Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines, version 2 : Displacement and population level effects in 5 selected species
Kooten, Tobias van; Soudijn, Floor ; Tulp, Ingrid ; Chen, Chun ; Benden, Daniel ; Leopold, Mardik - \ 2019
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C063/19) - 116
Evaluatie discardreductiedoelstelling aan de hand van het WMR discards WOT-programma en vergelijking van WMR zelfbemonstering versus sector monitoring
Batsleer, J. ; Chen, C. ; Verkempynck, R. ; Helmond, A.T.M. van - \ 2019
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C005/19) - 41
Best practices II : Effect on future development of sole and plaice of changing mesh size from 80mm to 90mm in the beam trawl fishery
Brunel, Thomas ; Verkempynck, Ruben ; Chen, Chun ; Batsleer, Jurgen - \ 2019
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C016/19) - 35
This study investigates the consequence for future development of stock size, catches, landings and discards of sole and plaice of changing the mesh size of the cod-end from 80mm to 90mm for the Dutch beam trawlers in theTBB 70-99 fleet currently fishing with 80 mm.This study investigates the consequence for future development of stock size, catches, landings and discards of sole and plaice of changing the mesh size of the cod-end from 80mm to 90mm for the Dutch beam trawlers in theTBB 70-99 fleet currently fishing with 80 mm. The question is addressed by means of long term stochastic simulations. Using the simulation framework developed to test the effect of implementing the landing obligation, the future fishery selection pattern (how the fishing mortality is distributed across ages) is modified based on the results of the selectivity experiment to represent the consequence of changing mesh size. Simulations were then run for the next 50 years for different assumptions on the survival rate for both stocks: a 0% survival rate, and the lower and upper bounds of the current estimates of survival for each species. The differences in the effect on sole and plaice of using a 90mm net are related to both the direct effect of exploiting the stock with a different selection pattern and of applying different Fmsy values. The effects of changing mesh size are larger for sole than for plaice, because the share of the landings taken by the Dutch beam trawlers currently fishing with 80 mm is much larger for sole than for plaice. For sole, fishing with the 90mm net results in lower discards (10 to 16%). Landings are also lower (up to 4%) in the short term, but the situation reverses and landings become higher in the medium and long term (up to 3% after 5 years). These results are explained by the fact that when the 90mm net is used, the cohorts are exploited at a slightly later age combined with a stronger targeting of the older ages. This exploitation patterns leads in the medium and long term to a larger stock (by 3 to 13%), which explains the higher landings. Those benefits (in the medium and long term) of using the 90mm net are largest for the 0% and 10% survival assumptions, but are smaller (especially for the landings) for the assumption with 30% survival: the higher the chance for a discarded fish to survive, the less it pays to increase the selectivity of the gear because fish caught and discarded have still a chance to join the stock and further grow and reproduce. For plaice, in the scenarios with 0% and 10% survival, the Fmsy value for the 90mm net is higher than for the 80mm net. As a result, stock size is lower and catches, landings and (despite the improved selectivity of the net) discards are higher if the 90mm net is used. For the scenario with 20% survival rate, Fmsy values are similar for the 80mm and 90mm mesh size and the improved selectivity of the 90mm net indeed results in slightly lower discards, which in the medium and long term result in a slightly larger stock with slightly higher landings. One important assumption in these simulations is that the stocks are exploited at Fmsy in the future. However, if the beam trawl fleet switches to the 90mm net, its catchability (at least for sole) will decrease, meaning that a higher fishing effort will be necessary to achieve a same fishing mortality on the stock. The present study does not model explicitly catchability and effort, and therefore cannot quantify the change in effort implied if the stocks were to be exploited at Fmsy with the 90mm net.
