Engineering Geobacillus thermodenitrificans to introduce cellulolytic activity; expression of native and heterologous cellulase genes
Daas, Martinus J.A. ; Nijsse, Bart ; Weijer, Antonius H.P. van de; Groenendaal, Bart W.A.J. ; Janssen, Fons ; Oost, John van der; Kranenburg, Richard van - \ 2018
BMC Biotechnology 18 (2018)1. - ISSN 1472-6750
CBP - Cellulase - Geobacillus - Metagenome - β-Xylosidase
Background: Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a cost-effective approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and biochemicals. The enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose requires the synergistic action of three types of enzymes: exoglucanases, endoglucanases and β-glucosidases. The thermophilic, hemicellulolytic Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12 was shown to harbor desired features for CBP, although it lacks the desired endo and exoglucanases required for the conversion of cellulose. Here, we report the expression of both endoglucanase and exoglucanase encoding genes by G. thermodenitrificans T12, in an initial attempt to express cellulolytic enzymes that complement the enzymatic machinery of this strain. Results: A metagenome screen was performed on 73 G. thermodenitrificans strains using HMM profiles of all known CAZy families that contain endo and/or exoglucanases. Two putative endoglucanases, GE39 and GE40, belonging to glucoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) were isolated and expressed in both E. coli and G. thermodenitrificans T12. Structure modeling of GE39 revealed a folding similar to a GH5 exo-1,3-β-glucanase from S. cerevisiae. However, we determined GE39 to be a β-xylosidase having pronounced activity towards p-nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside. Structure modelling of GE40 revealed its protein architecture to be similar to a GH5 endoglucanase from B. halodurans, and its endoglucanase activity was confirmed by enzymatic activity against 2-hydroxyethylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose and barley β-glucan. Additionally, we introduced expression constructs into T12 containing Geobacillus sp. 70PC53 endoglucanase gene celA and both endoglucanase genes (M1 and M2) from Geobacillus sp. WSUCF1. Finally, we introduced expression constructs into T12 containing the C. thermocellum exoglucanases celK and celS genes and the endoglucanase celC gene. Conclusions: We identified a novel G. thermodenitrificans β-xylosidase (GE39) and a novel endoglucanase (GE40) using a metagenome screen based on multiple HMM profiles. We successfully expressed both genes in E. coli and functionally expressed the GE40 endoglucanase in G. thermodenitrificans T12. Additionally, the heterologous production of active CelK, a C. thermocellum derived exoglucanase, and CelA, a Geobacillus derived endoglucanase, was demonstrated with strain T12. The native hemicellulolytic activity and the heterologous cellulolytic activity described in this research provide a good basis for the further development of G. thermodenitrificans T12 as a host for consolidated bioprocessing.
Organic acid production from potato starch waste fermentation by rumen microbial communities from Dutch and Thai dairy cows
Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul ; De Weijer, Antonius H.P. Van; Gelder, Antonie H. Van; Stams, Alfons J.M. ; Vos, Willem M. De; Plugge, Caroline M. - \ 2018
Biotechnology for Biofuels 11 (2018)1. - ISSN 1754-6834
Lactate fermentation - Microbial communities - Organic acids - Renewable energy - Rumen fluid - Starch waste
Background: Exploring different microbial sources for biotechnological production of organic acids is important. Dutch and Thai cow rumen samples were used as inocula to produce organic acid from starch waste in anaerobic reactors. Organic acid production profiles were determined and microbial communities were compared using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Results: In both reactors, lactate was the main initial product and was associated with growth of Streptococcus spp. (86% average relative abundance). Subsequently, lactate served as a substrate for secondary fermentations. In the reactor inoculated with rumen fluid from the Dutch cow, the relative abundance of Bacillus and Streptococcus increased from the start, and lactate, acetate, formate and ethanol were produced. From day 1.33 to 2, lactate and acetate were degraded, resulting in butyrate production. Butyrate production coincided with a decrease in relative abundance of Streptococcus spp. and increased relative abundances of bacteria of other groups, including Parabacteroides, Sporanaerobacter, Helicobacteraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae and Porphyromonadaceae. In the reactor with the Thai cow inoculum, Streptococcus spp. also increased from the start. When lactate was consumed, acetate, propionate and butyrate were produced (day 3-4). After day 3, bacteria belonging to five dominant groups, Bacteroides, Pseudoramibacter-Eubacterium, Dysgonomonas, Enterobacteriaceae and Porphyromonadaceae, were detected and these showed significant positive correlations with acetate, propionate and butyrate levels. Conclusions: The complexity of rumen microorganisms with high adaptation capacity makes rumen fluid a suitable source to convert organic waste into valuable products without the addition of hydrolytic enzymes. Starch waste is a source for organic acid production, especially lactate.
