Human Microbiota in Health and Disease
Vos, W.M. de; Engstrand, L. ; Drago, L. ; Reid, G. ; Schauber, J. ; Hay, R. ; Mendling, W. ; Schaller, M. ; Spiller, R. ; Gahan, C.G.M. ; Rowland, I. - \ 2012
SelfCare Journal 3 (2012)6. - ISSN 2042-7018 - p. 1 - 68.
Each human body plays host to a microbial population which is both numerically vast (at around 1014 microbial cells) and phenomenally diverse (over 1,000 species). The majority of the microbial species in the gut have not been cultured but the application of culture-independent approaches for high throughput diversity and functionality analysis has allowed characterisation of the diverse microbial phylotypes present in health and disease
Glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables: The influence of the food supply chain on intake, bioavailability and human health
Verkerk, R. ; Schreiner, M. ; Krumbein, A. ; Ciska, E. ; Holst, B. ; Rowland, I. ; Schrijver, R. de; Hansen, M. ; Gerhäuser, C. ; Mithen, R. ; Dekker, M. - \ 2009
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 53 (2009)S2. - ISSN 1613-4125 - p. S219 - S265.
glutathione-s-transferase - oleracea var. italica - colon-cancer cells - aberrant crypt foci - naturally-occurring isothiocyanate - phase-2 detoxification enzymes - plant-derived biomolecules - natural substance class - rapeseed meal toxicity - oxidative dna-damag
Glucosinolates (GLSs) are found in Brassica vegetables. Examples of these sources include cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and various root vegetables (e.g. radish and turnip). A number of epidemiological studies have identified an inverse association between consumption of these vegetables and the risk of colon and rectal cancer. Animal studies have shown changes in enzyme activities and DNA damage resulting from consumption of Brassica vegetables or isothiocyanates, the breakdown products (BDP) of GLSs in the body. Mechanistic studies have begun to identify the ways in which the compounds may exert their protective action but the relevance of these studies to protective effects in the human alimentary tract is as yet unproven. In vitro studies with a number of specific isothiocyanates have suggested mechanisms that might be the basis of their chemoprotective effects. The concentration and composition of the GLSs in different plants, but also within a plant (e.g. in the seeds, roots or leaves), can vary greatly and also changes during plant development. Furthermore, the effects of various factors in the supply chain of Brassica vegetables including breeding, cultivation, storage and processing on intake and bioavailability of GLSs are extensively discussed in this paper