Vergelijking van dag- en nachttrekken met de boomkor in de Nederrijn
Hammen, T. van der; Chen, C. ; Keeken, O. - \ 2018
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C096/18) - 29
The consequences of seabird habitat lossfrom offshore wind turbines : displacement and population level effects in 5 selected species
Kooten, Tobias van; Soudijn, Floor ; Tulp, Ingrid ; Chen, Chun ; Benden, Daniel ; Leopold, Mardik - \ 2018
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C003/18) - 98
Developments in benthos and fish in gullies in an area closed for human use in the Wadden Sea : 2002-2016
Glorius, S.T. ; Tulp, I.Y.M. ; Meijboom, A. ; Bolle, L.J. ; Chen, C. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 129) - 86
In the eastern Dutch Wadden Sea an area was closed for anthropogenic bottom-disturbing activities in 2005. The ‘natural’ development of the fauna in gullies located within this area was monitored and compared with the development in gullies outside the closed area. Emphasis was put on sampling the benthic fauna (every autumn). Eleven years after closure (2016) the fish population was sampled again and additional benthic samples were taken, the sea floor was mapped and the fishing pressures were calculated. Preliminary results show that throughout the investigated period the open gullies were subject to moderate shrimp fishing pressures and that the closed gullies were not fished. Closure of the gullies has not yet led to the formation of biogenic structures on the seafloor, but has led to an increase in the species richness of small benthic fauna and to subtle changes in benthic species composition. Due to the limited availability of data it was not possible to detect statistically significant differences in the fish population. Sinds november 2005 is een klein deel van de Nederlandse Waddenzee gesloten voor (potentieel) schadelijke menselijke activiteiten. Het gebied ligt ten zuiden van Rottumerplaat en Rottumeroog en beslaat zo’n 7400 hectare. Doel van de sluiting is om de ongestoorde ontwikkeling van de natuur in de Waddenzee te kunnen volgen. Dit rapport beschrijft de tussentijdse resultaten, 11 jaar naar sluiting. In het monitorprogramma is de nadruk gelegd op veranderingen in de bodemfauna die jaarlijks en vanaf 2002 in het najaar bemonsterd worden. In 2016 zijn aanvullende bemonsteringen uitgevoerd. In dat jaar is de visgemeenschap herbemonsterd, zijn additionele bodemmonsters genomen gericht op het bemonsteren van de wat grotere organismen, zijn de karakteristieken van het bodemoppervlak in kaart gebracht en is de visserijdruk in het gebied berekend. Voorlopige resultaten laten zien dat in de open geulen garnalenvisserij heeft plaatsgevonden gedurende de hier bestudeerde periode en dat in de gesloten geulen geen visserij heeft plaatsgevonden na 2005. Sluiting van de geulen heeft nog niet geleid tot vestiging van biogene structuren. Wel is de soortenrijkdom toegenomen en hebben er zich subtiele veranderingen in bodemdiersamenstelling voorgedaan. Vanwege de beperkte hoeveelheid gegevens was het niet mogelijk om uitspraken te doen over veranderingen in de vispopulatie.
Data from: Responses of insect herbivores and their food plants to wind exposure and the importance of predation risk
Chen, C. ; Biere, Arjen ; Gols, R. ; Halfwerk, Wouter ; Oers, C.H.J. ; Harvey, J.A. - \ 2018
development - abiotic factors - plant-herbivore interactions - predator - plutella xylostella - Pieris brassicae - Parus major
1. Wind is an important abiotic factor that influences an array of biological processes, but it is rarely considered in studies on plant-herbivore interactions. 2. Here, we tested whether wind exposure could directly or indirectly affect the performance of two insect herbivores, Plutella xylostella and Pieris brassicae, feeding on Brassica nigra plants. 3. In a greenhouse study using a factorial design, B. nigra plants were exposed to different wind regimes generated by fans before and after caterpillars were introduced on plants in an attempt to separate the effects of direct and indirect wind exposure on herbivores. 4. Wind exposure delayed flowering, decreased plant height and increased leaf concentrations of amino acids and glucosinolates. 5. Plant-mediated effects of wind on herbivores, i.e., effects of exposure of plants to wind prior to herbivore feeding, were generally small. However, development time of both herbivores was extended and adult body mass of P. xylostella was reduced when they were directly exposed to wind. By contrast, wind-exposed adult P. brassicae butterflies were significantly larger, revealing a trade-off between development time and adult size. 6. Based on these results, we conducted a behavioral experiment to study preference by an avian predator, the Great Tit (Parus major) for last instar P. brassicae caterpillars on plants that were exposed to either control (no wind) or wind (fan-exposed) treatments. Tits captured significantly more caterpillars on still than on wind-exposed plants. 7. Our results suggest that P. brassicae caterpillars are able to perceive the abiotic environment and to trade off the costs of extended development time against the benefits of increased size depending on the perceived risk of predation mediated by wind exposure. Such adaptive phenotypic plasticity in insects has not yet been described in response to wind exposure.
