Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Plant functional diversity and nutrient availability can improve restoration of floating fens via facilitation, complementarity and selection effects
    Zuidam, Jeroen P. van; Leeuwen, Casper H.A. van; Bakker, Elisabeth S. ; Verhoeven, Jos T.A. ; Ijff, Stéphanie ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Zuidam, Bastiaan G. van; Soons, Merel B. - \ 2019
    Journal of Applied Ecology 56 (2019)1. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 235 - 245.
    assisted colonization - floating fen - functional diversity - peat formation - restoration - rhizome formation - terrestrialization - wetlands

    Peat-forming wetlands, particularly floating fens that form the initial stages of these ecosystems, are declining globally due to excavation, dehydration and eutrophication. Restoration typically involves reestablishment of early-successional open-water stages, with oligotrophic conditions that are characteristic for these systems. However, restoration success is notoriously limited. A potential improvement may be to initiate succession by reintroducing of target plant species. Knowledge is therefore needed on (a) which plant functional groups should be re-introduced to stimulate fen formation; and (b) how to manage nutrient levels during restoration, considering that plant growth may be slow in oligotrophic conditions. We hypothesized that increasing functional diversity of introduced species would stimulate the formation of peat-forming target communities, their biomass accumulation and expansion onto open water. We also hypothesized that nutrient availability would mediate the relative contribution of specific functional groups to these effects. We investigated this in 36 artificial outdoor ponds by manipulating plant functional diversity (clonal dominants, clonal stress-tolerators and interstitials) on constructed rafts with fen-forming communities, and subjected these to a range of nutrient loadings over 2 years. Increasing functional diversity as well as increasing nutrient loadings had stimulating effects on plant biomass accumulation, cover formation and rhizome growth onto open water. Both complementarity (due to niche partitioning or facilitation) and selection effects were mechanisms underlying the diversity effect, with a constant relative importance over the entire range of nutrient availabilities. Different functional groups were important for biomass production at different nutrient availabilities. Rhizome formation by clonal stress-tolerators contributed disproportionately to open water colonization, identifying this functional group as key across all nutrient levels. Synthesis and applications. Restoration of floating fen communities can be stimulated during the first 2 years by introducing a high functional diversity of plant species. There include fast-growing clonal species, clonal stress-tolerators and interstitials, which facilitate each other. Restoration is dependent on the presence of clonal stress-tolerators such as Calla palustris, Comarum palustre and Menyanthes trifoliata for expansion onto the open water. Furthermore, restoration can start under a wide range of water nutrient levels, including eutrophic conditions.

    Data from: Plant functional diversity and nutrient availability can improve restoration of floating fens via facilitation, complementarity and selection effects
    Zuidam, Jeroen P. van; Leeuwen, Casper H.A. van; Bakker, Elisabeth S. ; Verhoeven, J.T.A. ; Ijff, Stéphanie D. ; Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Zuidam, B.G. van; Soons, Merel B. - \ 2018
    assisted colonization - competition - ecosystem restoration - rich fens - rhizome formation - terrestrialization - wetlands - peat formation
    Peat-forming wetlands, and particularly floating fens forming the initial stages of these ecosystems, are globally declining due to excavation, dehydration and eutrophication. Restoration of these valuable ecosystems typically involves re-establishment of early-successional open-water stages with oligotrophic conditions that are characteristic for these systems. However, restoration success is notoriously limited and a potential solution may be to initiate succession by re-introduction of target plant species. Knowledge is needed on (a) which plant functional groups should be re-introduced to stimulate fen formation; and (b) how to manage nutrient levels during restoration, considering that plant growth may be slow in oligotrophic conditions. 2. We hypothesized that (1) increasing functional diversity of introduced species would stimulate the formation of peat-forming target communities, their biomass accumulation and expansion onto open water; and that (2) nutrient availability would mediate the relative contribution of specific functional groups to these effects. We experimentally investigated this in 36 artificial outdoor ponds by manipulating plant functional diversity (clonal dominants, clonal stress-tolerators and interstitials) on constructed rafts with fen-forming communities and subjected these to a range of nutrient loadings over two years. 3. Increasing functional diversity as well as increasing nutrient loadings had stimulating effects on plant biomass accumulation, cover formation and rhizome growth onto open water. Both complementarity (due to niche partitioning or facilitation) and selection effects were mechanisms underlying the diversity effect, with a constant relative importance over the entire range of nutrient availabilities. Different functional groups were important for biomass production at different nutrient availabilities. Rhizome formation by clonal stress-tolerators contributed disproportionately to open water colonisation, identifying this functional group as key across all nutrient levels. 4. Synthesis and applications Restoration of floating fen communities (1) can be stimulated during the first two years by introducing a high functional diversity of plant species, including fast-growing clonal species, clonal stress-tolerators and interstitials, which facilitate each other, (2) is dependent on the presence of clonal stress-tolerators such as Calla palustris, Comarum palustre and Menyanthes trifoliata for expansion onto the open water, (3) can start under a wide range of water nutrient levels, including eutrophic conditions.11-Jul-2018
    Competition between free-floating plants is strongly driven by previously experienced phosphorus concentrations in the water column
    Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Neefjes, Rozemarijn ; Zuidam, B.G. van - \ 2016
    PLoS ONE 11 (2016)9. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 18 p.
