|Browse preference in bonobos
Hoore, C. D'; Bosch, G. ; Janssens, Geert P.J. ; Stevens, J. ; Pereboom, Z. ; Depauw, S. - \ 2017
|Browse silage: winterfood in the zoo
Depauw, S. ; Boeykens, A. ; Bosch, G. ; Janssens, G. ; Pereboom, Z. - \ 2017
Incubation of selected fermentable fibres with feline faecal inoculum: correlations between in vitro fermentation characteristics and end products
Rochus, K. ; Bosch, G. ; Vanhaecke, L. ; Velde, H. van de; Depauw, S. ; Xu, J. ; Fievez, V. ; Wiele, T. van der; Hendriks, W.H. ; Janssens, G.P.J. ; Hesta, M. - \ 2013
Archives of Animal Nutrition 67 (2013)5. - ISSN 1745-039X - p. 416 - 431.
gas-production kinetics - chain fatty-acids - dietary fiber - domestic cat - human gut - substrate - feces - food - progression - propionate
This study aimed to evaluate correlations between fermentation characteristics and end products of selected fermentable fibres (three types of fructans, citrus pectin, guar gum), incubated with faecal inocula from donor cats fed two diets, differing in fibre and protein sources and concentrations. Cumulative gas production was measured over 72 h, fermentation end products were analysed at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-incubation, and quantification of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and bacteroides in fermentation liquids were performed at 4 and 48 h of incubation. Partial Pearson correlations, corrected for inoculum, were calculated to assess the interdependency of the fermentation characteristics of the soluble fibre substrates. Butyric and valeric acid concentrations increased with higher fermentation rates, whereas acetic acid declined. Concentrations of butyric acid (highest in fructans) and propionic acid were inversely correlated with protein fermentation end products at several time points, whereas concentrations of acetic acid (highest in citrus pectin) were positively correlated with these products at most time points. Remarkably, a lack of clear relationship between the counts of bacterial groups and their typically associated products after 4 h of incubation was observed. Data from this experiment suggest that differences in fibre fermentation rate in feline faecal inocula coincide with typical changes in the profile of bacterial fermentation products. The observed higher concentrations of propionic and butyric acid as a result of fibre fermentation could possibly have beneficial effects on intestinal health, and may be confounded with a concurrent decrease in the production of putrefactive compounds. In conclusion, supplementing guar gum or fructans to a feline diet might be more advantageous compared with citrus pectin. However, in vivo research is warranted to confirm these conclusions in domestic cats.
Fermentation of animal components in strict carnivores: a comparative study with cheetah fecal inoculum
Depauw, S. ; Bosch, G. ; Hesta, M. ; Whitehouse-Tedd, K. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Kaandorp, J. ; Janssens, G.P.J. - \ 2012
Journal of Animal Science 90 (2012)8. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 2540 - 2548.
in-vitro fermentation - fatty-acid production - gas-production - dietary fiber - gastrointestinal-tract - large-intestine - bovine tendon - cats - metabolism - protein
The natural diet of felids contains highly digestible animal tissues but also fractions resistant to small intestinal digestion, which enter the large intestine where they may be fermented by the resident microbial population. Little information exists on the microbial degradability of animal tissues in the large intestine of felids consuming a natural diet. This study aimed to rank animal substrates in their microbial degradability by means of an in vitro study using captive cheetahs fed a strict carnivorous diet as fecal donors. Fresh cheetah fecal samples were collected, pooled, and incubated with various raw animal substrates (chicken cartilage, collagen, glucosamine-chondroitin, glucosamine, rabbit bone, rabbit hair, and rabbit skin; 4 replicates per substrate) for cumulative gas production measurement in a batch culture technique. Negative (cellulose) and positive (casein and fructo-oligosaccharides; FOS) controls were incorporated in the study. Additionally, after 72 h of incubation, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and ammonia concentrations were determined for each substrate. Glucosamine and glucosamine-chondroitin yielded the greatest OM cumulative gas volume (OMCV) among animal substrates (P <0.05), whereas total SCFA production was greatest for collagen (P <0.05). Collagen induced an acetate production comparable to FOS and a markedly high acetate-to-propionate ratio (8.41:1) compared to all other substrates (1.67:1 to 2.97:1). Chicken cartilage was rapidly fermentable, indicated by a greater maximal rate of gas production (Rmax) compared with all other substrates (P <0.05). In general, animal substrates showed an earlier occurrence for maximal gas production rate compared to FOS. Rabbit hair, skin, and bone were poorly fermentable substrates, indicated by the least amount of OMCV and total SCFA among animal substrates (P <0.05). The greatest amount of ammonia production among animal substrates was measured after incubation of collagen and rabbit bone (P <0.05). This study provides the first insight into the potential of animal tissues to influence large intestinal fermentation in a strict carnivore, and indicates that animal tissues have potentially similar functions as soluble or insoluble plant fibers in vitro. Further research is warranted to assess the impact of fermentation of each type of animal tissue on gastro-intestinal function and health in the cheetah and other felid species
Fermentation characteristics of various animal tissues by cheetah faecal inoculum
Depauw, S. ; Bosch, G. ; Becker, A. ; Hesta, M. ; Whitehouse-Tedd, K. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Janssens, G.P.J. - \ 2011
In: Proceedings 15th congress European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition, Zaragoza, Spain, 14 - 16 September, 2011. - Zaragoza : Universidad Zaragoza - p. 46 - 46.