Cod-end selectivity for sole (Solea solea) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in North Sea pulse-trawl fisheries : Best Practices II - WP4 selectivity
Molenaar, Pieke ; Chen, Chun - \ 2018
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C049/18) - 30
Electrified pulse trawls have replaced traditional tickler chain beam trawls in the North Sea fisheries for sole. This study investigates the mesh selection in pulse trawling of conventional cod-ends (80 mm cod-end mesh) used in the current pulse trawl fishery, and the effects of increasing the cod-end mesh size to 90 mm on catches of sole (Solea solea) and undersized plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Cod-end selectivity was estimated for 79-80 mm and 87-88 mm cod-ends during two experiments on a commercial pulse trawler using a cover cod-end. The results show that with a mesh size of 79-80 mm the length where 50% of the individuals are retained (L50) for sole is 19 cm with a selection range (SR) of 4.9 cm. Given the observed length distribution of sole on the fishing ground this results in a 10% loss of marketable sole catches in the 24-27 cm length range. Increasing the mesh size in experiment one to 87 mm resulted in a L50 for sole of 22 cm with SR = 4.9 cm and in experiment 2 to a L50 of 26 cm and SR = 4.9 cm was found for 88 mm cod-end, resulting in a loss of marketable sole of 24% and 38% in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. These losses were detected in the 24-33 cm length range. Compared to sole, plaice showed steeper selection curve with a L50 of 14.4 cm (SR 2.5) and 14.1 cm (SR 2.1) for the 79-80 mm cod-ends in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. In the 87 mm cod-ends, this L50 shifted to 15.6 cm (SR 2.5) for experiment 1 and 18.7 cm (SR 2.1) for the second experiment. The ratio of plaice discards per kg marketable sole caught was 0.4 in experiment one for 80 mm cod-ends, and increased to 0.5 in a 87 mm cod-end. In the second experiment this was 2.3 for 79 mm and 2.5 for 87 mm. Increasing the minimum cod-end mesh to 90 mm thus increases the discard quantities of undersized plaice when the sole total allowable catch (TAC) is fully exploited.
Assessing the effects of the sand engine on essential nursery habitat conditions for juvenile placie and sole
Post, M.H.M. ; Hal, R. van; Chen, C. ; Baptist, M.J. - \ 2017
In: Abstract book - 10th International Symposium Flatfish. - - p. 74 - 74.
Sand nourishment is a widely applied strategy for coastal protection in the Netherlands. The Sand Engine nourishment project is a counter measure for anticipated coastal erosion due to sea level rise for the next 20 to 40 years. This mega nourishment project 9ffers the chance to identify potential effects of nourishments on juvenile flatfish that use the coastal zone as a nursery area. Temporal and spatial variations in essential nursery habitat conditions were investigated in relation to juvenile plaice Pleuronectes platessa and sole Solea solea abundance. Their opportunistic prey take advantage of the initial death by burial of the benthic community. Prey biomass for juvenile flatfish increased in the first years after construct ion of the Sand Engine and re-established after 3 to 4 years. This peak could offer a temporary advantage for juvenile flatfish growth. Local patches of high benthic biomass showed an increased abundance of both fish species. We conclude that food availability is the driving factor for juvenile f ish abundance. Sediment grain size is additionally important for the abundance of sole and plaice. Their abundance is lower when grain size becomes coarser. The observed coarsening around the Sand Engine showed a more prominent effect on juvenile plaice abundance than on sole. Cumulative effects of repeated sand nourishments can potentially affect the nursery habitat of flatfish with repercussions on their adult population size. A progressive coarsening of sediment grain size along the coast has already been observed. Therefore, any habitat alterations should be carefully monitored. Future nourishments should consider the recovery of the benthic community and the applied sediment type. It is recommended to design a nourishment strategy that maintains nursery habitat quality and minimizes the effects on benthic abundance and recovery.