    Nutrients can determine the outcome of the competition between different floating plant species. The response of floating plants to current phosphorus levels may be affected by previously experienced phosphorus concentrations because some species have the ability to store excess phosphorus for later use. This might have an impact on their competition. Here, we investigate the effect of previous and actual phosphorus concentrations on the growth rate of free-floating plant species (Azolla filiculoides, Lemna minor/gibba and Ricciocarpus natans)and the effect of phosphorus history on the competition between L. minor/gibba and A. filiculoides and between L. minor/gibba and R. natans. As expected, plant growth was lower when previously kept at low instead of high phosphorus concentrations. Growth of L. minor/gibba and A. filiculoides with a phosphorus rich history was comparable for low and high actual phosphorus concentrations, however, internal phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower with low actual phosphorus concentration. This indicates that both species perform luxury phosphorus uptake. Furthermore, internal P concentration in Azolla and Lemna increased within two weeks after a period of P deficit without a strong increase in growth. A. filiculoides in a mixture with L. minor/gibba grew faster than its monoculture. Morphological differences may explain why A. filiculoides outcompeted L. minor/gibba and these differences may be induced by phosphorus concentrations in the past. Growth of L. minor/gibba was only reduced by the presence of A. filiculoides with a high phosphorus history. Growth of L. minor/gibba and R. natans in mixtures was positively affected only when they had a high phosphorus history themselves and their competitor a low phosphorus history. These observations clearly indicate that phosphorus history of competing plants is important for understanding the outcome of the competition. Therefore, actual and previously experienced phosphorus concentrations should be taken into account in future studies dealing with competition between plants.
    Further improvements in water quality of the Dutch Borderlakes : two types of clear states at different nutrient levels
    Noordhuis, Ruurd ; Zuidam, B.G. van; Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Geest, G.J. van - \ 2016
    Aquatic Ecology 50 (2016)3. - ISSN 1386-2588 - p. 521 - 539.
    Abramis brama - Alternative stable states - Biomanipulation - Cyanobacteria - Dreissena - Macro-algae - Quagga Mussel - Regime shift - randmeren - mussels - algae - water quality - aquatic ecology - eutrophication - randmeren - abramis brama - mossels - cyanobacteriën - algen - waterkwaliteit - aquatische ecologie - eutrofiëring

    The Borderlakes are a chain of ten shallow, largely artificial, interconnected lakes in the Netherlands. The ecological recovery of the central Borderlakes (viz. lake Veluwe and Wolderwijd) has been well documented. These lakes shifted from a eutrophic, Planktothrix dominated state in the 1970s to a clear state in 1996. Around 2010, the formerly hypertrophic, southern Borderlake Eem also reached a clear state, but at considerably higher nutrient levels. In this paper, monitoring data are used to compare these changes and identify the differences in driving processes and their consequences. The 1996 shift in Lake Veluwe was linked to increased fishery for benthivorous Bream, followed and stabilized by increase in Zebra Mussels and charophytes. Nutrients in Lake Eem decreased as well and Planktothrix disappeared here too in 1996, despite relatively high TP concentrations which remained stable over time. The start of the change into the clear state in this case also involved a decrease in the Bream population, but with a stronger additional role for dreissenids, particularly of Quagga Mussels. Remaining blooms of cyanobacteria almost disappeared, but the current situation in Lake Eem represents a different type of clear water state than in the central Borderlakes. This type is characterized by the combination of a relatively high phosphorus load, intense dreissenid filtration and filamentous macro-algae instead of either blooms of cyanobacteria or dominance of charophytes. With the dominant role of the River Eem, the relatively short residence time and increasing difficulty to bring down nutrient loading any further, the stability of this clear state depends on high densities (and filtration rates) of dreissenids.

    Wave forces limit the establishment of submerged macrophytes in large shallow lakes
    Zuidam, B.G. van; Peeters, E.T.H.M. - \ 2015
    Limnology and Oceanography 60 (2015)5. - ISSN 0024-3590 - p. 1536 - 1549.
    We studied the effect of waves on submerged macrophytes and hypothesized that exposure to large wave forces can hamper seedling establishment. In an indoor experiment in cylindrical mesocosms we tested whether large wave forces indeed inhibited the establishment of Chara globularis and Potamogeton pusillus from the propagule bank. We mimicked the effect of wave forces by generating a circular flow that caused resuspension of the sediment. Four treatments were applied, consisting of different repetition frequencies of resuspension events. Emergence and early growth of both species were monitored over 8 weeks. The resuspension treatments significantly reduced the emergence of both species, by 91% and 45% on average for Chara sp. and P. pusillus, respectively. We analysed field observations on the two species in the lakes of the IJsselmeer area in the Netherlands to evaluate whether wave forces may also inhibit establishment of macrophytes in the field. The field data seemed to support the hypothesis as both species hardly occurred in areas where a large bottom shear stress had occurred in spring, according to simulations with the SWAN wave model. The calculated maximum bottom shear stress correlated well with the occurrence of both Chara sp. and P. pusillus in the field. Regressions showed that this effect of wave forces was additional to the effect of light availability. Our study indicates that large wave forces may inhibit the establishment of macrophytes in large lakes. Reducing large wave forces can therefore potentially promote macrophyte development in these large lakes.
