A sense of change: media designers and artists communicating about complexity in social-ecological systems
Vervoort, J.M. ; Keuskamp, D. ; Kok, K. ; Lammeren, R.J.A. van; Stolk, T. ; Veldkamp, T. ; Rekveld, J. ; Schelfhout, R. ; Teklenburg, B. ; Cavalheiro Borges, A. ; Jánoškóva, S. ; Wits, W. ; Assmann, N. ; Abdi Dezfouli, E. ; Cunningham, K. ; Nordeman, B. ; Rowlands, H. - \ 2014
Ecology and Society 19 (2014)3. - ISSN 1708-3087 - 19 p.
virtual-reality - visualization - perspective - simulation - thinking - science
To take on the current and future challenges of global environmental change, fostering a widespread societal understanding of and engagement with the complex dynamics that characterize interacting human and natural systems is essential. Current science communication methods struggle with a number of specific challenges associated with communicating about complex systems. In this study we report on two collaborative processes, a short workshop and longer course, that aimed to harness the insights of interactive media designers and artists to overcome these challenges. The two processes resulted in 86 new interactive media concepts which were selected by the participants and organizers using set criteria and then evaluated using the same criteria by a panel of communication and media design experts and a panel of complex systems scientists using the same criteria. The top eight concepts are discussed in this paper. These concepts fell into the categories of serious games, group interaction concepts, and social media storytelling. The serious games focused directly on complex systems characteristics and were evaluated to be intuitive and engaging designs that combined transparency and complexity well. The group interaction concepts focused mostly on feedbacks and nonlinearity but were fully developed and tested in the workshops, and evaluated as engaging, accessible, and easy to implement in workshops and educational settings. The social media storytelling concepts involved less direct interactions with system dynamics but were seen as highly accessible to large scale audiences. The results of this study show the potential of interdisciplinary collaboration between complex systems scientists, designers, and artists. The results and process discussed in this paper show the value of more structural engagement of interactive media designers and artist communities in the development of communication tools about human and natural systems change.
Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations
Hetherington, M.M. ; Cunningham, K. ; Dye, L. ; Gibson, E.L. ; Gregersen, N.T. ; Halford, J.C.G. ; Lawton, C.L. ; Lluch, A. ; Mela, D.J. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2013
Nutrition Research Reviews 26 (2013). - ISSN 0954-4224 - p. 22 - 38.
low-calorie diet - high-protein-diet - body-weight loss - disentangling food reward - sensory-specific satiety - glucagon-like peptide-1 - cognitive performance - energy-intake - appetite sensations - eating behavior
Foods and dietary patterns that enhance satiety may provide benefit to consumers. The aim of the present review was to describe, consider and evaluate research on potential benefits of enhanced satiety. The proposal that enhanced satiety could only benefit consumers by a direct effect on food intake should be rejected. Instead, it is proposed that there is a variety of routes through which enhanced satiety could (indirectly) benefit dietary control or weight-management goals. The review highlights specific potential benefits of satiety, including: providing appetite control strategies for consumers generally and for those who are highly responsive to food cues; offering pleasure and satisfaction associated with low-energy/healthier versions of foods without feeling ‘deprived’; reducing dysphoric mood associated with hunger especially during energy restriction; and improved compliance with healthy eating or weight-management efforts. There is convincing evidence of short-term satiety benefits, but only probable evidence for longer-term benefits to hunger management, possible evidence of benefits to mood and cognition, inadequate evidence that satiety enhancement can promote weight loss, and no evidence on which consumers would benefit most from satiety enhancement. The appetite-reducing effects of specific foods or diets will be much more subtle than those of pharmaceutical compounds in managing hunger; nevertheless, the experience of pharmacology in producing weight loss via effects on appetite suggests that there is potential benefit of satiety enhancement from foods incorporated into the diet to the consumer.
Gastrointestinal targets of appetite regulation in humans
Delzenne, N.M. ; Blundell, J.E. ; Brouns, F. ; Cunningham, K. ; Graaf, C. de; Erkner, A. ; Lluch, A. ; Mars, M. ; Peters, H.P.F. ; Westerterp-Plantenga, M. - \ 2010
Obesity Reviews 11 (2010)3. - ISSN 1467-7881 - p. 234 - 250.
glucagon-like peptide-1 - acid breath test - aqueous meal components - plasma ghrelin levels - libitum energy-intake - cholecystokinin receptor antagonist - c-terminal octapeptide - high-carbohydrate meal - increases food-intake - gastric-emptying rate
The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss relevant aspects of the assessment of physiological functions – and related biomarkers – implicated in the regulation of appetite in humans. A short introduction provides the background and the present state of biomarker research as related to satiety and appetite. The main focus of the paper is on the gastrointestinal tract and its functions and biomarkers related to appetite for which sufficient data are available in human studies. The first section describes how gastric emptying, stomach distension and gut motility influence appetite; the second part describes how selected gastrointestinal peptides are involved in the control of satiety and appetite (ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide, peptide tyrosin-tyrosin) and can be used as potential biomarkers. For both sections, methodological aspects (adequacy, accuracy and limitation of the methods) are described. The last section focuses on new developments in techniques and methods for the assessment of physiological targets involved in appetite regulation (including brain imaging, interesting new experimental approaches, targets and markers). The conclusion estimates the relevance of selected biomarkers as representative markers of appetite regulation, in view of the current state of the art.