Sensitivity of humoral immune parameters of poultry to minor macro- and micronutrient differences in two nutritionally complete layer feeds
Adriaansen-Tennekes, R. ; Vries Reilingh, G. de; Nieuwland, M.G.B. ; Pieters, R.H.H. ; Loveren, H. van; Huber, M. ; Hoogenboom, R. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. - \ 2011
Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 27 (2011)3-4. - ISSN 0144-8765 - p. 241 - 260.
red-blood-cells - polyunsaturated fatty-acids - sugar-cane extract - antibody-responses - broiler-chickens - carcass characteristics - growth-performance - finishing steers - trace-elements - human health
The effect of differences in the composition of nutrients of two nutritionally complete layer diets on parameters from innate and adaptive immunity of chickens were examined. The diets were based on ingredients grown either organically or conventionally. As individual differences in nutrient sensitivity have been reported and as the immune system was used as a sensory organ to detect possible effects, layer hens divergently selected for high and low specific antibody (Ab) responses to SRBC, i.e. low line hens and high line hens, reflecting a genetically based differential immune competence were used. The parental line of these hens was randomly bred as the control line, and was used as well. To examine maternal and/or epigenetic effects on nutrient sensitivity, two subsequent generations were studied. In addition, the second generation was challenged with keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). The most pronounced dietary effects were found in the low line birds of the first generation: specific Ab titres to NCD vaccine were significantly elevated in one of the two diets. In the second generation, significant differences were found in Ab and complement responses to the KLH inoculation. Immune competence of the selection lines was not affected. In the second generation control line hens showed the most pronounced effects of dietary treatment in immune responsiveness, with significant effects on specific Ab vaccine titres as well as in innate parameters. The results suggest that small nutritional differences due to the use of different sources of raw ingredients have immunomodulatory effects on innate and adaptive humoral immune parameters. The data indicate the importance of dietary components displaying the capacity to modulate the immune system.
Sensitivity of innate and adaptive cellular immune parameters of poultry to minor macro- and micronutrient differences in two nutritionally complete layer feeds
Adriaansen-Tennekes, R. ; Vries Reilingh, G. de; Pieters, R.H.H. ; Loveren, H. van; Huber, M. ; Hoogenboom, R. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. - \ 2011
Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 27 (2011)3-4. - ISSN 0144-8765 - p. 261 - 277.
immunomodulation - mechanisms - system - acids
Comparable diets were found to modulate levels of specific and natural humoral immunity in different manners over two generations of genetically selected hens for a high or low Ab response. These diets were based on ingredients that were grown organically (diet A) or conventionally (diet B). Here we report the effects of these diets on cellular immune parameters such as monocyte reactivity measured by NO production, proliferation of whole blood leucocytes and PBMC with the T- and B-cell mitogens, ConA and LPS respectively. Furthermore we measured the in vitro modulatory effects of water soluble extracts of the two diets on T-cell proliferation of whole blood cultures. In both generations a feed change enhanced monocyte reactivity in all birds with the high line birds being most sensitive. Whole blood assays showed the most pronounced diet effects on T-cell reactivity. The low line birds of the first generation showed the greatest effect, but in the second generation all lines were affected by the diets. In the PBMC the greatest effects were found in the control values, with the effects differing in each generation. The present results together with the results found in the whole blood cultures, suggest dietary effects on the intrinsic reactivity of peripheral lymphocytes as well as in vivo effects, the first with quickly measurable effects and the last activity reflected in our later measurements. These results suggest that a feed change with only minor nutritional differences will induce immunomodulatory effects, and each diet has a unique effect on cellular parameters of innate and adaptive immunity.