Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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A New Value Chain for Rubber and Inulin Production in the European BioEconomy
Hingsamer, M. ; Beerman, M. ; Jungmeier, G. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Dijk, P. van; Muylle, H. ; Kirschner, J. ; Kappen, F.H.J. ; Gevers, N. - \ 2017
In: A New Value Chain for Rubber and Inulin Production in the European BioEconomy Florence : ETA-Florence Renewable Energies (European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings ) - ISBN 9788889407172 - p. 1292 - 1293.
‘DRIVE4EU - Dandelion Rubber and Inulin Valorization and Exploitation for Europe’, a demonstration project, aims at the development of a value chain for natural rubber and inulin from Rubber dandelions. The objective of the project is to set up a new European chain for the production and processing of natural rubber. This will enable the EU to become less dependent on the import of natural rubber and at the same time to respond to the threat of a global rubber shortage. The viability of using Rubber dandelions for rubber and inulin production depends on the sustainability of this new value chain. The results of a general economic assessment shows that the total costs over the whole value chain are dominated by the costs for cultivation and harvesting and the cost for biorefining. The combination of natural rubber and inulin makes Rubber dandelion very interesting as a production platform.
The approach of life cycle sustainability assessment of biorefineries
Jungmeier, G. ; Hingsamer, M. ; Steiner, D. ; Kaltenegger, I. ; Kleinegris, D. ; Ree, R. van; Jong, E. de - \ 2016
Algae - Biorefinery - Biorefining - Industry integration - LCSA - Sustainability

A key driver for the necessary sustainable development is the implementation of the BioEconomy, which is based on renewable resources to satisfy its energy and material demand of our society. The broad spectrum of biomass resources offers great opportunities for a comprehensive product portfolio to satisfy the different needs of a BioEconomy. The concept of biorefining guarantees the resource and energy efficient use of biomass resources. The IEA Bioenergy Task 42 “Biorefining” has the following definition on biorefining: “Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of bio-based products (food, feed, chemicals, and materials) and bioenergy (biofuels, power and/or heat)”. Currently many different biorefinery concepts are developed and already implemented which play a key role in establishing a BioEconomy. The purpose of the work is to develop implementing strategies of Biorefineries in the BioEconomy by applying and using a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment Approach developed in cooperation with IEA Bioenergy Task 42 “Biorefining” and applied to an algae based biorefinery demonstrated in the EU project FUEL4ME. The aim is to provide facts, figures and framework conditions to maximise the overall sustainability benefits of an integrated material and energetic use of biomass. The scientific innovation is to integrate and combine these broad aspects of an overall assessment of a biorefinery in a common framework and the proof of its practical application to a biorefinery example. The framework covers 1) biorefinery classification, 2) assessment of the technologies and processes with their “Technology Readiness Level (TRL)” integrated in the “Biorefinery Complexity Index (BCI)”, 3) economic assessment based on Life Cycle Costing (LCC), 4) environmental effects based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), 5) social issues in a Social Life Cycle Assessment (sLCA) 6) overall Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA), 7) identification of most attractive industry sectors (“Hot Spots”) for rolling out BioEconomy, 8) highlighting necessary R&D demand for commercialisation and 9) concluding on the possible future role of biorefining in a BioEconomy in a regional, national and international context. An innovative presentation in a compact format is developed - “Biorefinery Fact Sheet” - to present the assessment results. A set of broadly accepted sustainability indicators for comparison with conventional systems is identified: a) Environment: GHG emissions (t CO2-eq/a), primary energy demand (GJ/a), area demand (ha/a); b) Economy: production costs (€/a), revenues from products (€/a), value added (€/a), employment (persons/a), trade balance (€/a); c) Society: workers, consumers, local community. The whole concept is applied to a case study of using algal biomass to produce HVO-biofuels, PUFA and fertilizer, developed in the EU-demonstration project FUEL4ME for a future commercial scale. The results concentrated in the “Biorefinery Fact Sheet” for single biorefinery systems assist various stakeholders in finding their position on biorefining in a future biobased economy while minimising unexpected technical, economic and financial risks.