Vergelijkend vissen: dag- nacht en boomkor-stortkuil in het Volkerak
Wolfshaar, Karen van de; Chen, Chun ; Griffioen, Ben - \ 2017
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C048/17) - 43
Changing research vessels for a survey: does it matter?: comparison of two vessels and gears in the Eastern and Western Scheldt Demersal Fish
Boois, I.J. de; Bolle, L.J. ; Chen, C. - \ 2017
Centrum voor Visserijonderzoek (Report / Centrum voor Visserijonderzoek 17.011) - 37 p.
Aanbevelingen voor de voortzetting van het benthos onderzoek in de windparken PAWP en OWEZ : op basis van een poweranalyse en literatuurreview
Glorius, Sander ; Bos, Oscar ; Chen, Chun - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C042/17) - 47
benthos - onderzoek - windmolenpark - offshore - mariene ecologie - research - wind farms - marine ecology
Benthos onderzoek aan offshore windparken wordt uitgevoerd om inzicht te krijgen in de lange termijn effecten van de aanwezigheid van een windmolenpark (en de uitsluiting van visserij daarbinnen) op de benthische gemeenschappen van de zachte bodems en tevens hoe de benthische gemeenschappen op het geïntroduceerde hard substraat zich hebben ontwikkeld. Dit is van belang om inzicht te krijgen in de effecten van operationele parken op lange termijn (decennia) en wat dit kan betekenen met betrekking tot schaalvergroting. Het doel van deze studie is inzichtelijk te maken welke nieuwe inzichten kunnen worden verwacht van een herhaalde bemonstering van het benthos in het harde en zachte substraat van de windmolenparken PAWP en OWEZ, ongeveer 10 en 15 jaar na de installatie van deze parken. Tevens wordt gekeken of en hoe eventuele aanpassing van de bemonstering de verwachtte resultaten kan versterken.
Survival of undersized plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), sole (Solea solea), and dab (Limanda limanda) in North Sea pulse-trawl fisheries
Reijden, K.J. van der; Molenaar, P. ; Chen, C. ; Uhlmann, S.S. ; Goudswaard, P.C. ; Marlen, B. van - \ 2017
ICES Journal of Marine Science 74 (2017)6. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1672 - 1680.
bottom trawling - discard mortality - pulse trawling - reflex ompairment
The European Commission landing obligation, including species-specific “high survival” exemptions, has established a need for accurate discard survival estimates. This study presents the first discard survival estimates on-board Dutch commercial pulse trawlers. During seven, six, and one fishing trip(s), respectively, undersized plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), sole (Solea solea), and dab (Limanda limanda) were collected, assessed for vitality and subsequently monitored up to 21 days. Uncorrected for any potential impacts from predation, tagging, research-related handling, or holding conditions overall survival for plaice (n¼349), sole (n¼226), and dab (n¼187) was assessed as 15% [95% CI: 11–19%], 29% [95% CI: 24–35%], and 16% [95% CI: 10–26%] respectively. Survival was mainly effected by water temperature and factors linked to the fishing vessel. Fish length was not found to affect survival. Catch processing time and haul duration affected plaice survival but not sole. Vitality index, which averages reflex impairment and external damage scores, correlated with survival and may be developed as a proxy for discard survival. Compared to tickler-chain beam trawlers, pulse trawlers showed relatively higher discard survival under fishing conditions pertinent
to these studies.