    Nutrientenretentie op polderniveau. Kansen voor het bestrijden van eutrofieringsverschijnselen in Friesland?
    Zuidam, J.P. van; Zuidam, B.G. van; Peeters, E.T.H.M. - \ 2014
    In: Een duistere geschiedenis opgehelderd : waterkwaliteit en waterkwaliteitsonderzoek in Friesland, een historisch literatuuronderzoek / Claassen, T., Wetterskip Fryslan - ISBN 9789081292900 - p. 224 - 227.
    Relationship between redox potential and the emergence of three submerged macrophytes
    Zuidam, B.G. van; Cazemier, M. ; Geest, G.J. van; Roijackers, R.M.M. ; Peeters, E.T.H.M. - \ 2014
    Aquatic Botany 113 (2014). - ISSN 0304-3770 - p. 56 - 62.
    seed banks - sediment load - zannichellia-palustris - hydrogen-sulfide - lake-sediments - western-europe - shallow lake - germination - burial - impact
    Sedimentation may have large negative effects on aquatic vegetation as burial of propagules can reduce emergence. Burial changes the redox potential around the propagules and this might be the mechanism that causes the observed burial effects. We conducted a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effect of redox potential on the emergence of three aquatic macrophytes from their propagules. Different redox potential treatments were applied by burying propagules of Potamogeton pusillus and Chara cf. contraria at three different depths and with two different sediments (loamy mud and sand). Propagules of Zannichellia palustris were also buried at three depths, but only with sand. Emergence of P. pusillus and Z. palustris decreased with increasing burial depth, while burial up to 5 cm depth had almost no effect on Chara cf. contraria. Burial with sand reduced emergence of P. pusillus more than burial with loamy mud, while composition of the burial sediment did not affect Chara cf. contraria. The redox potential treatments explained emergence of P. pusillus better than burial depth or composition of the burial sediment separately. There was a strong relationship between mean emergence of P. pusillus per treatment and redox potential of the treatment. Burial caused high mortality of the non-emerged propagules of P. pusillus and Z. palustris within a relatively short period of time. Our results show that redox potential could be an important factor in causing the effect of burial on emergence. On longer time scale, sedimentation has species-specific consequences potentially leading to changes in vegetation species composition.
    Changing weather conditions and floating plants in temperate drainage ditches
    Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Zuidam, B.G. van; Zuidam, J.P. van; Nes, E.H. van; Kosten, S. ; Heuts, P.G.M. ; Roijackers, R.M.M. ; Netten, J.J.C. ; Scheffer, M. - \ 2013
    Journal of Applied Ecology 50 (2013)3. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 585 - 593.
    climate-change - submerged macrophytes - aquatic macrophytes - species richness - shallow lakes - lemna-minor - eutrophication - growth - phytoplankton - phenology
    Dominance of free-floating plants such as duckweed is undesirable as it indicates eutrophication. The objectives of this study are to investigate whether the onset of duckweed dominance is related to weather conditions by analysing field observations, to evaluate the effect of different climate scenarios on the timing of duckweed dominance using a model and to evaluate to what extent nutrient levels should be lowered to counteract effects of global warming. To analyse the onset of duckweed dominance in relation to weather conditions, duckweed cover in Dutch ditches was correlated with weather conditions for the period 1980-2005. Furthermore, a model was developed that describes biomass development over time as a function of temperature, light and nutrient availability, crowding and mortality. This model was used to evaluate the effects of climate change scenarios and the effects of lowering nutrients. The onset of duckweed dominance in the field advanced by approximately 14 days with an increase of 1 °C in the average maximum daily winter temperature. The modelled biomass development correlated well with the field observations. Scenarios showed that expected climate change will affect onset and duration of duckweed dominance in temperate ditches. Reducing nutrient levels may counteract the effect of warming. Synthesis and applications. Global warming may lead to an increase in the dominance of free-floating plants in drainage ditches in the Netherlands. The expected reductions in nutrient-loading to surface waters as a result of different measures taken so far are likely not sufficient to counteract these effects of warming. Therefore, additional measures should be taken to avoid a further deterioration of the ecological water quality in ditches. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Applied Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.
    Building with nature : effects of sediment dynamics and grazing on submerged vegetation in the IJsselmeer area
    Zuidam, Bastiaan van - \ 2011
    Impact of deep erosion on flow pattern and nitrate distribution; case study in Noor catchment, the Netherlands
    Dijksma, R. ; Lanen, H.A.J. van; Zuidam, B.G. van - \ 2010
    In: Proceedings of the 13th Biennial Conference ERB 2010 on Hydrological Responses of Small Basins to a Changing Environment, Seggau Castle, Austria, September 5-8, 2010. - - p. 27 - 30.
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