Complete Genome Sequence of Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12, A Potential Host for Biotechnological Applications
Daas, Tijn ; Vriesendorp, Bastienne ; Weijer, Tom van de; Oost, John van der; Kranenburg, Richard van - \ 2018
Current Microbiology 75 (2018)1. - ISSN 0343-8651 - p. 49 - 56.
In attempt to obtain a thermophilic host for the conversion of lignocellulose derived substrates into lactic acid, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12 was isolated from a compost heap. It was selected from over 500 isolates as a genetically tractable hemicellulolytic lactic acid producer, requiring little nutrients. The strain is able to ferment glucose and xylose simultaneously and can produce lactic acid from xylan, making it a potential host for biotechnological applications. The genome of strain T12 consists of a 3.64 Mb chromosome and two plasmids of 59 and 56 kb. It has a total of 3.676 genes with an average genomic GC content of 48.7%. The T12 genome encodes a denitrification pathway, allowing for anaerobic respiration. The identity and localization of the responsible genes are similar to those of the denitrification pathways found in strain NG80-2. The hemicellulose utilization (HUS) locus was identified based on sequence homology against G. stearothermophilus T-6. It appeared that T12 has all the genes that are present in strain T-6 except for the arabinan degradation cluster. Instead, the HUS locus of strain T12 contains genes for both an inositol and a pectate degradation pathway. Strain T12 has complete pathways for the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine, all 20 amino acids and several vitamins except D-biotin. The host-defense systems present comprise a Type II and a Type III restriction-modification system, as well as a CRISPR-Cas Type II system. It is concluded that G. thermodenitrificans T12 is a potentially interesting candidate for industrial applications.
Biochemical characterization of the xylan hydrolysis profile of the extracellular endo-xylanase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12
Daas, Tijn ; Martínez, Patricia Murciano ; Weijer, Tom van de; Oost, John van der; Vos, Willem M. de; Kabel, Mirjam A. ; Kranenburg, Richard van - \ 2017
BMC Biotechnology 17 (2017)1. - ISSN 1472-6750
Biotechnology - Endo-xylanase - Geobacillus - Thermophile - Xylan
Background: Endo-xylanases are essential in degrading hemicellulose of various lignocellulosic substrates. Hemicellulose degradation by Geobacillus spp. is facilitated by the hemicellulose utilization (HUS) locus that is present in most strains belonging to this genus. As part of the HUS locus, the xynA gene encoding an extracellular endo-xylanase is one of the few secreted enzymes and considered to be the key enzyme to initiate hemicellulose degradation. Several Geobacillus endo-xylanases have been characterized for their optimum temperature, optimum pH and generation of degradation products. However, these analyses provide limited details on the mode of action of the enzymes towards various substrates resulting in a lack of understanding about their hydrolytic potential. Results: A HUS-locus associated gene (GtxynA1) from the thermophile Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12 encodes an extracellular endo-xylanase that belongs to the family 10 glycoside hydrolases (GH10). The GtxynA1 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The resulting endo-xylanase (termed GtXynA1) was purified to homogeneity and showed activity between 40 °C and 80 °C, with an optimum activity at 60 °C, while being active between pH 3.0 to 9.0 with an optimum at pH 6.0. Its thermal stability was high and GtXynA1 showed 85% residual activity after 1 h of incubation at 60 °C. Highest activity was towards wheat arabinoxylan (WAX), beechwood xylan (BeWX) and birchwood xylan (BiWX). GtXynA1 is able to degrade WAX and BeWX producing mainly xylobiose and xylotriose. To determine its mode of action, we compared the hydrolysis products generated by GtXynA1 with those from the well-characterized GH10 endo-xylanase produced from Aspergillus awamori (AaXynA). The main difference in the mode of action between GtXynA1 and AaXynA on WAX is that GtXynA1 is less hindered by arabinosyl substituents and can therefore release shorter oligosaccharides. Conclusions: The G. thermodenitrificans T12 endo-xylanase, GtXynA1, shows temperature tolerance up to 80 °C and high activity to a variety of xylans. The mode of action of GtXynA1 reveals that arabinose substituents do not hamper substrate degradation by GtXynA1. The extensive hydrolysis of branched xylans makes this enzyme particularly suited for the conversion of a broad range of lignocellulosic substrates.
