Ecotoxicological assessment of grey water treatment systems with Daphnia magna and Chironomus riparius
Hernandez Leal, L. ; Soeter, A.M. ; Kools, S.A.E. ; Kraak, M.H.S. ; Parsons, J.R. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Zeeman, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2012
Water Research 46 (2012)4. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 1038 - 1044.
afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwater - huishoudens - waterkwaliteit - bepaling - chironomus riparius - daphnia magna - ecotoxicologie - testen - biologische behandeling - fysisch-chemische behandeling - waste water treatment - waste water - households - water quality - determination - chironomus riparius - daphnia magna - ecotoxicology - testing - biological treatment - physicochemical treatment - micropollutants - removal
In order to meet environmental quality criteria, grey water was treated in four different ways: 1) aerobic 2) anaerobic + aerobic 3) aerobic + activated carbon 4) aerobic + ozone. Since each treatment has its own specific advantages and disadvantages, the aim of this study was to compare the ecotoxicity of differently treated grey water using Chironomus riparius (96 h test) and Daphnia magna (48 h and 21d test) as test organisms. Grey water exhibited acute toxicity to both test organisms. The aerobic and combined anaerobic + aerobic treatment eliminated mortality in the acute tests, but growth of C. riparius was still affected by these two effluents. Post-treatment by ozone and activated carbon completely removed the acute toxicity from grey water. In the chronic toxicity test the combined anaerobic + aerobic treatment strongly affected D. magna population growth rate (47%), while the aerobic treatment had a small (9%) but significant effect. Hence, aerobic treatment is the best option for biological treatment of grey water, removing most of the toxic effects of grey water. If advanced treatment is required, the treatment with either ozone or GAC were shown to be very effective in complete removal of toxicity from grey water.