Framework to determine the effectiveness of dietary exposure mitigation to chemical contaminants
Fels, H.J. van der; Edwards, S. ; Kennedy, M. ; O'Hagan, A. ; O'Mahony, C. ; Scholz, G. ; Steinberg, P. ; Tennant, D. ; Chiodini, A. - \ 2014
Food and Chemical Toxicology 74 (2014). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 360 - 371.
chromatography-mass spectrometry - solid-phase microextraction - extraction-gas chromatography - single-laboratory validation - fusarium mycotoxin content - methyl mercury exposure - spme-gc-ms - risk-assessment - baby-food - fish consumption
In order to ensure the food safety, risk managers may implement measures to reduce human exposure to contaminants via food consumption. The evaluation of the effect of a measure is often an overlooked step in risk analysis process. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach for determining the effectiveness of mitigation measures to reduce dietary exposure to chemical contaminants. Based on expert opinion, a general framework for evaluation of the effectiveness of measures to reduce human exposure to food contaminants was developed. The general outline was refined by application to three different cases: 1) methyl mercury in fish and fish products, 2) deoxynivalenol in cereal grains, and 3) furan in heated products. It was found that many uncertainties and natural variations exist, which make it difficult to assess the impact of the mitigation measure. Whenever possible, quantitative methods should be used to describe the current variation and uncertainty. Additional data should be collected to cover natural variability and reduce uncertainty. For the time being, it is always better for the risk manager to have access to all available information, including an assessment of uncertainty; however, the proposed methodology provides a conceptual framework for addressing these systematically.
Spray drift and bystander risk from fruit crop spraying
Zande, J.C. van de; Butler Ellis, M.C. ; Wenneker, M. ; Walklate, P.J. ; Kennedy, M. - \ 2014
In: International Advances in Pesticide Application. - Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, UK : Association of Applied Biologists Warwick Enterprise Park - p. 177 - 186.
In the EU-FP7-BROWSE project (Bystanders, Residents, Operators and WorkerS Exposure models for plant protection products) spray drift data measured in the Netherlands and the UK for orchard spraying are combined to develop a probabilistic empirical model of bystander and resident exposure to spray drift. The model requires data relating to airborne spray to determine dermal and inhaled exposure, and relating to ground deposits, to determine indirect dermal exposure to contaminated ground. The available data can discriminate between full leaf (BBCH 74¿92), the intermediate periods (BBCH 61¿73 and 93¿0) and the dormant (BBCH 0¿60) period. For the BROWSE model, reference curves are defined for axial and cross-flow fan sprayers for ground deposit and airborne drift for 0¿1 m and 0¿2 m heights above ground as functions of distance downwind.
Guidance on the use of probabilistic methodology for modelling dietary exposure to pesticide residues
Hart, A. ; Ossendorp, B.C. ; Hamey, P. ; Klaveren, J. Van; Kennedy, M. ; Miller, D.C.M. ; Petersen, A. ; Pico, Y. ; Stromberg, A. ; Voet, H. van der - \ 2012
EFSA Journal 10 (2012)10. - 95 p.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues to provide guidance on methodology for performing probabilistic dietary exposure assessment of single or multiple active substances, as a potential additional tool to supplement or complement the standard deterministic methodologies which are currently used in the EU for conducting dietary exposure assessments for pesticides. Specific guidance is provided for basic assessments but not for refined assessments, where specialised expertise is required to select methods appropriate to the assessment in hand. The guidance includes probabilistic methods for quantifying some of the major sources of variability and uncertainty affecting dietary exposure to pesticides. Other important sources of variability and uncertainty might be quantified probabilistically in refined assessments but are addressed more simply in basic assessments by conducting alternative model runs with optimistic and pessimistic assumptions. Guidance is provided on problem formulation, including definition of appropriate scenarios for acute and chronic exposure assessment in the differing contexts of approval of new substances, MRL setting, authorisation of products, evaluation of residues found above the MRL, and annual reviews of residue monitoring data.
Statistical modelling of usual intake. Scientific report submitted to EFSA
Voet, H. van der; Klaveren, J.D. van; Arcella, D. ; Bakker, M. ; Boeing, H. ; Boon, P.E. ; Crépét, A. ; Dekkers, A. ; Boer, W. de; Dodd, K.W. ; Ferrari, P. ; Goedhart, P.W. ; Hart, A. ; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der; Kennedy, M. ; Kipnis, V. ; Knüppel, S. ; Merten, C. ; Ocké, M. ; Slob, W. - \ 2010
ETUI - 23 p.
Within the EFSA Article 36 project “European Tool Usual Intake” (ETUI) a workshop was organised in May 2010 where the different available models to calculate usual intake were presented and discussed. This report integrates the workshop background document, the presentations given by experts, and the discussions during the workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to evaluate existing statistical methods for estimating usual intake with respect to a number of criteria, so that the performance of each method on each criterion will be well understood after the workshop. The outcome of the workshop allows choices to be made for a European Tool Usual Intake, to be implemented in the remainder of the project. A starting document was provided to the participants of the workshop with up-to-date information on methods, data and criteria, as a basis for discussion. It was apparent from the workshop that there is not one optimal model for all cases, rather a toolbox approach is suitable. The choice of the most appropriate model has to be fine-tuned case by case. Criteria to be considered are related to data availability and data pre-processing (e.g. compatibility of existing data formats, need to handle complicating factors like food code conversion, left-censored data, processing factors, brand loyalty, pooling over multiple datasets), the appropriateness of modelling assumptions for frequencies and amounts modelling (e.g. level of conservatism, additivity assumption and data transformations, the need to model intake as a function of covariates, correlations), the usefulness to combine survey and food frequency questionnaire data, the need to model single food intake or diet-aggregated intake, the need to evaluate uncertainties, and the usefulness of implementations. For the short term, case studies will be performed based on issues relevant for EFSA panels. Results from the workshop and possibilities of using models to calculate usual intake were recently discussed during the 5th meeting of the EFSA Expert group on food consumption data. Currently only few EU Member States use this kind of models but there is a lot of interest in gaining experience with the usual intake modelling. Several requests were received concerning the possibility of having more information about the ETUI project and even the organisation of a future training. In conclusion, this interim report is considered by EFSA to be a good review of the different models used and presents the main challenges related to the use of these techniques. Its publication could be useful to those who want to start using this kind of methodology