Dynamic behavior of PH in fresh urine puddles of dairy cows
Snoek, D.J.W. ; Ogink, N.W.M. ; Stigter, J.D. ; Agricola, S. ; De Weijer, T.M. Van; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. - \ 2016
Transactions of the ASABE / American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 59 (2016)5. - ISSN 2151-0032 - p. 1403 - 1411.
Ammonia emission - Cow barn - Cow urine - Fresh puddle - PH
Modern livestock farming is an important contributor to ammonia (NH3) emissions. In the Netherlands, 94% of NH3 emissions originate from agriculture, of which 34% is emitted from commercial dairy cow barns. From current mechanistic modeling, it is known that the pH of urine puddles from cows is one of the most important variables in estimating NH3 emissions. However, little pH data are available from commercial cow barns. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate pH values and to study their dynamic behavior in fresh, on-floor urine puddles in these barns. To do this, the pH of urine puddles was measured for 4 h per puddle, and a model was developed to describe the pH behavior. In total, 26 fresh puddles were measured from cows at three commercial dairy farms in summer and winter. At farm level, we found initial pH values of 8.1 through 8.4, which increased to 8.9 through 9.4 after 4 h. The pH difference between summer and winter was 0.3 (p <0.05), but this was not confirmed by comparisons at farm level. The pH curves of individual puddles varied substantially and could be fitted by a nonlinear regression model. This model contained correlated coefficients that were able to describe the main, known chemical processes of a urine puddle. However, no linear relationship was found between initial and final pH and thus between coefficients. On average, pH quickly increased initially, declined after 1 h, and became stable around a pH of 9.15. We conclude that a pH curve will better describe the input variable in NH3 emission modeling than the current situation of using a static pH value. Based on this study, we recommend using the mean measured pH curve as input for puddle simulation during NH3 emission modeling of dairy cow barns.
Isolation of a genetically accessible thermophilic xylan degrading bacterium from compost
Daas, Tijn ; Weijer, Tom van de; Vos, Willem M. de; Oost, John van der; Kranenburg, Richard van - \ 2016
Biotechnology for Biofuels 9 (2016). - ISSN 1754-6834
CMC - Compost - Electroporation - Fermentation - Geobacillus - Lactic acid - Thermophile - Xylan
Background: Due to the finite nature of global oil resources we are now faced with the challenge of finding renewable resources to produce fuels and chemicals in the future. Lactic acid has great potential as a precursor for the production of bioplastics alternatives to conventional plastics. Efficient lactic acid fermentation from non-food lignocellulosic substrates requires pretreatment and saccharification to generate fermentable sugars. A fermentation process that requires little to no enzyme additions, i.e. consolidated bioprocessing would be preferred and requires lactic acid-producing organisms that have cellulolytic and/or hemicellulolytic activity. Results: To obtain candidate production strains we have enriched and isolated facultative anaerobic (hemi) cellulolytic bacterial strains from compost samples. By selecting for growth on both cellulose and xylan, 94 Geobacillus strains were isolated. Subsequent screening for lactic acid production was carried out from C6 and C5 sugar fermentations and a selection of the best lactic acid producers was made. The denitrifying Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12 was selected for further research and was rendered genetically accessible. In fermentations on a mixture of glucose and xylose, a total of 20.3 g of lactic acid was produced with a yield of 0.94 g product/g sugar consumed. In addition, strain T12 is capable of direct conversion of beech wood xylan to mainly lactic acid in minimal media. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that G. thermodenitrificans T12 is genetically accessible and produces lactic acid as its main fermentation product on glucose, xylose and a mixture thereof. Strain T12 was additionally used for the direct conversion of xylan to lactic acid. The genetic accessibility of the T12 strain provides a solid basis for the development of this strain into a host for consolidated bioprocessing of biomass to lactic acid.
Complete genome sequence of thermophilic Bacillus smithii type strain DSM 4216T
Bosma, Elleke F. ; Koehorst, Jasper J. ; Hijum, Sacha A.F.T. van; Renckens, Bernadet ; Vriesendorp, Bastienne ; Weijer, Tom van de; Schaap, Peter J. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Oost, John van der; Kranenburg, Richard van - \ 2016
Standards in Genomic Sciences 11 (2016). - ISSN 1944-3277 - 11 p.
Bacillus smithii - Biotechnology - Genome sequence - Lactic acid - Thermophile - Thermophilic bacillus
Bacillus smithii is a facultatively anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium able to use a variety of sugars that can be derived from lignocellulosic feedstocks. Being genetically accessible, it is a potential new host for biotechnological production of green chemicals from renewable resources. We determined the complete genomic sequence of the B. smithii type strain DSM 4216T, which consists of a 3,368,778 bp chromosome (GenBank accession number CP012024.1) and a 12,514 bp plasmid (GenBank accession number CP012025.1), together encoding 3880 genes. Genome annotation via RAST was complemented by a protein domain analysis. Some unique features of B. smithii central metabolism in comparison to related organisms included the lack of a standard acetate production pathway with no apparent pyruvate formate lyase, phosphotransacetylase, and acetate kinase genes, while acetate was the second fermentation product.
