Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The economics of ecosystem services: from local analysis to national policies
Kumar, P. ; Brondizio, E.S. ; Gatzweiler, F. ; Gowdy, J. ; Groot, R.S. de; Pascual, U. ; Reyers, B. ; Sukhdev, P. - \ 2013
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5 (2013)1. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 78 - 86.
social-ecological systems - sustainability - biodiversity - environment - governance - valuation - science - scale
The paper builds around the key messages from the recently completed study — The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB). The paper essentially attempts to map the problem encountered in up scaling the findings from site/local scale to national scale. First, the rationale for economic analysis of ecosystem services has been discussed and then the challenges in applying economics to ecosystems and biodiversity have been identified. The paper discusses the role of economic valuation, discounting and necessary indicator for it. Social and cultural context of economic valuation along with the nature of value articulating institutions have been highlighted. Most of these issues typically deal with ecosystem services at site and project level. The paper lays down the need for arriving at national policies from microlevel valuation work. The paper suggests that for national policy formulation and design, valuation and accounting of ecosystem services must be seen in the economy wide context where interdependence of sectors is the key. The paper shows the existing hiatus between this level of analysis of economics of ecosystems and the need for credible national level policies. An attempt has been made to highlight necessary steps to arrive at national level policies on ecosystems management.
Height-diameter allometry of tropical forest trees
Feldpausch, T.R. ; Banin, L. ; Phillips, O.L. ; Baker, T.R. ; Lewis, S.L. ; Quesada, C.A. ; Affum-Baffoe, K. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Berry, N.J. ; Bird, M. ; Brondizio, E.S. ; Camargo, P. de; Chave, J. ; Djagbletey, G. ; Domingues, T.F. ; Drescher, M. ; Fearnside, P.M. ; Franca, M.B. ; Fyllas, N.M. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, G. ; Hladik, A. ; Higuchi, N. ; Hunter, M.O. ; Iida, Y. ; Salim, K.A. ; Kassim, A.R. ; Keller, M. ; Kemp, J. ; King, D.A. ; Lovett, J.C. ; Marimon, B.S. ; Marimon-Junior, B.H. ; Lenza, E. ; Marshall, A.R. ; Metcalfe, D.J. ; Mitchard, E.T.A. ; Moran, E.F. ; Nelson, B.W. ; Nilus, R. ; Nogueira, E.M. ; Palace, M. ; Patino, S. ; Peh, K.S.H. ; Raventos, M.T. ; Reitsma, J.M. ; Saiz, G. ; Schrodt, F. ; Sonké, B. ; Taedoumg, H.E. ; Tan, S. ; White, L. ; Wöll, H. ; Lloyd, J. - \ 2011
Biogeosciences 8 (2011). - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1081 - 1106.
amazon rain-forest - elfin cloud forest - leaf gas-exchange - montane forest - aboveground biomass - spatial-patterns - hydraulic architecture - altitudinal transect - environmental-change - neotropical forest
Tropical tree height-diameter (H:D) relationships may vary by forest type and region making large-scale estimates of above-ground biomass subject to bias if they ignore these differences in stem allometry. We have therefore developed a new global tropical forest database consisting of 39 955 concurrent H and D measurements encompassing 283 sites in 22 tropical countries. Utilising this database, our objectives were: 1. to determine if H:D relationships differ by geographic region and forest type (wet to dry forests, including zones of tension where forest and savanna overlap). 2. to ascertain if the H:D relationship is modulated by climate and/or forest structural characteristics (e.g. stand-level basal area, A). 3. to develop H:D allometric equations and evaluate biases to reduce error in future local-to-global estimates of tropical forest biomass. Annual precipitation coefficient of variation (PV), dry season length (SD), and mean annual air temperature (TA) emerged as key drivers of variation in H:D relationships at the pantropical and region scales. Vegetation structure also played a role with trees in forests of a high A being, on average, taller at any given D. After the effects of environment and forest structure are taken into account, two main regional groups can be identified. Forests in Asia, Africa and the Guyana Shield all have, on average, similar H:D relationships, but with trees in the forests of much of the Amazon Basin and tropical Australia typically being shorter at any given D than their counterparts elsewhere. The region-environment-structure model with the lowest Akaike's information criterion and lowest deviation estimated stand-level H across all plots to within amedian -2.7 to 0.9% of the true value. Some of the plot-to-plot variability in H:D relationships not accounted for by this model could be attributed to variations in soil physical conditions. Other things being equal, trees tend to be more slender in the absence of soil physical constraints, especially at smaller D. Pantropical and continental-level models provided less robust estimates of H, especially when the roles of climate and stand structure in modulating H:D allometry were not simultaneously taken into account.
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