Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

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The ecological and evolutionary implications of merging different types of networks
Fontaine, C. ; Guimaraes, P.R. ; Kéfi, S. ; Loeuille, N. ; Memmott, J. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Veen, F.J. ; Thébault, E. - \ 2011
Ecology Letters 14 (2011)11. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 1170 - 1181.
food-web structure - animal mutualistic networks - positive interactions - plant-communities - phylogenetic constraints - species extinctions - stability - pollination - coevolution - ecosystems
Interactions among species drive the ecological and evolutionary processes in ecological communities. These interactions are effectively key components of biodiversity. Studies that use a network approach to study the structure and dynamics of communities of interacting species have revealed many patterns and associated processes. Historically these studies were restricted to trophic interactions, although network approaches are now used to study a wide range of interactions, including for example the reproductive mutualisms. However, each interaction type remains studied largely in isolation from others. Merging the various interaction types within a single integrative framework is necessary if we want to further our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of communities. Dividing the networks up is a methodological convenience as in the field the networks occur together in space and time and will be linked by shared species. Herein, we outline a conceptual framework for studying networks composed of more than one type of interaction, highlighting key questions and research areas that would benefit from their study
Stability of Ecological Communities and the Architecture of Mutualistic and Trophic Networks
Thebault, E.M.C. ; Fontaine, C. - \ 2010
Science 329 (2010)5993. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 853 - 856.
food-web structure - biodiversity - pollination - competition - modularity - diversity
Research on the relationship between the architecture of ecological networks and community stability has mainly focused on one type of interaction at a time, making difficult any comparison between different network types. We used a theoretical approach to show that the network architecture favoring stability fundamentally differs between trophic and mutualistic networks. A highly connected and nested architecture promotes community stability in mutualistic networks, whereas the stability of trophic networks is enhanced in compartmented and weakly connected architectures. These theoretical predictions are supported by a meta-analysis on the architecture of a large series of real pollination (mutualistic) and herbivory (trophic) networks. We conclude that strong variations in the stability of architectural patterns constrain ecological networks toward different architectures, depending on the type of interaction.
The Road to Sustainability Must Bridge Three Great Divides
Aronson, J. ; Blignaut, J.N. ; Groot, R.S. de; Clewell, A. ; Lowry II, P.P. ; Woodworth, P. ; Cowling, R.M. ; Renison, D. ; Farley, J. ; Fontaine, C. ; Tongway, D. ; Levy, S. ; Milton, S.J. ; Rangel, O. ; Debrincat, B. ; Birkinshaw, C. - \ 2010
Annals of the New York Academy Of Sciences 1185 (2010). - ISSN 0077-8923 - p. 225 - 236.
ecosystem services - social-sciences - economic-growth - south-africa - ecology - policy - valuation - payments - working - world
The world's large and rapidly growing human population is exhausting Earth's natural capital at ever-faster rates, and yet appears mostly oblivious to the fact that these resources are limited. This is dangerous for our well-being and perhaps for our survival, as documented by numerous studies over many years. Why are we not moving instead toward sustainable levels of use? We argue here that this disconnection between our knowledge and our actions is largely caused by three "great divides": an ideological divide between economists and ecologists; an economic development divide between the rich and the poor; and an information divide, which obstructs communications between scientists, public opinion, and policy makers. These divides prevent our economies from responding effectively to urgent signals of environmental and ecological stress. The restoration of natural capital (RNC) can be an important strategy in bridging all of these divides. RNC projects and programs make explicit the multiple and mutually reinforcing linkages between environmental and economic well-being, while opening up a promising policy road in the search for a sustainable and desirable future for global society. The bridge-building capacity of RNC derives from its double focus: on the ecological restoration of degraded, overexploited natural ecosystems, and on the full socio-economic and ecological interface between people and their environments
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