Establishment of markerless gene deletion tools in thermophilic Bacillus smithii and construction of multiple mutant strains
Bosma, E.F. ; Weijer, A.H.P. van de; Vlist, L. ; Vos, W.M. de; Oost, J. van der; Kranenburg, R. van - \ 2015
Microbial Cell Factories 14 (2015). - ISSN 1475-2859 - 12 p.
BACKGROUND: Microbial conversion of biomass to fuels or chemicals is an attractive alternative for fossil-based fuels and chemicals. Thermophilic microorganisms have several operational advantages as a production host over mesophilic organisms, such as low cooling costs, reduced contamination risks and a process temperature matching that of commercial hydrolytic enzymes, enabling simultaneous saccharification and fermentation at higher efficiencies and with less enzymes. However, genetic tools for biotechnologically relevant thermophiles are still in their infancy. In this study we developed a markerless gene deletion method for the thermophile Bacillus smithii and we report the first metabolic engineering of this species as a potential platform organism. RESULTS: Clean deletions of the ldhL gene were made in two B. smithii strains (DSM 4216(T) and compost isolate ET 138) by homologous recombination. Whereas both wild-type strains produced mainly L-lactate, deletion of the ldhL gene blocked L-lactate production and caused impaired anaerobic growth and acid production. To facilitate the mutagenesis process, we established a counter-selection system for efficient plasmid removal based on lacZ-mediated X-gal toxicity. This counter-selection system was applied to construct a sporulation-deficient B. smithii ¿ldhL ¿sigF mutant strain. Next, we demonstrated that the system can be used repetitively by creating B. smithii triple mutant strain ET 138 ¿ldhL ¿sigF ¿pdhA, from which also the gene encoding the a-subunit of the E1 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is deleted. This triple mutant strain produced no acetate and is auxotrophic for acetate, indicating that pyruvate dehydrogenase is the major route from pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we developed a markerless gene deletion method including a counter-selection system for thermophilic B. smithii, constituting the first report of metabolic engineering in this species. The described markerless gene deletion system paves the way for more extensive metabolic engineering of B. smithii. This enables the development of this species into a platform organism and provides tools for studying its metabolism, which appears to be different from its close relatives such as B. coagulans and other bacilli
Isolation and Screening of Thermophilic Bacilli from Compost for Electrotransformation and Fermentation: Characterization of Bacillus smithii ET 138 as a New Biocatalyst
Bosma, E.F. ; Weijer, A.H.P. van de; Daas, M.J.A. ; Oost, J. van der; Vos, W.M. de; Kranenburg, R. van - \ 2015
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 81 (2015)5. - ISSN 0099-2240 - p. 1874 - 1883.
genetic tool development - lactic-acid - simultaneous saccharification - clostridium-thermocellum - industrial platform - ethanol - lignocellulose - coagulans - bacteria - licheniformis
Thermophilic bacteria are regarded as attractive production organisms for cost-efficient conversion of renewable resources to green chemicals, but their genetic accessibility is a major bottleneck in developing them into versatile platform organisms. In this study, we aimed to isolate thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic bacilli that are genetically accessible and have potential as platform organisms. From compost, we isolated 267 strains that produced acids from C5 and C6 sugars at temperatures of 55°C or 65°C. Subsequently, 44 strains that showed the highest production of acids were screened for genetic accessibility by electroporation. Two Geobacillus thermodenitrificans isolates and one Bacillus smithii isolate were found to be transformable with plasmid pNW33n. Of these, B. smithii ET 138 was the best-performing strain in laboratory-scale fermentations and was capable of producing organic acids from glucose as well as from xylose. It is an acidotolerant strain able to produce organic acids until a lower limit of approximately pH 4.5. As genetic accessibility of B. smithii had not been described previously, six other B. smithii strains from the DSMZ culture collection were tested for electroporation efficiencies, and we found the type strain DSM 4216T and strain DSM 460 to be transformable. The transformation protocol for B. smithii isolate ET 138 was optimized to obtain approximately 5 × 103 colonies per µg plasmid pNW33n. Genetic accessibility combined with robust acid production capacities on C5 and C6 sugars at a relatively broad pH range make B. smithii ET 138 an attractive biocatalyst for the production of lactic acid and potentially other green chemicals