Habitat selection of juvenile sole ( Solea solea L.): Consequences for shoreface nourishment
Post, Marjolein H.M. ; Blom, Ewout ; Chen, Chun ; Bolle, Loes J. ; Baptist, Martin J. - \ 2017
Journal of Sea Research 122 (2017). - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 19 - 24.
Juvenile sole - Nursery area - Sediment preference - Shoreface nourishment
The shallow coastal zone is an essential nursery habitat for juvenile flatfish species such as sole (Solea solea L.). The increased frequency of shoreface nourishments along the coast is likely to affect this nursery function by altering important habitat conditions, including sediment grain size. Sediment preference of juvenile sole (41–91 mm) was studied in a circular preference chamber in order to understand the relationship between grain size and sole distribution. The preference tests were carried out at 11 °C and 20 °C to reflect seasonal influences. The juveniles showed a significant preference for finer sediments. This preference was not length dependent (within the length range tested) nor affected by either temperatures. Juvenile sole have a small home range and are not expected to move in response to unfavourable conditions. As a result, habitat alterations may have consequences for juvenile survival and subsequently for recruitment to adult populations. It is therefore important to carefully consider nourishment grain size characteristics to safeguard suitable nursery habitats for juvenile sole
Using electronic monitoring to record catches of sole (Solea solea) in a bottom trawl fishery
Helmond, A.T.M. van; Chen, Chun ; Poos, Jan Jaap - \ 2017
ICES Journal of Marine Science 74 (2017)5. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1421 - 1427.
bottom trawl fisheries - electronic monitoring - landing obligation - sole solea-solea
Electronic monitoring (EM) is often presented as a solution to document all catches through video observations under the EU landing obligation. However, identifying small fish on video in large volumes of catch is challenging. In this study, logbook records were compared with video observations for catches to test efficacy of EM for different size classes of sole (Solea solea) on board bottom trawlers. Comparisons were based on: (i) systematic differences (paired t-test), (ii) linear correlation (Pearson’s r), and (iii) absolute agreement (ICC). Results suggest that EM of small individuals in mixed fisheries is not as effective as it is for large individuals. To improve efficiency for estimating quantities of
small fish, additional methods are required to enhance video review. One possible method for enhancing video review is using a protocol where crew arranged the individual fish in front of the cameras. Indeed, this study suggests that such a protocol substantially improves EM of the complete catch. However, the protocol requires an additional three minutes of processing time per haul for a single species. Given the large number of quota species under the landing obligation for this fishery, implementing the protocol thus comes with a cost for the fishing industry; the extra time needed to conduct a simple protocol probably would exceed 12 h per fishing trip.
Benthic development around a gas platform in the North Sea -: a small scale closure for fisheries : a trait based approach
Glorius, Sander ; Hal, Ralf van; Kaag, Klaas ; Weide, Babeth van der; Chen, Chun ; Kooten, Tobias van - \ 2016
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport ) - 42
benthos - aquatic communities - aquatic ecology - fisheries - north sea - aquatische gemeenschappen - aquatische ecologie - visserij - noordzee
This project looked at the effect of closing an area for fisheries on the development of the benthic community. An existing data set of benthic species densities sampled at different distances and angles from a platform was used for this purpose. The particular area was closed due to the installation of a gas production platform, but is likely to function as a marine protected area (MPA), with the expectation that the benthic community develops differently from the benthic community in the surrounding areas as it no longer has to cope with the impact of fisheries. Differences in development might be linked to the impact of fisheries and the effects of closure might provide an expectation for the effect of planned MPAs in similar areas.
