free particulate organic matter contributed up to 70% of the SOC and nitrogen to bulk soil. Aggregate hierarchy in Haplic Andosols was confirmed by different stabilizing mechanisms of micro- and macroaggregates, however, somewhat diminished by oxides (pyrophosphate-, oxalate-, and dithionite-extractable Fe, Al, and Mn) acting as binding agents for macroaggregates. In Histic Andosols, no aggregate hierarchy was observed. The higher macroaggregate stability in organic farming practice compared with conventional farming is of interest due to the importance of macroaggregates in protecting SOM and soils from erosion, which is a prerequisite for soil functions in grasslands that are envisaged for food production in the future.
An ecosystem approach to assess soil quality in organically and conventionally managed farms in Iceland and Austria
Leeuwen, J.P. van; Lehtinen, T. ; Lair, G.J. ; Bloem, J. ; Hemerik, L. ; Ragnarsdóttir, K.V. ; Gísladóttir, G. ; Newton, J.S. ; Ruiter, P.C. de - \ 2015
SOIL 1 (2015). - ISSN 2199-3971 - p. 83 - 101.
Intensive agricultural production can be an important driver for the loss of long-term soil quality. For this reason, the European Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network adopted four pairs of agricultural CZO sites that differ in their management: conventional or organic. The CZO sites include two pairs of grassland farms in Iceland and two pairs of arable farms in Austria. Conventional fields differed from the organic fields in the use of artificial fertilisers and pesticides. Soils of these eight farms were analysed in terms of their physical, chemical, and biological properties, including soil aggregate size distribution, soil organic matter contents, abundance of soil microbes and soil fauna, and taxonomic diversity of soil microarthropods. In Icelandic grasslands, organically farmed soils had larger mean weight diameters of soil aggregates than the conventional farms, while there were no differences on the Austrian farms. Organic farming did not systematically influence organic matter contents or composition, nor soil carbon and nitrogen contents. Also, soil food web structures, in terms of presence of trophic groups of soil organisms, were highly similar among all farms, indicating a low sensitivity of trophic structure to land use or climate. However, soil organism biomass, especially of bacteria and nematodes, was consistently higher on organic farms than on conventional farms. Within the microarthropods, taxonomic diversity was systematically higher in the organic farms compared to the conventional farms. This difference was found across countries and farm, crop, and soil types. The results do not show systematic differences in physical and chemical properties between organic and conventional farms, but confirm that organic farming can enhance soil biomass and that microarthropod diversity is a sensitive and consistent indicator for land management.
|soil food web structure and faunal diversity in organic farming versus conventional farming
Bloem, J. ; Leeuwen, J.P. van; Lehtinen, T. ; Lair, G.J. ; Hemerik, L. - \ 2014
SoilTrEC: a global initiative on critical zone research and integration
Menon, M. ; Rousseva, S. ; Nikolaidis, N.P. ; Gaans, P. van; Panagos, P. ; Maia de Souza, D. ; Ragnarsdottir, K.V. ; Lair, G.J. ; Weng, L.P. ; Bloem, J. ; Kram, P. ; Novak, M. ; Davidsdottir, B. ; Gisladottir, G. ; Robinson, D.A. ; Reynolds, B. ; White, T. ; Lundin, L. ; Zhang, B. ; Duffy, C. ; Bernasconi, S.M. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Banwart, S.A. - \ 2014
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21 (2014). - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 3191 - 3195.
Soil is a complex natural resource that is considered non-renewable in policy frameworks, and it plays a key role in maintaining a variety of ecosystem services (ES) and life-sustaining material cycles within the Earth's Critical Zone (CZ). However, currently, the ability of soil to deliver these services is being drastically reduced in many locations, and global loss of soil ecosystem services is estimated to increase each year as a result of many different threats, such as erosion and soil carbon loss. The European Union Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection alerts policy makers of the need to protect soil and proposes measures to mitigate soil degradation. In this context, the European Commission-funded research project on Soil Transformations in European Catchments (SoilTrEC) aims to quantify the processes that deliver soil ecosystem services in the Earth's Critical Zone and to quantify the impacts of environmental change on key soil functions. This is achieved by integrating the research results into decision-support tools and applying methods of economic valuation to soil ecosystem services. In this paper, we provide an overview of the SoilTrEC project, its organization, partnerships and implementation.
