The Rural Household Multi-Indicator Survey (RHoMIS) for rapid characterisation of households to inform climate smart agriculture interventions: Description and applications in East Africa and Central America
Hammond, James ; Fraval, Simon ; Etten, Jacob van; Suchini, Jose Gabriel ; Mercado, Leida ; Pagella, Tim ; Frelat, Romain ; Lannerstad, Mats ; Douxchamps, Sabine ; Teufel, Nils ; Valbuena, Diego ; Wijk, Mark T. van - \ 2017
Agricultural Systems 151 (2017). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 225 - 233.
Farm household - Monitoring - Multiple indicators - Smallholder farming
Achieving climate smart agriculture depends on understanding the links between farming and livelihood practices, other possible adaptation options, and the effects on farm performance, which is conceptualised by farmers as wider than yields. Reliable indicators of farm performance are needed in order to model these links, and to therefore be able to design interventions which meet the differing needs of specific user groups. However, the lack of standardization of performance indicators has led to a wide array of tools and ad-hoc indicators which limit our ability to compare across studies and to draw general conclusions on relationships and trade-offs whereby performance indicators are shaped by farm management and the wider social-environmental context. RHoMIS is a household survey tool designed to rapidly characterise a series of standardised indicators across the spectrum of agricultural production and market integration, nutrition, food security, poverty and GHG emissions. The survey tool takes 40–60 min to administer per household using a digital implementation platform. This is linked to a set of automated analysis procedures that enable immediate cross-site bench-marking and intra-site characterisation. We trialled the survey in two contrasting agro-ecosystems, in Lushoto district of Tanzania (n = 150) and in the Trifinio border region of Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras (n = 285). The tool rapidly characterised variability between farming systems at landscape scales in both locations identifying key differences across the population of farm households that would be critical for targeting CSA interventions. Our results suggest that at both sites the climate smartness of different farm strategies is clearly determined by an interaction between the characteristics of the farm household and the farm strategy. In general strategies that enabled production intensification contributed more towards the goals of climate smart agriculture on smaller farms, whereas increased market orientation was more successful on larger farms. On small farms off-farm income needs to be in place before interventions can be promoted successfully, whereas on the larger farms a choice is made between investing labour in off-farm incomes, or investing that labour into the farm, resulting in a negative association between off-farm labour and intensification, market orientation and crop diversity on the larger farms, which is in complete opposition to the associations found for the smaller farms. The balance of indicators selected gave an adequate snap shot picture of the two sites, and allowed us to appraise the ‘CSA-ness’ of different existing farm strategies, within the context of other major development objectives.
|Producing food for humans – from crops or animals? : Tackling competition for freshwater use between crop and animal production
Ran, Y. ; Lannerstad, M. ; Middelaar, C.E. van; Herrero, Mario ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2016
In: Book of Abstract of EURO-AGRIWAT conference Water footprint of agricultural products: progress, challenges and solutions. - - p. 91 - 91.
Assessing water resource use in livestock production : A review of methods
Ran, Y. ; Lannerstad, M. ; Herrero, M. ; Middelaar, C.E. Van; Boer, I.J.M. De - \ 2016
Livestock Science 187 (2016). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 68 - 79.
Beef production - Blue water - Green water - Livestock production - Water resource use assessment
This paper reviews existing methods for assessing livestock water resource use, recognizing that water plays a vital role in global food supply and that livestock production systems consumes a large amount of the available water resources. A number of methods have contributed to the development of water resources use assessments of livestock production. The methods reviewed in this study were classified into three categories: water productivity assessments, water footprint assessments and life cycle assessments. The water productivity approach has been used to assess benefits derived from consumptive water use in livestock production; the water footprint approach has raised awareness of the large amounts of water required for livestock production; and life cycle assessments highlight the important connection between water resource use and local impacts.For each of the methods we distinguish strengths and weaknesses in assessing water resource use in livestock production. As a result, we identify three key areas for improvement: 1) both green and blue water resources should be included in assessments, and presented separately to provide informative results; 2) water quality should not be summarized within quantitative assessments of water resource use; and 3) methods for assessing water use in livestock systems must consider the alternative uses, multiple uses and benefits of a certain resource in a specific location.
|Producing food for humans - from animals or crops? : Tackling competition for freshwater use between crop and animal production
Ran, Y. ; Lannerstad, M. ; Herrero, Mario ; Middelaar, C.E. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2015
In: Book of Abstracts of 2nd International Conference on Global Food Security. - - p. 91 - 91.
|Producing food for humans – from animals or crops? Tackling competition for freshwater use between crop and animal production.
Ran, Y. ; Lannerstad, M. ; Middelaar, C.E. van; Herrero, M. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2014
Villains or Heroes? Farmers' adjustments to water scarcity
Molle, F. ; Venot, J.P. ; Lannerstad, M. ; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2010
Irrigation and Drainage 59 (2010)4. - ISSN 1531-0353 - p. 419 - 431.
jordan valley - irrigation - china - balance - basin - india
Although farmers are often seen as wasting water and getting a disproportionate share of water, irrigation is losing out in the competition for water with other sectors. In cases of drought, water restrictions are overwhelmingly imposed on irrigation while other activities and domestic supply are only affected in cases of very severe shortage. All over the world, farmers have been responding to the challenge posed by both short- and long-term declining water allocations in many creative ways, but these responses have often been overlooked by policy makers. This paper examines how farmers have adapted to water scarcity in six different river basins of Asia and the Middle East. It inventories the different types of adjustments observed and shows not only their effectiveness in offsetting the drop in supply but also their costs to farmers and to the environment and their contribution to basin closure. The conclusion calls for a better recognition of the efforts made by the irrigation sector to respond to water challenges and of its implications in terms of reduced scope for efficiency gains in the irrigation sector