Smoking and alcohol drinking increased the risk of esophageal cancer among Chinese men but not women in a high-risk population
Wu, M. ; Zhao, J.K. ; Zhang, Z.F. ; Han, R.Q. ; Yang, J. ; Zhou, J.Y. ; Wang, X.S. ; Zhang, X.F. ; Liu, A.M. ; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.J. ; Kampman, E. - \ 2011
Cancer Causes and Control 22 (2011)4. - ISSN 0957-5243 - p. 649 - 657.
green tea drinking - jiangsu province - tobacco smoking - squamous-cell - areas - cessation - shanghai - cohort - diet
Although the association for esophageal cancer with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking has been well established, the risk appears to be less strong in China. To provide more evidence on the effect of smoking and alcohol consumption with esophageal cancer in China, particularly among Chinese women, a population-based case-control study has been conducted in Jiangsu, China, from 2003 to 2007. A total of 1,520 cases and 3,879 controls were recruited. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied. Results showed that the odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI) for ever smoking and alcohol drinking were 1.57 (95% CI: 1.34-1.83) and 1.50 (95% CI: 1.29-1.74). Dose-response relationships were observed with increased intensity and longer duration of smoking/drinking. Risk of smoking and alcohol drinking at the highest joint level was 7.32 (95% CI: 4.58-11.7), when compared to those never smoked and never drank alcohol. Stratifying by genders, smoking and alcohol drinking increased the risk among men with an OR of 1.74 (95% CI: 1.44-2.09) and 1.76 (95% CI: 1.48-2.09); however, neither smoking nor alcohol consumption showed a significant association among women. In conclusion, smoking and alcohol drinking were associated with esophageal cancer risk among Chinese men, but not among Chinese women.
A large proportion of esophageal cancer cases and the incidence difference between regions are attributable to lifestyle risk factors in China
Wu, M. ; Veer, P. van 't; Zhang, Z.F. ; Wang, X.S. ; Gu, X.P. ; Han, R.Q. ; Yang, J. ; Zhang, X.F. ; Liu, A.M. ; Kok, F.J. ; Kampman, E. ; Zhao, J.K. - \ 2011
Cancer Letters 308 (2011)2. - ISSN 0304-3835 - p. 189 - 196.
squamous-cell carcinoma - high-epidemic area - jiangsu province - confidence-intervals - alcohol-drinking - stomach-cancer - smoking - fractions - definition - tobacco
A population-based case-control study was conducted in a high-risk area (Dafeng) and a low-risk area (Ganyu) of Jiangsu province, China. In this analysis, the population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated to quantify the etiology of risk factors; the relative attributable risk (RAR) was applied to explore how much of the incidence difference could be explained by variations in the distribution of risk factors. Results showed that unhealthy lifestyles accounted for a high fraction of esophageal cancer in China. Dissimilar distribution of several lifestyle factors, together with hereditary variations may be largely responsible for the incidence difference between areas.