Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Comparative Genomics Yields Insights into Niche Adaptation of Plant Vascular Wilt Pathogens
Klosterman, S.J. ; Subbarao, K.V. ; Kang, S. ; Veronese, P. ; Gold, S.E. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. ; Chen, Z.J. ; Henrissat, B. ; Lee, Y.H. ; Park, J. ; Garcia-Pedrajas, M.D. ; Barbara, D.J. ; Anchieta, A. ; Jonge, R. de; Santhanam, P. ; Maruthachalam, K. ; Atallah, Z. ; Amyotte, S.G. ; Paz, Z. ; Inderbitzin, P. ; Hayes, R.J. ; Heiman, D.I. ; Young, S. ; Zeng, Q. ; Engels, R. ; Galagan, J. ; Cuomo, C. ; Dobinson, K.F. ; Ma, L.J. - \ 2011
PLoS Pathogens 7 (2011)7. - ISSN 1553-7366 - 19 p.
induced point mutation - cladosporium-fulvum - verticillium wilt - fusarium-oxysporum - nep1-like proteins - maximum-likelihood - transcription factor - neurospora-crassa - virulence factor - effector ecp6
The vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum infect over 200 plant species, causing billions of dollars in annual crop losses. The characteristic wilt symptoms are a result of colonization and proliferation of the pathogens in the xylem vessels, which undergo fluctuations in osmolarity. To gain insights into the mechanisms that confer the organisms' pathogenicity and enable them to proliferate in the unique ecological niche of the plant vascular system, we sequenced the genomes of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and compared them to each other, and to the genome of Fusarium oxysporum, another fungal wilt pathogen. Our analyses identified a set of proteins that are shared among all three wilt pathogens, and present in few other fungal species. One of these is a homolog of a bacterial glucosyltransferase that synthesizes virulence-related osmoregulated periplasmic glucans in bacteria. Pathogenicity tests of the corresponding V. dahliae glucosyltransferase gene deletion mutants indicate that the gene is required for full virulence in the Australian tobacco species Nicotiana benthamiana. Compared to other fungi, the two sequenced Verticillium genomes encode more pectin-degrading enzymes and other carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting an extraordinary capacity to degrade plant pectin barricades. The high level of synteny between the two Verticillium assemblies highlighted four flexible genomic islands in V. dahliae that are enriched for transposable elements, and contain duplicated genes and genes that are important in signaling/transcriptional regulation and iron/lipid metabolism. Coupled with an enhanced capacity to degrade plant materials, these genomic islands may contribute to the expanded genetic diversity and virulence of V. dahliae, the primary causal agent of Verticillium wilts. Significantly, our study reveals insights into the genetic mechanisms of niche adaptation of fungal wilt pathogens, advances our understanding of the evolution and development of their pathogenesis, and sheds light on potential avenues for the development of novel disease management strategies to combat destructive wilt diseases.
Comparative genomics of the plant vascular wilt pathogens, Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum
Klosterman, S.J. ; Subbarao, K.V. ; Kang, S. ; Veronese, P. ; Gold, S.E. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. ; Chen, Z. ; Henrissat, B. ; Lee, Y. ; Park, J. ; Garcia-Pedrajas, M.D. ; Barbara, D. ; Anchieta, A. ; Jonge, R. de; Santhanam, P. ; Maruthachalam, K. ; Atallah, Z.K. ; Amyotte, S. ; Paz, Z. ; Inderbitzen, P. ; Heiman, D. ; Young, S. ; Zeng, Q. ; Engels, R. ; Koehrsen, M. ; Galagan, J. ; Birren, B. ; Cuomo, C. ; Dobinson, K.F. ; Ma, L. - \ 2010
Phytopathology 100 (2010)6. - ISSN 0031-949X - p. S64 - S64.
Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum are plant pathogenic fungi that cause Verticillium wilts worldwide. The 7.5 X sequence of V. dahliae strain VdLs.17 and the 4 X sequence of V. albo-atrum strain VaMs.102 were generated and assembled at the Broad Institute using Sanger sequencing. A comparison of these genomes revealed a high level of synteny between these two Verticillium species, and led to the identification of a set of potential effector proteins. In particular, our study revealed higher numbers of pectinolytic enzymes in the Verticillium species than in other fungi, which may have direct implications in the ability of these pathogens to colonize a wide range of plant hosts. Additionally, we identified in the genome assembly of V. dahliae strain VdLs.17 four lineage-specific (LS) regions which are absent from VaMs.102. Certain gene families in the transposon-rich LS regions have undergone expansion, including transcription factors, ferric reductases, and phospholipases, which collectively may facilitate niche adaptation. Comparative analyses with another vascular wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, revealed a conserved set of proteins that may have particular relevance for these vascular wilt fungi. These findings provide insight into the molecular determinants that underpin pathogenicity and niche adaptation in these vascular wilt fungi, and provide a foundation for functional genomics analyses.
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