Environmental surveillance during an outbreak of tularaemia in hares, the Netherlands, 2015
Janse, Ingmar ; Maas, M. ; Rijks, J.M. ; Koene, M. ; Plaats, R.Q. van der; Engelsma, M. ; Tas, P.W.L. ; Braks, M. ; Stroo, A. ; Notermans, D.W. ; Vries, M.C. de; Reubsaet, F.A.G. ; Fanoy, E. ; Swaan, C.M. ; Kik, M.J. ; Ijzer, J. ; Jaarsma, R.I. ; Wieren, S. van; Roda Husman, A.M. de; Passel, M. van; Roest, H. ; Giessen, J. van der - \ 2017
Eurosurveillance 22 (2017)35. - ISSN 1025-496X
Tularaemia, a disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a re-emerging zoonosis in the Netherlands. After sporadic human and hare cases occurred in the period 2011 to 2014, a cluster of F. tularensis-infected hares was recognised in a region in the north of the Netherlands from February to May 2015. No human cases were identified, including after active case finding. Presence of F. tularensis was investigated in potential reservoirs and transmission routes, including common voles, arthropod vectors and surface waters. F. tularensis was not detected in common voles, mosquito larvae or adults, tabanids or ticks. However, the bacterium was detected in water and sediment samples collected in a limited geographical area where infected hares had also been found. These results demonstrate that water monitoring could provide valuable information regarding F. tularensis spread and persistence, and should be used in addition to disease surveillance in wildlife.
Promicromonospora pachnodae sp nov., a member of the (hemi)cellulolytic hindgut flora of larvae of the scarab beetle Pachnoda marginata
Cazemier, A.E. ; Verdoes, J.C. ; Reubsaet, F.A.G. ; Hackstein, J.H.P. ; Drift, C. van der; Camp, H.J.M. op den - \ 2003
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek: : Nederlandsch tijdschrift voor hygiëne, microbiologie en serologie 83 (2003)2. - ISSN 0003-6072 - p. 135 - 148.
termite guts - cellulomonas - degradation - arthropods - digestion - bacteria - gene - microorganisms - lignocellulose - purification
Intestinal microorganisms play an important role in plant fiber degradation by larvae of the rose chafer Pachnoda marginata. In the hindgut of the larvae 2.5 to 7.4 × 108 bacteria per ml of gut content with xylanase or endoglucanase activity were found. Bacteria in the midgut were not (hemi)cellulolytic, but the alkaline environment in this part of the intestinal tract functions as a precellulolytic phase, solubilizing part of the lignocellulosic material. Accordingly, the degradation of lignocellulose-rich material in Pachnoda marginata larvae appeared to be a combination of a physico-chemical and microbiological process. A number of different facultative anaerobic and strictly anaerobic bacteria with (hemi)cellulolytic activity were isolated from the hindgut. A dominant (hemi)cellulolytic species was a Gram positive, irregular shaped, facultative aerobic bacterium. Further physiological identification placed the isolate in the genus Promicromonospora. Comparative 16S rDNA analysis and phenotypic features revealed that the isolate represented a new species for which the name Promicromonospora pachnodae is proposed. P. pachnodae produced xylanases and endoglucanases on several plant derived polymers, both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.