Introduction: Recent studies in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) show a role for undigested animal tissues (e.g. bone, cartilage, hair, skin, feathers) in hindgut fermentation of this strict carnivore (Depauw et al, 2010 a, b). This study aimed to compare the in vitro fermentation kinetics and end-product profiles of different animal-derived substrates, using cheetah faeces as an inoculum. Materials and methods: Fresh faecal samples of eight captive cheetahs were collected within 15 min of defecation, pooled and processed to be used as inoculum. The following raw and homogenised (1mm sieve) substrates were used: rabbit bone, rabbit hair, rabbit skin, whole rabbit, chicken cartilage, beef, beef + bone, beef + cartilage, beef + hair, and beef + skin. Cumulative gas production was continuously recorded over a 72 h period and samples of fermentation liquids were taken at 2, 7, 24 and 72 hours of incubation to determine the end product profile (short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), ammonia, indole, phenol, p-cresol). Results and discussion: All animal substrates showed an early occurrence of maximum gas production rates (Tmax = 0.1-0.7 h), which confirms our previous findings. Cartilage was highly fermentable and showed the highest gas production as well as SCFA production. Beef exhibited a lower gas production rate than cartilage, and was slower to achieve high SCFA concentrations, which were only detected after 7 hours of incubation, compared to 2 hours for cartilage. Compared to cartilage and beef, whole rabbit, rabbit bone, and skin were low fermentable, and hair exhibited the lowest gas and SCFA production. Fermentation of bone yielded ammonia concentrations that were twice as high as all other substrates. The combination of a fermentable substrate (beef) with low fermentable animal tissue showed no clear interactions. Conclusion: The present data indicate that cartilage and beef are well fermentable substrates for the cheetah, with cartilage being the most fermentable of both. Low fermentable substrates (hair, skin, bone) in homogenised forms did not appear to reduce the fermentation of beef in this in vitro set up. References: available on request.
|Evaluation of the use of animal compounds as substrates by felid fecal microbiota: a cheetah model
Depauw, S. ; Hesta, M. ; Janssens, G.P.J. ; Bosch, G. - \ 2010
In: The Waltham International Nutritional Sciences Symposium; Pet Nutrition- Art or Science?, Cambridge, UK, 16 - 19 September, 2010. - Melton Mowbray : Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition - p. 117 - 117.
Although strict carnivores like felids do not consume plant fibre, considerable intestinal fermentation has been measured. This indicates that certain animal-derived compounds can serve as substrates for fermentation and microbial proliferation in the feline hindgut. It is often claimed that enzymatically indigested animal material exerts the production of toxic compounds in the hindgut, but to date, only little peer-reviewed documentation is available, whereas in contrast, recent findings point to specific microorganisms in the feline hindgut that use proteolysis products as a substrate. The present study investigated to which extent faecal microbiota of the cheetah (as model for strict carnivores) ferment animal tissues and which would be the concomitant end product profile. Fresh faecal samples of captive cheetahs were collected and processed into an inoculum, combined with following substrates: casein (pure protein), bone, skin, hair, cartilage, collagen, chondroitin-glucosamine mixture, glucosamine, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS, positive control), cellulose (negative control). During 72 hours, cumulative gas production was continuously registered. Thereafter, incubates were sampled for analysis of volatile fatty acids (VFA). Gas production was highest for FOS, followed by glucosamine, chondroitin-glucosamine mixture and cartilage. Casein gave intermediate gas production, but still more than collagen. Bone, skin, hair and cellulose were poor fermentation substrates. Interestingly, maximum gas production rate of FOS occurred much later compared to all animal substrates. VFA production was highest with FOS. Glucosamine and glucosamine-chondroitin showed high VFA production, whereas cartilage and casein produced moderate VFA. Despite the low gas production, collagen had high short-chain fatty acids production and showed, in contrast to all other substrates, a very high ratio of acetic to propionic acid. The present data indicate that cartilage and cartilage related compounds are well-fermentable animal tissue for faecal microbiota of the cheetah. Moreover, collagen can also contribute to microbial fermentation, but behaves differently and needs to be look at thoroughly.