Isoflavone metabolism in domestic fcats (Felis catus): comparison of plasma metabolites detected after ingestion of two different dietary forms of genistein daidzein
Whitehouse-Tedd, K. ; Cave, N.J. ; Ugarte, C.E. ; Waldron, L.A. ; Prasain, J.K. ; Arabshahi, A. ; Barnes, S. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Thomas, D.G. - \ 2013
Journal of Animal Science 91 (2013)3. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1295 - 1306.
deficient acetaminophen glucuronidation - soy isoflavones - human urine - biliary-excretion - phyto-estrogens - food-intake - adult cats - bioavailability - phytoestrogens - mass
Some felid diets contain isoflavones but the metabolic capacity of cats towards isoflavones is relatively unknown, despite the understanding that isoflavones have divergent biological potential according to their metabolite end-products. The objective of this study was to determine the plasma metabolites detectable in domestic cats after exposure to 2 different dietary forms of isoflavones, either as a soy extract tablet (n = 6) or as part of a dietary matrix (n = 4). Serial blood samples were collected after isoflavone exposure to identify the plasma metabolites of each cat. Genistein was detected in its unconjugated form or as a monosulfate. Daidzein was detected as both a mono- and di-sulfate, as well as in its unconjugated form. Other daidzein metabolites detected included equol mono- and di-sulfate, dihydrodaidzein, and O-desmethylangolensin. No ß-glucuronide metabolites of either isoflavone were detected. Equol was produced in markedly fewer cats after ingestion of a soy extract tablet as a single oral bolus compared to cats consuming an isoflavone-containing diet. The detectable metabolites of the isoflavones, genistein, and daidzein in domestic cat plasma after dietary ingestion may have been described in the present study for the first time. The metabolic capacity for isoflavones by domestic cats appears to be efficient, with only minimal proportions of the ingested amount detected in their unconjugated forms. This has implications for the potential of isoflavones to exert physiological activity in the domestic cat when consumed at concentrations representative of dietary intake.
Fermentation of animal components in strict carnivores: a comparative study with cheetah fecal inoculum
Depauw, S. ; Bosch, G. ; Hesta, M. ; Whitehouse-Tedd, K. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Kaandorp, J. ; Janssens, G.P.J. - \ 2012
Journal of Animal Science 90 (2012)8. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 2540 - 2548.
in-vitro fermentation - fatty-acid production - gas-production - dietary fiber - gastrointestinal-tract - large-intestine - bovine tendon - cats - metabolism - protein
The natural diet of felids contains highly digestible animal tissues but also fractions resistant to small intestinal digestion, which enter the large intestine where they may be fermented by the resident microbial population. Little information exists on the microbial degradability of animal tissues in the large intestine of felids consuming a natural diet. This study aimed to rank animal substrates in their microbial degradability by means of an in vitro study using captive cheetahs fed a strict carnivorous diet as fecal donors. Fresh cheetah fecal samples were collected, pooled, and incubated with various raw animal substrates (chicken cartilage, collagen, glucosamine-chondroitin, glucosamine, rabbit bone, rabbit hair, and rabbit skin; 4 replicates per substrate) for cumulative gas production measurement in a batch culture technique. Negative (cellulose) and positive (casein and fructo-oligosaccharides; FOS) controls were incorporated in the study. Additionally, after 72 h of incubation, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and ammonia concentrations were determined for each substrate. Glucosamine and glucosamine-chondroitin yielded the greatest OM cumulative gas volume (OMCV) among animal substrates (P <0.05), whereas total SCFA production was greatest for collagen (P <0.05). Collagen induced an acetate production comparable to FOS and a markedly high acetate-to-propionate ratio (8.41:1) compared to all other substrates (1.67:1 to 2.97:1). Chicken cartilage was rapidly fermentable, indicated by a greater maximal rate of gas production (Rmax) compared with all other substrates (P <0.05). In general, animal substrates showed an earlier occurrence for maximal gas production rate compared to FOS. Rabbit hair, skin, and bone were poorly fermentable substrates, indicated by the least amount of OMCV and total SCFA among animal substrates (P <0.05). The greatest amount of ammonia production among animal substrates was measured after incubation of collagen and rabbit bone (P <0.05). This study provides the first insight into the potential of animal tissues to influence large intestinal fermentation in a strict carnivore, and indicates that animal tissues have potentially similar functions as soluble or insoluble plant fibers in vitro. Further research is warranted to assess the impact of fermentation of each type of animal tissue on gastro-intestinal function and health in the cheetah and other felid species
Fermentation characteristics of various animal tissues by cheetah faecal inoculum
Depauw, S. ; Bosch, G. ; Becker, A. ; Hesta, M. ; Whitehouse-Tedd, K. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Janssens, G.P.J. - \ 2011
In: Proceedings 15th congress European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition, Zaragoza, Spain, 14 - 16 September, 2011. - Zaragoza : Universidad Zaragoza - p. 46 - 46.
Introduction: Recent studies in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) show a role for undigested animal tissues (e.g. bone, cartilage, hair, skin, feathers) in hindgut fermentation of this strict carnivore (Depauw et al, 2010 a, b). This study aimed to compare the in vitro fermentation kinetics and end-product profiles of different animal-derived substrates, using cheetah faeces as an inoculum. Materials and methods: Fresh faecal samples of eight captive cheetahs were collected within 15 min of defecation, pooled and processed to be used as inoculum. The following raw and homogenised (1mm sieve) substrates were used: rabbit bone, rabbit hair, rabbit skin, whole rabbit, chicken cartilage, beef, beef + bone, beef + cartilage, beef + hair, and beef + skin. Cumulative gas production was continuously recorded over a 72 h period and samples of fermentation liquids were taken at 2, 7, 24 and 72 hours of incubation to determine the end product profile (short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), ammonia, indole, phenol, p-cresol). Results and discussion: All animal substrates showed an early occurrence of maximum gas production rates (Tmax = 0.1-0.7 h), which confirms our previous findings. Cartilage was highly fermentable and showed the highest gas production as well as SCFA production. Beef exhibited a lower gas production rate than cartilage, and was slower to achieve high SCFA concentrations, which were only detected after 7 hours of incubation, compared to 2 hours for cartilage. Compared to cartilage and beef, whole rabbit, rabbit bone, and skin were low fermentable, and hair exhibited the lowest gas and SCFA production. Fermentation of bone yielded ammonia concentrations that were twice as high as all other substrates. The combination of a fermentable substrate (beef) with low fermentable animal tissue showed no clear interactions. Conclusion: The present data indicate that cartilage and beef are well fermentable substrates for the cheetah, with cartilage being the most fermentable of both. Low fermentable substrates (hair, skin, bone) in homogenised forms did not appear to reduce the fermentation of beef in this in vitro set up. References: available on request.