Organische meststoffen, micro-organismen, stikstof en bodemstructuur
Bloem, J. ; Heijboer, A. ; Lair, G.J. ; Schiefer, J. ; Jorgensen, H.B. ; Vos, A. ; Berge, H.F.M. ten - \ 2013
Gewasbescherming 44 (2013)6. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 171 - 172.
|Farming effects on soil organic matter and aggregate stability of Icelandic Brown and Histic Andosols
Lehtinen, T. ; Gisladottir, G. ; Lair, G.J. ; Leeuwen, J. van; Blum, W.E.H. ; Bloem, J. ; Ragnarsdottir, K.V. - \ 2013
In: Proceedings of the Soil Carbon Sequestration for climate, food security and ecosystem services, May 26-29, 2013, Reykjavik, Iceland. - Reykjavik : Soil Conservation Service of Iceland & Agricultural University of Iceland - p. 32 - 32.
Results of an Interdisciplinary Research Project on Soil Aggregate Formation in CZO's
Regelink, I.C. ; Lair, G.J. ; Lehtinen, T. ; Leeuwen, J. van; Zaan, B.M. van der; Schiefer, J. ; Rousseva, S. ; Blaud, A. ; Mennon, M. ; Banwart, S. - \ 2013
In: Proceedings of Goldschmidt 2013, August 25-30, 2013, Florence Italy. - Geochemical Society/GeoScienceWorld - p. 2038 - 2038.
Soil physical properties such as aggregate stability and porosity are crucial for the soil’s agricultural productivy, carbon sequestration capacity and water holding capacity. The formation of soil aggregates is the result of complex interactions between biological, chemical and physical soil processes. Therefore, multi-disciplinary research on Critical Zone Observatories (CZO’s) is needed to unravel the keyfactors controlling aggregate formation . We will discuss the role of soil chemical and biological processes in the formation of soil aggregates. These data are the result of the joined efforts from soil chemists and biologist collaborating within the SoilTrEC project . We show that organic-mineral interactions and solution chemistry are important for formation of primary soil aggregates. Especially Fe-(hydr)oxides play a crucial role because of their strong interactions with organic substances in the soil . Macroaggregates are formed when both organic matter, clay minerals and Fe-(hydr)oxides are present in sufficient amounts. These soil macro-aggregates act as habitats for micro-organisms which may in turn alter the organic substances within the soil aggregates. The microbial communitities within the macro-aggregates are affected by the land use. Furthermore, land use shows pronounced effects on the structure of the pores within the soil macro-aggregates. Overall, we want to highlight the importance of multidisciplinary research in understanding the complex interactions between chemical and biological processes within the critical zone.
Response of soil properties to different farming practices - case studies in Iceland and Austria
Lehtinen, T. ; Lair, G.J. ; Gisladottir, G. ; Bloem, J. ; Leeuwen, J. van; Ragnarsdottir, K.V. ; Blum, W. - \ 2012
In: Proceedings of the 4th International Congress EUROSOIL, July 2-6, 2012, Bari, Italy. - European Confederation of Soil Science Societies - p. 2661 - 2661.
Arable land covers approximately one fourth of the global land area, but only half of it can be used efficiently for cultivation to feed the growing population. Modern agriculture has developed highly productive food and biomass-producing systems based on industrial principles, which has lead to a considerable environmental burden. Organic agriculture has expanded as a movement towards more sustainable food production, which aims to maintain the key functions and ecosystems services of soils. At present, approximately 0.7% of global and 4% of European agricultural lands are managed organically (Willer and Youssefi, 2007). Soil organic matter (SOM) and its turnover play a pivotal role in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and in the response of terrestrial carbon to future climate scenarios. Its fate and dynamics are mainly governed and understood by its properties and physiology of the soil organisms (von Lützow and Kögel-Knabler, 2009). A key to understand and define a sustainable agricultural soil system is to quantify the impact of different land use on soil structure and biogeochemistry, with emphasis on nutrient turnover. The goal of our future research is to evaluate SOM pools in different soil aggregate sizes under different farming systems (organic vs. conventional) and link them to soil biodiversity. Soils were selected along cultivation age gradients under subarctic (Iceland, Andosols) and continental climate (Austria, Chernozems). The further outcome of this research is to identify quantifiable natural indicators for farm sustainability assessments. Gained data will also be linked to energy balance and food productivity in order to get more insights in benefits of different farming practices.
|Impact of time and land use on carbon accumulation and structure formation in soils
Lair, G.J. ; Lehtinen, T. ; Djukic, I. ; Schiefer, J. ; Bloem, J. ; Blum, W. - \ 2012
In: Proceedings of the 4th International Congress EUROSOIL, July 2-16, 2012, Bari, Italy. - European Confederation of Soil Science Societies - p. 778 - 778.