Fishing over the sides or over the stern: does it matter : comparison of two fishing methodologies in the Wadden Sea Demersal Fish Survey
Chen, C. ; Bolle, L.J. ; Boois I.J. de, Ingeborg - \ 2016
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C122/16) - 27
fisheries - fishing methods - fishing gear - demersal fisheries - wadden sea - visserij - vismethoden - vistuig - demersale visserij - waddenzee
Since 1972, the Demersal Fish Survey (DFS) in the Wadden Sea has been carried out with the RV Stern. Within a few years this vessel will be replaced by another vessel as a result of the current ship replacement policy of Rijkswaterstaat Rijksrederij. It is not yet clear which vessel will replace RV Stern. In the search for a new vessel the main question is if fishing over the sides is needed, or if fishing over the stern is possible without a major effect on catch efficiency. Especially in shallow waters, catch efficiency may be affected by fishing over the stern, because of the current created by the ship’s propeller. To be able to continue the use of the long and valuable time-series the shift in vessel should not lead to a different gear efficiency.
Improving the knowledge basis for advice on North Sea horse mackerel : developing new methods to get insight on stock boundaries and abundance
Brunel, Thomas ; Farrell, Edward D. ; Kotterman, Michiel ; Kwadijk, Christiaan ; Verkempynck, Ruben ; Chen, Chun ; Miller, David - \ 2016
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C092/16) - 57
trachurus trachurus - fish stocks - fisheries - models - visstand - visserij - modellen
The North Sea horse mackerel stock is currently classified by ICES as a data poor stock, for which the catch advice is based on the trend in an abundance index. The development of an analytical stock assessment, necessary to give more accurate advice, is hampered by a number of limitations on the input data, among which the most important are the poor quality of catch-at-age data and the absence of a targeted survey for North Sea horse mackerel. The aim of this project was to study possibilities to improve the data quality used for an analytical stock assessment model.
Annual brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) biomass production in Northwestern Europe contrasted to annual landings
Tulp, I.Y.M. ; Chen, C. ; Haslob, Holger ; Schulte, Katharina ; Siegel, V. ; Steenbergen, J. ; Temming, A. ; Hufnagl, M. - \ 2016
ICES Journal of Marine Science 73 (2016)10. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 2539 - 2551.
coastal areas - Crustaceans - Mortality - shrimp fisheries - swept-area estimate - Wadden Sea
The brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) fishery is economically one of the most important fisheries in the North Sea. Fishing is unregulated, apart from the number of licenses and technical measures. The fishery has long been considered sustainable in terms of the effect on the target species, even though annual stocks are not regularly assessed. Average landings constantly increased annually and since 2000 have been 40% higher than in the 1980s and 1990s. Because brown shrimp lack a clear age structure and reproduce almost year-round, an agebased stock assessment is not possible. In the absence of a formal estimate of stock size, it is difficult to judge whether current fishing practices
can still be considered sustainable. Here, we use annual survey data collected during peak occurrence in late summer to obtain a depth- and area-stratified, swept-area estimate for the period 1970–2015. The resulting estimate of the total commercial-size shrimp biomass varied between 4000 and 21 000 tonnes over the years. Both parametric and non-parametric methods arrived at very similar results. In combination with length-based mortality estimates (as a proxy for production/biomass ratio), knowledge on the seasonal occurrence,
catchability, gear efficiency, and their variation, total adult annual biomass production was estimated. Values ranged between 38 000 and 216 000 tonnes and overlapped at the lower end with total annual commercial landings, which varied between 8000 and 38 500 tonnes, indicating that in some years (1977, 1998, 2007), the larger part of the total brown shrimp production was harvested. Annual brown shrimp landings have gradually increased since the series started, whereas no trend in standing biomass and production was detected. Concurrent with the increase in landings, natural mortality of shrimp by predation has diminished. Considering the increase in fishing pressure and unknown consequence if natural predators recover or shrimp recruitment decreases, the lack of management for the brown shrimp fishery needs to be reconsidered.
Changes in fishing behaviour of two fleets under fully documented catch quota management: same rules, different outcomes
Helmond, A.T.M. van; Chen, C. ; Trapman, B.K. ; Kraan, M.L. ; Poos, J.J. - \ 2016
- 1 p.
Catch quota management - Fully documented fisheries - Fishing behaviour - Landing obligation - Mixed fisheries - Electronic monitoring - North Sea cod
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