Improving the sustainability of fatty acid methyl esters (Fame – biodiesel) – assessment of options for industry and agriculture
Jungmeier, G. ; Pucker, J. ; Ernst, M. ; Haselbacher, P. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Kraft, A. ; Schulzke, T. ; Loo, E.N. van - \ 2016
Biodiesel - Greenhouse gases - Sustainability - SWOT analyses - Vegetable oils

The life cycle based greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME also called “Biodiesel”) from various resources have been set in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED). Due to technology and scientific progress there are various options to improve the GHG balances of FAME. In this Supporting Action 10 most interesting options were assessed: 1) “Biomethanol”: Substitution of fossil methanol with biomethanol; 2) “Bioethanol”: Substitution of fossil methanol with bioethanol; 3) “CHP residues”: Use of residues and co-products in an CHP plant; 4) “New plant species”: Examination of new plants for vegetable oils, that could increase the biomass weight without any detrimental effect on the oil seed; 5) “Bioplastics and biochemicals”: Production of bioplastics and biochemicals from process residues; 6) “Advanced agriculture”: Advanced agricultural practices in terms of N2O emissions and soil carbon accumulation; 7) “Organic residues”: Use of organic versus mineral fertilizer for feedstock cultivation; 8) “FAME as fuel”: Use of FAME in machinery for cultivation, transportation and distribution; 9) “Retrofitting multi feedstock”: Retrofitting of single feedstock plants for blending fatty residues; and 10) “Green electricity”: Use of renewable electricity produced in a PV plant on site. The assessment approach started with the GHG standard values of the RED and the corresponding background data documented in BioGrace. For the most relevant FAME production possibilities in Europe, characterized by the feedstock (rapeseed, sunflower, palm oil, soybean, used cooking oil, animal fat) and FAME production capacity (50 - 200 kt/a), the technical and economic data of “Best Available Technology in 2015” (BAT) were used as starting point to assess the improvement options. Based on the calculation of GHG emissions (g CO2-eq/MJ) and production cost (€/tFAME) an overall assessment (incl SWOT-Analyses and Stakeholder involvement) of the options was made and summarized in “Fact Sheets”. A significant GHG reduction compared to the RED values in processing is possible, if best available technology (BAT) is applied. The GHG emissions of cultivation compared to RED are higher due to improved data on the correlation between fertilizer input and yields. The assessed GHG improvements options show that the potential to reduce emissions is relatively large in agriculture cultivation, but a relatively low in processing. The production cost analysis shows that revenues from co-produced animal feed and oil yield per hectare have a strong influence on total production costs, e.g. mainly animal feed from soybeans. The total FAME production cost of BAT are 280 – 1,000 €/tFAME, including revenues from co-products. Cost ranges arise due to different feedstock and capacities. The greenhouse gas analysis of the improvement options results in a GHG reduction potential of 0 - 37 g CO2-eq/MJ compared to BAT. The greenhouse gas mitigation costs of improvement options range between -260 and +1,000 €/t CO2-eq. Options with negative greenhouse gas mitigation costs generate economic benefits compared to the base case. Summing up the assessment one can conclude that the future FAME production has several options to further improve its GHG balance thus contributing substantially to a more sustainable transportation sector.

Toward a common classification approach for biorefinery systems
Cherubini, F. ; Jungmeier, G. ; Wellisch, M. ; Wilke, T. ; Skiadas, I. ; Ree, R. van; Jong, E. de - \ 2009
Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining 3 (2009)5. - ISSN 1932-104X - p. 534 - 546.
oil
This paper deals with a biorefinery classification approach developed within International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 42. Since production of transportation biofuels is seen as the driving force for future biorefinery developments, a selection of the most interesting transportation biofuels until 2020 is based on their characteristics to be mixed with gasoline, diesel and natural gas, reflecting the main advantage of using the already-existing infrastructure for easier market introduction. This classification approach relies on four main features: (1) platforms; (2) products; (3) feedstock; and (4) processes. The platforms are the most important feature in this classification approach: they are key intermediates between raw materials and final products, and can be used to link different biorefinery concepts. The adequate combination of these four features represents each individual biorefinery system. The combination of individual biorefinery systems, linked through their platforms, products or feedstocks, provides an overview of the most promising biorefinery systems in a classification network. According to the proposed approach, a biorefinery is described by a standard format as platform(s) - products - and feedstock(s). Processes can be added to the description, if further specification is required. Selected examples of biorefinery classification are provided; for example, (1) one platform (C6 sugars) biorefinery for bioethanol and animal feed from starch crops (corn); and (2) four platforms (lignin/syngas, C5/C6 sugars) biorefinery for synthetic liquid biofuels (Fischer-Tropsch diesel), bioethanol and animal feed from lignocellulosic crops (switchgrass). This classification approach is flexible as new subgroups can be added according to future developments in the biorefinery area
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