|Characterization of european critical zone observatories at soil profile scale - an overview
Rousseva, S. ; Blum, W. ; Kercheva, M. ; Lair, G.J. ; Regelink, I.C. ; Gaans, P. van; Shishkov, T. ; Ilieva, R. ; Bloem, J. ; Leeuwen, J. van - \ 2012
In: Proceedings of the 4th International Congress EUROSOIL, July 2-16, 2012, Bari, Italy. - European Confederation of Soil Science Societies - p. 777 - 777.
|TREND - Temporal development of environmental media: properties, processes and stresses
Lair, G.J. ; Gerzabek, M.H. ; Bürger, C. ; Broers, H.P. ; Gestel, C.A.M. van; Hsu, P. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Poot, A. - \ 2010
In: Advanced tools and models to improve river basin management in Europe in the context of global change / Finkel, M., Grathwohl, P., Barth, J., London : Aquaterra, IWA publishing - ISBN 9781843393726 - p. 39 - 48.
How do long-term development and periodical changes of river-floodplain systems affect the fate of contaminants? Results from European rivers
Lair, G.J. ; Zehetner, F. ; Fiebig, M. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. - \ 2009
Environmental Pollution 157 (2009)12. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 3336 - 3346.
polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons - persistent organic pollutants - black carbon - soil chronosequences - background soils - polychlorinated-biphenyls - geochemical fractions - lumbricus-rubellus - metal availability - sediment toxicity
In many densely populated areas, riverine floodplains have been strongly impacted and degraded by river channelization and flood protection dikes. Floodplains act as buffers for flood water and as filters for nutrients and pollutants carried with river water and sediment from upstream source areas. Based on results of the EU-funded "AquaTerra" project (2004-2009), we analyze changes in the dynamics of European river-floodplain systems over different temporal scales and assess their effects on contaminant behaviour and ecosystem functioning. We find that human-induced changes in the hydrologic regime of rivers have direct and severe consequences on nutrient cycling and contaminant retention in adjacent floodplains. We point out the complex interactions of contaminants with nutrient availability and other physico-chemical characteristics (pH, organic matter) in determining ecotoxicity and habitat quality, and draw conclusions for improved floodplain management
Mobility, turnover and storage of pollutants in soils, sediments and waters: achievements and results of the EU project AquaTerra. A review
Barth, J.A.C. ; Grathwohl, P. ; Fowler, H.J. ; Bellin, A. ; Gerzabek, M.H. ; Lair, G.J. ; Barcelo, D. ; Petrovic, M. ; Navarro, A. ; Negrel, P. ; Petelet-Giraud, E. ; Darmendrail, D. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Langenhoff, A.A.M. ; Weert, J.P.A. de; Slob, A. ; Zaan, B.M. van der; Gerritse, J. ; Frank, E. ; Gutierrez, A. ; Kretzschmar, R. ; Gocht, T. ; Steidle, D. ; Garrido, F. ; Jones, K.C. ; Meijer, S. ; Moeckel, C. ; Marsman, A. ; Klaver, G. ; Vogel, T. ; Burger, C. ; Kolditz, O. ; Broers, H.P. ; Baran, N. ; Joziasse, J. ; Tumpling, W. von; Gaans, P. van; Merly, C. ; Chapman, A. ; Brouyere, S. ; Aguilar, J.B. ; Orban, P. ; Tas, N. ; Smidt, H. - \ 2009
Agronomy for Sustainable Development 29 (2009)1. - ISSN 1774-0746 - p. 161 - 173.
ebro river-basin - polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons - polybrominated diphenyl ethers - brominated flame retardants - regional climate models - quantitative-analysis - temporal variability - groundwater quality - organic pollutants - metal availability
AquaTerra is one of the first environmental projects within the 6th Framework program by the European Commission. It began in June 2004 with a multidisciplinary team of 45 partner organizations from 13 EU countries, Switzerland, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro. Results from sampling and modeling in 4 large river basins (Ebro, Danube, Elbe and Meuse) and one catchment of the Brévilles Spring in France led to new evaluations of diffuse and hotspot input of persistent organic and metal pollutants including dynamics of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as metal turnover and accumulation. While degradation of selected organic compounds could be demonstrated under controlled conditions in the laboratory, turnover of most persistent pollutants in the field seems to range from decades to centuries. First investigations of long-term cumulative and degradation effects, particularly in the context of climate change, have shown that it is also necessary to consider the predictions of more than one climate model when trying to assess future impacts. This is largely controlled by uncertainties in climate model responses. It is becoming evident, however, that changes to the climate will have important impacts on the diffusion and degradation of pollutants in space and time that are just at the start of their exploration