Effects of glucosinolates on a generalist and specialist leaf-chewing herbivore and an associated parasitoid
Kos, M. ; Houshyani, B. ; Wietsma, R. ; Kabouw, P. ; Vet, L.E.M. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Dicke, M. - \ 2012
Phytochemistry 77 (2012). - ISSN 0031-9422 - p. 162 - 170.
mustard oil bomb - brassica-oleracea - arabidopsis-thaliana - pieris-rapae - brevicoryne-brassicae - chemical diversity - diaeretiella-rapae - cabbage aphid - defense - plants
Glucosinolates (GLS) are secondary plant metabolites that as a result of tissue damage, for example due to herbivory, are hydrolysed into toxic compounds that negatively affect generalist herbivores. Specialist herbivores have evolved specific adaptations to detoxify GLS or inhibit the formation of toxic hydrolytic products. Although rarely studied, GLS and their breakdown products may also affect parasitoids. The objectives were to test the effects of GLS in a multitrophic system consisting of the generalist herbivore Spodoptera exigua, the specialist herbivore Pieris rapae, and the endoparasitoid Hyposoter ebeninus. Three ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana that differ in their GLS composition and concentrations and one transformed line that constitutively produces higher concentrations of aliphatic GLS were used, the latter allowing a direct assessment of the effects of aliphatic GLS on insect performance. Feeding by the generalist S. exigua and the specialist P. rapae induced both higher aliphatic and indole GLS concentrations in the A. thaliana ecotypes, although induction was stronger for indole than aliphatic GLS. For both herbivores a negative correlation between performance and aliphatic GLS concentrations was observed. This suggests that the specialist, despite containing a nitrile-specifier protein (NSP) that diverts GLS degradation from toxic isothiocyanates to less toxic nitriles, cannot completely inhibit the formation of toxic GLS hydrolytic products, or that the costs of this mechanism are higher at higher GLS concentrations. Surprisingly, performance of the parasitoid was positively correlated with higher concentrations of aliphatic GLS in the plant, possibly caused by negative effects on host immune responses. Our study indicates that GLS can not only confer resistance against herbivores directly, but also indirectly by increasing the performance of the parasitoids of these herbivores.
Herbivore-Mediated Effects of Glucosinolates on Different Natural Enemies of a Specialist Aphid
Kos, M. ; Houshyani, B. ; Achhami, B. ; Wietsma, R. ; Gols, R. ; Weldegergis, B.T. ; Kabouw, P. ; Bouwmeester, H.J. ; Vet, L.E.M. ; Dicke, M. ; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2012
Journal of Chemical Ecology 38 (2012)1. - ISSN 0098-0331 - p. 100 - 115.
sawfly athalia-rosae - parasitoid diaeretiella-rapae - green peach aphid - brevicoryne-brassicae - myzus-persicae - host-plant - cabbage aphid - multitrophic interactions - indole glucosinolate - arabidopsis
The cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae is a specialist herbivore that sequesters glucosinolates from its host plant as a defense against its predators. It is unknown to what extent parasitoids are affected by this sequestration. We investigated herbivore-mediated effects of glucosinolates on the parasitoid wasp Diaeretiella rapae and the predator Episyrphus balteatus. We reared B. brassicae on three ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana that differ in glucosinolate content and on one genetically transformed line with modified concentrations of aliphatic glucosinolates. We tested aphid performance and the performance and behavior of both natural enemies. We correlated this with phloem and aphid glucosinolate concentrations and emission of volatiles. Brevicoryne brassicae performance correlated positively with concentrations of both aliphatic and indole glucosinolates in the phloem. Aphids selectively sequestered glucosinolates. Glucosinolate concentration in B. brassicae correlated negatively with performance of the predator, but positively with performance of the parasitoid, possibly because the aphids with the highest glucosinolate concentrations had a higher body weight. Both natural enemies showed a positive performance-preference correlation. The predator preferred the ecotype with the lowest emission of volatile glucosinolate breakdown products in each test combination, whereas the parasitoid wasp preferred the A. thaliana ecotype with the highest emission of these volatiles. The study shows that there are differential herbivore-mediated effects of glucosinolates on a predator and a parasitoid of a specialist aphid that selectively sequesters glucosinolates from its host plant.